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1.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 372-381, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977390

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Bleeding events after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have important prognostic implications. Data on the influence of an abnormal ankle-brachial index (ABI) on both ischemic and bleeding events in patients undergoing PCI are limited. @*Methods@#We included patients who underwent PCI with available ABI data (abnormal ABI, ≤ 0.9 or > 1.4). The primary endpoint was the composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and major bleeding. @*Results@#Among 4,747 patients, an abnormal ABI was observed in 610 patients (12.9%). During follow-up (median, 31 months), the 5-year cumulative incidence of adverse clinical events was higher in the abnormal ABI group than in the normal ABI group: primary endpoint (36.0% vs. 14.5%, log-rank test, p < 0.001); all-cause death (19.4% vs. 5.1%, log-rank test, p < 0.001); MI (6.3% vs. 4.1%, log-rank test, p = 0.013); stroke (6.2% vs. 2.7%, log-rank test, p = 0.001); and major bleeding (8.9% vs. 3.7%, log-rank test, p < 0.001). An abnormal ABI was an independent risk factor for all-cause death (hazard ratio [HR], 3.05; p < 0.001), stroke (HR, 1.79; p = 0.042), and major bleeding (HR, 1.61; p = 0.034). @*Conclusions@#An abnormal ABI is a risk factor for both ischemic and bleeding events after PCI. Our study findings may be helpful in determining the optimal method for secondary prevention after PCI.

2.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 86-93, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968880

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Evidence in favor of adding docetaxel in treatment of metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC) has led to docetaxel in conjunction with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) as standard therapy. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of docetaxel with ADT for Korean patients with mHSPC in real-world practice. @*Materials and Methods@#A retrospective cohort study was performed at six Korean hospitals for patients with mHSPC treated with docetaxel plus ADT. Patients were treated every 3 weeks for up to six cycles with 75 mg/m 2 of docetaxel. The primary endpoint was time to castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). @*Results@#This study included 46 eligible patients from June 2016 to February 2021. Median age was 68.5 years (range, 52–84) and all patients present with de novo M1 with high-volume disease. The median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level at ADT initiation was 205.4 (7.7–1933) ng/mL, and time from ADT to docetaxel was 2.4 months (0–5.3). All six planned cycles of docetaxel were delivered in 36 patients (78%), 7 patients (15%) discontinued treatment due to adverse events, and 3 patients (7%) discontinued due to progression. At the time of the analysis, CRPC had developed in 34 patients (74%), and the median time to CRPC was 18.0 (95% confidence interval, 14.1–21.9) months. PSA <0.2 ng/mL was achieved in 11 patients (24%) after 6 months of ADT and in 10 patients (22%) after 12 months. At last follow-up, 35 patients (76%) were alive; the median overall survival was not reached. @*Conclusion@#The effect of docetaxel combined with ADT for Korean patients with mHSPC is comparable with prior results in Western studies.

3.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e4-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967432

ABSTRACT

Background@#Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 )/forced vital capacity (FVC) naturally decreases with age; however, an excessive decline may be related with increased morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the FEV1 /FVC decline rate in the Korean general population and to identify whether rapid FEV1 /FVC decline is a risk factor for obstructive lung disease (OLD) and all-cause and respiratory mortality. @*Methods@#We evaluated individuals aged 40−69 years who underwent baseline and biannual follow-up spirometric assessments for up to 18 years, excluding those with airflow limitations at baseline. Based on the quartiles of the annual FEV1 /FVC decline rate, the most negative FEV1 /FVC change (1 st quartile of annual FEV1 /FVC decline rate) was classified as rapid FEV1 / FVC decline. We investigated the risk of progression to OLD and all-cause and respiratory mortality in individuals with rapid FEV1 /FVC decline. @*Results@#The annual FEV1 /FVC decline rate in the eligible 7,768 patients was 0.32 percentage point/year. The incidence rate of OLD was significantly higher in patients with rapid FEV1 / FVC decline than in those with non-rapid FEV1 /FVC decline (adjusted incidence rate, 2.119; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.932–2.324). Rapid FEV1 /FVC decline was an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard [HR], 1.374; 95% CI, 1.105–1.709) and respiratory mortality (adjusted HR, 1.353; 95% CI, