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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916049

ABSTRACT

Cricopharyngeal dysfunction is a disorder in which excessive tension in the upper esophageal sphincter occurs leads to dysphagia. Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis is a disease in which excessive bone formation is widely observed in various parts of the body including the cervical spine. This case report shows a dysphagia patient who had cricopharyngeal dysfunction combined with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. A male patient suffering from dysphagia for 4 months visited the hospital. He was examined by using a videofluoroscopic swallow study, which confirmed simultaneous cricopharyngeal dysfunction and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. Considering the advanced age of the patient, a botulinum toxin injection was first administered to treat his cricopharyngeal dysfunction. The patient showed partial improvement with this treatment. However, dysphagia persisted due to incomplete occlusion of the epiglottis by the anterior osteophyte. The patient was in good general condition; therefore a partial cervical corpectomy was performed for cervical diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. The patient showed complete recovery from dysphagia post-surgery. In conclusion, two separate treatments were individually given; a botulinum toxin injection for cricopharyngeal dysfunction and surgery for diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, and each treatment was confirmed as effective.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915527

ABSTRACT

Background@#South Korea has one of the world’s fastest aging populations and is witnessing increased age-related hearing impairment cases as well as an increase in the number of hearing aid users. The aim of this study was to analyze complications caused by hearing aid mold materials. In addition, we hope to raise awareness of the harm and danger that inexperienced hearing aid providers can cause to patients. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 11 patients who were diagnosed with hearing aid mold material as a foreign body in the ear at a tertiary center between 2016 and 2020. The following data were analyzed: symptoms, endoscopic findings, audiometry, temporal bone CT images, treatment methods, and complications after removal. The currently available literature was also reviewed to develop clinical guidelines, to identify the systematic weaknesses in the South Korean hearing aid market, and to identify policies that warrant better quality control. @*Results@#Among the 11 cases, 9 were restricted to the external auditory canal, all of which were successfully removed under endoscopy with minor complications. Two cases with middle ear involvement resulted in infection and thus required surgical removal with mastoidectomy. The average age of these patients was 76.4, and all patients received their molding procedure at private hearing aid shops without an otolaryngologist’s examination. @*Conclusion@#Thorough patient history-taking and otologic examination must be performed to identify patients at higher risk of complications. Such patients should be referred to an otolaryngologist. If a patient exhibits alarming symptoms, early referral is critical since prompt surgery can minimize complications. A CT scan is highly recommended to determine an optimal approach for foreign body removal. Systematic and regulatory changes in hearing aid dispensers, such as requiring apprenticeship, raising the required level of education, and legally mandating referrals, can help reduce these complications.

3.
Gut and Liver ; : 404-413, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925031

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The worldwide coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has led endoscopists to use personal protective equipment (PPE) for infection prevention. This study aimed to investigate whether wearing a face shield as PPE affects the quality of colonoscopy. @*Methods@#We reviewed the medical records and colonoscopy findings of patients who underwent colonoscopies at Asan Medical Center, Korea from March 10 to May 31, 2020. The colonoscopies in this study were performed by five gastroenterology fellows and four expert endoscopists. We compared colonoscopy quality indicators, such as withdrawal time, adenoma detection rate (ADR), mean number of adenomas per colonoscopy (APC), polypectomy time, and polypectomy adverse events, both before and after face shields were added as PPE on April 13, 2020. @*Results@#Of the 1,344 colonoscopies analyzed, 715 and 629 were performed before and after the introduction of face shields, respectively. The median withdrawal time was similar between the face shield and no-face shield groups (8.72 minutes vs 8.68 minutes, p=0.816), as was the ADR (41.5% vs 39.8%, p=0.605) and APC (0.72 vs 0.77, p=0.510). Polypectomy-associated quality indicators, such as polypectomy time and polypectomy adverse events were also not different between the groups. Quality indicators were not different between the face shield and no-face shield groups of gastroenterology fellows, or of expert endoscopists. @*Conclusions@#Colonoscopy performance was not unfavorably affected by the use of a face shield. PPE, including face shields, can be recommended without a concern about colonoscopy quality deterioration.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875128

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the ability of the Hounsfield unit (HU) measurement of the femoral neck during multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for assessing osteoporosis compared with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). @*Materials and Methods@#Forty-two patients with femoral neck fractures who underwent MDCT and DXA from July to December 2016 were included in this study. HU measurements were made of the cancellous portions of the normal contralateral femoral neck on MDCT. Bone mineral density (BMD) and T-scores were obtained at the femur DXA. Correlations of HU values with BMD and T-scores were analyzed using Spearman’s correlation test. @*Results@#The mean BMD and T-score of the femoral neck were 0.650 g/cm2 and -2.4, respectively. The mean HU values for the normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups were 131.9, 98.9, and 41.3, respectively. HU values at the femoral neck were positively correlated with BMD (r2 = 0.670; p < 0.001) and T-scores (r 2 = 0.676; p < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#The HU values of the femoral neck on MDCT are significantly correlated with BMD and T-scores of femur DXA. The HU values may serve as a diagnostic tool for the screening of regional bone quality when MDCT is performed for other reasons.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874990

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To identify the relationship between dysphagia, dietary level, and pulmonary function in post-stroke patients. @*Methods@#Thirty-six post-stroke patients with dysphagia, who were hospitalized from June 2017 to October 2017 in the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine at a tertiary hospital, were analyzed retrospectively. The video-fluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) and videofluoroscopic dysphagia scale (VDS) were used to assess dysphagia. The vital capacity (VC) and peak cough flow (PCF) were used to assess the pulmonary function. Upon admission, the patients were divided into three groups according to their dietary level (tube feeding, dysphagia diet, and general diet). The correlation between dysphagia and pulmonary function was analyzed using an independent t-test test with the optimal points, and the relationship between the diet level and pulmonary function was evaluated using a one-way analysis of the variance. @*Results@#Significant correlations between the pulmonary function and sub-items of VDS were found in “oral transit time” with VC, “vallecullar residue” and “aspiration” with PCF, and “triggering of pharyngeal swallow”, “VDS total score” with VC and PCF. The dietary levels upon admission had a significant correlation with VC and PCF. The VC among groups divided according to three diet levels showed statistically significant differences. @*Conclusion@#This study revealed the relationship between the pulmonary function and dysphagia in post-stroke patients. Moreover, the pulmonary function correlated with dietary level, even though it was not confirmed that it affected dietary levels. The clinical importance of the pulmonary function in post-stroke patients with dysphagia should be emphasized. In addition, a large-scale study is needed to determine the correlation between the pulmonary function and swallowing difficulty

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901403

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the safety and efficacy of ultrasound-guided percutaneous core needle biopsy (USPCB) of pancreatic and peripancreatic lesions adjacent to critical vessels. @*Materials and Methods@#Data were collected retrospectively from 162 patients who underwent USPCB of the pancreas (n = 98), the peripancreatic area adjacent to the portal vein, the paraaortic area adjacent to pancreatic uncinate (n = 34), and lesions on the third duodenal portion (n = 30) during a 10-year period. An automated biopsy gun with an 18-gauge needle was used for biopsies under US guidance. The USPCB results were compared with those of the final follow-up imaging performed postoperatively. The diagnostic accuracy and major complication rate of the USPCB were calculated. Multiple factors were evaluated for the prediction of successful biopsies using univariate and multivariate analyses. @*Results@#The histopathologic diagnosis from USPCB was correct in 149 (92%) patients. The major complication rate was 3%. Four cases of mesenteric hematomas and one intramural hematoma of the duodenum occurred during the study period. The following factors were significantly associated with successful biopsies: a transmesenteric biopsy route rather than a transgastric or transenteric route; good visualization of targets; and evaluation of the entire US pathway. In addition, the number of biopsies required was less when the biopsy was successful. @*Conclusion@#USPCB demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy and a low complication rate for the histopathologic diagnosis of pancreatic and peripancreatic lesions adjacent to critical vessels.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900777

ABSTRACT

Acquired brain injury patients who present dysphagia associated with temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJD) are more common than expected. TMJD is associated with restriction of mouth opening and jaw movements, thereby interfering with the oral phase of the swallowing process. An 18-year-old female with traumatic brain injury mainly complained of dysphagia when first admitted. After nearly one year of conventional dysphagia therapy, the patient could barely eat a minced diet. The videofluoroscopic swallowing study showed that a soft and bite-sized diet was tolerable to the patient, but the restricted mouth opening and mandibular movement imposed a major limitation of the dietary build-up. After examining the imaging studies, the patient was diagnosed with TMJD attributed to muscle lesion and misaligned stomatognathic system. The patient subsequently underwent a stomatognathic alignment and TMJ strengthening exercise program over a span of two weeks, after which the therapeutic effects were evaluated with the craniomandibular index (CMI) and Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability (MASA) parameters, before and after the exercise program. The results showed improvements in the neck mobility and orofacial movements, and the patient was able to consume soft and bite-sized diet in the clinical setting. Thus, we propose that active exercise to achieve postural correction and TMJ muscle strengthening are effective treatment options for dysphagia associated with TMJD.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897576

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. We evaluated changes in income levels in a hearing-impaired population. @*Methods@#. The study subjects were selected from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort data from 2002 to 2015 of Koreans ≥40 years old. In total, 5,857 hearing-impaired subjects were matched with 23,428 comparison participants. Differences between the initial income level and income levels at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years post-enrollment were compared between the hearing-impaired and comparison groups. The interaction of time and hearing impairment/comparison was estimated. @*Results@#. Both the hearing-impaired group and the comparison group showed increased income levels over time. In the hearing-impaired group, the income levels at 4 and 5 years post-enrollment were higher than the initial income level (each P<0.001). In the comparison group, the income levels of all the participants after 1–5 years were higher than the initial income level (each P<0.001). The interaction of time and hearing impairment was statistically significant (P=0.021). @*Conclusion@#. The increase in income over time was relatively lower in the hearing-impaired adult population; therefore, the income gap widened between this population and the normal-hearing population.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893699

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the safety and efficacy of ultrasound-guided percutaneous core needle biopsy (USPCB) of pancreatic and peripancreatic lesions adjacent to critical vessels. @*Materials and Methods@#Data were collected retrospectively from 162 patients who underwent USPCB of the pancreas (n = 98), the peripancreatic area adjacent to the portal vein, the paraaortic area adjacent to pancreatic uncinate (n = 34), and lesions on the third duodenal portion (n = 30) during a 10-year period. An automated biopsy gun with an 18-gauge needle was used for biopsies under US guidance. The USPCB results were compared with those of the final follow-up imaging performed postoperatively. The diagnostic accuracy and major complication rate of the USPCB were calculated. Multiple factors were evaluated for the prediction of successful biopsies using univariate and multivariate analyses. @*Results@#The histopathologic diagnosis from USPCB was correct in 149 (92%) patients. The major complication rate was 3%. Four cases of mesenteric hematomas and one intramural hematoma of the duodenum occurred during the study period. The following factors were significantly associated with successful biopsies: a transmesenteric biopsy route rather than a transgastric or transenteric route; good visualization of targets; and evaluation of the entire US pathway. In addition, the number of biopsies required was less when the biopsy was successful. @*Conclusion@#USPCB demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy and a low complication rate for the histopathologic diagnosis of pancreatic and peripancreatic lesions adjacent to critical vessels.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893073

ABSTRACT

Acquired brain injury patients who present dysphagia associated with temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJD) are more common than expected. TMJD is associated with restriction of mouth opening and jaw movements, thereby interfering with the oral phase of the swallowing process. An 18-year-old female with traumatic brain injury mainly complained of dysphagia when first admitted. After nearly one year of conventional dysphagia therapy, the patient could barely eat a minced diet. The videofluoroscopic swallowing study showed that a soft and bite-sized diet was tolerable to the patient, but the restricted mouth opening and mandibular movement imposed a major limitation of the dietary build-up. After examining the imaging studies, the patient was diagnosed with TMJD attributed to muscle lesion and misaligned stomatognathic system. The patient subsequently underwent a stomatognathic alignment and TMJ strengthening exercise program over a span of two weeks, after which the therapeutic effects were evaluated with the craniomandibular index (CMI) and Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability (MASA) parameters, before and after the exercise program. The results showed improvements in the neck mobility and orofacial movements, and the patient was able to consume soft and bite-sized diet in the clinical setting. Thus, we propose that active exercise to achieve postural correction and TMJ muscle strengthening are effective treatment options for dysphagia associated with TMJD.

11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920246

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#The purpose of the mastoidectomy and tympanoplasty is to improve the hearing by removing the middle ear lesion and reconstructing the hearing mechanism. The purpose of this study is to verify whether several factors, including the presence of mastoidectomy can affect the hearing outcome of tympanoplasty patients.Subjects and Method From 1989 to 2018, 1260 patients with chronic otitis media who had been followed up for more than 6 months after type 1 tympanoplasty were selected. The each patient group was divided into 2 groups based on the last audiometry; Group A (post operative air-bone gap [ABG] ≤10 dB HL) and Group B (post operative ABG >10 dB HL). We analyzed the various factors including patency of E-tube or mastoid aeration for each group to figure out which factors affect the post operative hearing outcome. @*Results@#In conclusion, even with mastoidectomy, the final hearing after surgery was worse than that of the group who underwent tympanoplasty only (final ABG; tympanoplasty only vs. tympanoplasty with mastoidectomy; 6.59±9.09 vs. 9.71±8.94). In both with and without mastoidectomy group, the size of the perforation and external ear canal diameter before surgery did not affect the final hearing outcome. On the otherhand, in the group with mastoidectomy, mastoid pneumatization and E-tube patency affected the postoperative prognosis, but not in the case without mastoidectomy. @*Conclusion@#In this study, the factors affecting postoperative hearing success were analyzed. The results can be used to predict the postoperative hearing prognosis and to help select surgical treatment.

12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920231

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#The aim of this study was to investigate the surgical outcomes of revision operation due to recurrence of non-cholesteatomatous chronic otitis media (COM) surgery cases.Subjects and Method From 1989 to 2018, 5197 cases of COM surgery were performed at Kangdong and Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital. Among them, clinical data of 297 subjects who had undergone revision tympanoplasty and/or mastoidectomy for recurrent noncholesteatomatous COM were retrospectively collected from computerized database of middle ear surgery (Korean Otological Society program 2005). Each case was categorized by surgical approaches into canal wall down mastoidectomy (CWDM), canal wall up mastoidectomy (CWUM), or tympanoplasty only groups. @*Results@#Tympanoplasty only was performed in 170 cases, CWDM in 74 cases, and CMUM in 53 cases. Postoperative perforation occurred in 9.4% of total cases, and less frequently in CMDM compared with tympanoplasty only (p=0.023), and CMUM (p=0.049), respectively, whereas no differences between tympanoplasty only and CMUM (p=0.930) were found. Postoperative infection rate was 1.0% and did not show any differences among the groups. Postoperative successful hearing was obtained in 66.7% of total cases, and the success rate of tympanoplasty only was better than that of CMDM (p=0.001), and CMUM (p=0.011). And, that of CMUM was better than that of CMDM (p=0.011). @*Conclusion@#The results showed that postoperative perforation occurred less frequently in CMDM than in tympanoplasty only and in CWUM; successful hearing was achieved more frequently in tympanoplasty alone than in the other surgical approaches in recurrent non-cholesteatomatous COM.

13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920227

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#To investigate surgical outcomes of revision operation for recurrent cholesteatoma.Subjects and Method From 1989 to 2018, 5245 cases of middle ear surgeries were performed at Kangdong and Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital. A total of 138 clinical records of the subjects who underwent revision cholesteatoma surgery, and whose follow-up durations were more than 3 months, were reviewed. Hearing outcomes were analyzed in accordance with the 2005 Korean otology society guideline. Postoperative perforation was defined to be present if perforation exists after three months of surgery. Postoperative infection or recurrence was defined if patients were treated with intravenous antibiotics or underwent reoperation. @*Results@#Among 138 cases, surgical approaches used were canal wall up mastoidectomy in 38 (28%), canal wall down mastoidectomy in 89 (64%), and exploratory tympanotomy in 11 (8%). Air conduction and air bone gap showed statistically significant differences before and after the surgery. The number of patients who met at least 1 criteria was 70, accounting for 51%. Patients were classified into four groups according to the Postoperative ABG grade, where 43% of patients were included in “Excellent” or “Good” results group. When the results were compared according to the surgical method, canal wall up group showed significantly higher hearing success rate compared to CWDM group. Patients without postoperative perforation, infection or recurrence were considered successful and there were 122 such cases, accounting for 88%. @*Conclusion@#CWDM more frequently underwent revision than CWUM and ET, and showed worse hearing results than other groups. These analyses can be used for preoperative counseling.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917883

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#First-year students can form a preconception based on life experiences before entering college and identifying learners’ existing characteristics can be useful foundation data for curriculum development. This study examines what preconceptions freshman students had about medicine before entering medical school. @*Methods@#A total of 110 first-year students were asked about what preconceptions they had about “medicine”. A total of 1,124 data were used in the content analysis method. @*Results@#The results were extracted into 5, and 12 twelve categories. On the theme of “scientific discipline”, the knowledge students had about general health was based on scant expertise and little evidence. Students perceived medicine as Western and scientific, considering Korean traditional medicine as unscientific. Students believed that “medical practice” should be a “disease treatment” and “patient-centered” approach rather than a “social responsibility”. In “the role of the doctor”, students were concerned about the doctor's being financially stable on the positive side, and about the high-intensity workload on the negative side. In “medical education”, students believed that studying medicine would be “hard and difficult” because of the “importance of memorizing” and “extensive study load”. In “specialty stereotype”, students had biases that were mostly concentrated on “psychiatry” and “surgery” @*Conclusion@#Perception of “medicine” has been revealed to a varied range of themes, but some have been inaccurate or unrealistic. These prejudices and groundless beliefs have a gap with the learning outcomes that students should achieve in the curriculum, and these preconceptions seem to have been influenced by South Korea’s unique cultural context.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889872

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. We evaluated changes in income levels in a hearing-impaired population. @*Methods@#. The study subjects were selected from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort data from 2002 to 2015 of Koreans ≥40 years old. In total, 5,857 hearing-impaired subjects were matched with 23,428 comparison participants. Differences between the initial income level and income levels at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years post-enrollment were compared between the hearing-impaired and comparison groups. The interaction of time and hearing impairment/comparison was estimated. @*Results@#. Both the hearing-impaired group and the comparison group showed increased income levels over time. In the hearing-impaired group, the income levels at 4 and 5 years post-enrollment were higher than the initial income level (each P<0.001). In the comparison group, the income levels of all the participants after 1–5 years were higher than the initial income level (each P<0.001). The interaction of time and hearing impairment was statistically significant (P=0.021). @*Conclusion@#. The increase in income over time was relatively lower in the hearing-impaired adult population; therefore, the income gap widened between this population and the normal-hearing population.

16.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836371

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Although the effects of head lift exercise (HLE) in the reclining position have been reported, there is insufficient clinical evidence of the effects. This study compared the effects of HLE in the 0° supine position and 45° reclining position on the swallowing function and the compliance of patients with dysphagia after stroke after both exercises. @*Methods@#This was a randomized, assessor-blinded clinical trial. Thirty-five patients with stroke and dysphagia were assigned randomly to HLE in the 0° supine group (n=18) or HLE in the 45° reclining group (n=17). Patients in both groups performed HLE five days a week for four weeks and received the same conventional dysphagia therapy. The videofluoroscopic dy sphagia scale (VDS) was used to evaluate the swallowing function. The dropout rate and subjective feedback related to compliance with the two exercises were monitored. @*Results@#No significant differences in the baseline characteristics were observed between the two groups. Patients in both groups showed significant improvement in the oral and pharyngeal phases of VDS (P<0.05). After the intervention, no significant differences were observed between the groups (P>0.05). Dropout rates of 22% and 6% owing to neck discomfort or fatigue were observed in the HLE in 0° supine group and the HLE in 45° reclining group, respectively. @*Conclusion@#HLE in the 45° reclining position has a similar effect on the swallowing function in patients with dysphagia after stroke to that of HLE in the 0° supine position and is associated with better exercise compliance.

17.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831615

ABSTRACT

Background@#The digits-in-noise (DiN) test is a speech-in-noise test to measure speech recognition threshold in noise adaptively. Herein, we aimed to develop the Korean version of the DiN test to provide a useful hearing screening tool for clinical as well as research purposes.Method: Spoken monosyllabic digits from 0 to 9 were recorded by a female speaker. The test list was constructed such that each digit was placed in three different positions. An optimization procedure was conducted to equate the audibility of each digit. After the optimization, the smartphone application for the Korean DiN (K-DiN) test was developed. For the adaptive measurement procedure, 180 new DiN triplets separated into six lists of 30 were created. Mean speech recognition threshold values for each list and session were measured to examine the test-retest and training effects of the test materials. In addition, speech recognition threshold values measured by different devices were compared to determine whether the speech recognition threshold levels differed. @*Results@#Optimization results showed that the mean speech recognition threshold and slope were −11.55 dB signal-to-noise ratio and 10.21%/dB, respectively, which are comparable to levels shown in different-language versions of the DiN test. The results of the test-retest and training effects revealed no significant differences among the test sessions and lists. Additionally, the mean speech recognition threshold values measured by four different devices were not different, indicating the reliability of the test materials. @*Conclusion@#We believe this study is the first to attempt to develop a K-DiN test. Our results indicate that this test can be used as a potentially reliable hearing screening tool.

18.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831295

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. Cochlear implant (CI) users typically report impaired ability to understand speech in noise. Speech understanding in CI users decreases with noise due to reduced temporal processing ability, and speech perceptual errors involve stop consonants distinguished by voice onset time (VOT). The current study examined the effects of noise on various speech perception tests while at the same time used cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) to quantify the change of neural processing of speech sounds caused by noise. We hypothesized that the noise effects on VOT processing can be reflected in N1/P2 measures, the neural changes relate to behavioral speech perception performances. @*Methods@#. Ten adult CI users and 15 normal-hearing (NH) people participated in this study. CAEPs were recorded from 64 scalp electrodes in both quiet and noise (signal-to-noise ratio +5 dB) and in passive and active (requiring consonant discrimination) listening. Speech stimulus was synthesized consonant-vowels with VOTs of 0 and 50 ms. N1-P2 amplitudes and latencies were analyzed as a function of listening condition. For the active condition, the P3b also was analyzed. Behavioral measures included a variety of speech perception tasks. @*Results@#. For good performing CI users, performance in most speech test was lower in the presence of noise masking. N1 and P2 latencies became prolonged with noise masking. The P3b amplitudes were smaller in CI groups compared to NH. The degree of P2 latency change (0 vs. 50 ms VOT) was correlated with consonant perception in noise. @*Conclusion@#. The effects of noise masking on temporal processing can be reflected in cortical responses in CI users. N1/P2 latencies were more sensitive to noise masking than amplitude measures. Additionally, P2 responses appear to have a better relationship to speech perception in CI users compared to N1.

19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920042

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES@#Although there are number of studies on the risk factors of recidivism in the congenital middle ear cholesteatoma, few have focused on the staging system. In this study, we aimed to investigate the postoperative recurrence rate in surgical cases of congenital middle ear cholesteatoma, and compare the results of using the Potsic staging system with those of a novel Kim staging system. Additionally, we also studied to see if the Kim staging system could suggest an appropriate surgical approach for each stage.SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Surgical cases of the disease from January, 1989 to August, 2017 performed at Kangdong Sacred Heart or Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital were included and those data were retrospectively reviewed. All the cases were pre-operatively assigned to the stages using both Potsic and Kim staging system, retrospectively. The post-operative recurrence rate was analyzed for each subject according to the findings of one year after surgery using both staging systems. Additionally, surgical approach performed in these cases, such as mastoidectomy and/or ossiculoplasty were analyzed and compared among the stage groups of Kim staging system.@*RESULTS@#The Potsic staging system showed that recurrence was significantly lower in the stage I than in the other stages, and the Kim staging system showed that recurrence was significantly higher in the revision R stage than in the primary A, P, and M stages. The Kim staging system showed that mastoidectomy was performed more frequently in the M stage, and ossiculoplasty was performed less frequently in the A stage than in the other stages.@*CONCLUSION@#Although Potsic and Kim staging systems were both useful for predicting prognosis, the Kim staging system can additionally provide a clue for an appropriate surgical approach for each stage.

20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760142

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cochlear implant (CI) changes the way that sound inputs are processed in the brain, possibly causing brain reorganization. Given that the pattern and degree of reorganization are known to be related to speech perception skill, information regarding hemispheric asymmetry can be used to predict behavioral performances in CI users. The current study investigated the hemispheric asymmetry of N1 dipole cortical activity in response to the temporally varied speech sounds and its relationship to speech perception abilities in adult CI users. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: The cortical activity was recorded from 64 scalp electrodes in 10 CI users and 11 normal-hearing controls. Speech stimuli were synthesized consonant-vowels, the /ba/-/pa/ continuum that ranged from 0 to 50 ms with a 6-step voice onset time (VOT). N1 dipole amplitudes, latencies, and locations were analyzed as a function of VOT and the direction of implantation. Also investigated was the relationship between N1 dipole lateralization and speech perception. RESULTS: For the N1 dipole location, significant location differences between CI and normal hearing groups were seen at 40 ms VOT in the anterior-posterior direction. For hemispheric asymmetry, the N1 dipole activity in good CI performers was higher in the auditory cortex contralateral to the stimulated ear, while poor CI performers showed greater ipsilateral activity. In addition, a lateralization index at 20 ms VOT showed significant correlation with the /ba/-/pa/ consonant perception scores in noise. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the hemispheric asymmetry of N1 dipole activity in response to stimuli of temporally varied speech has a substantial clinical value, and that this can be used to estimate CI speech perception.


Subject(s)
Adult , Auditory Cortex , Brain , Cochlear Implants , Ear , Electrodes , Hearing , Humans , Methods , Noise , Phonetics , Scalp , Speech Perception , Voice
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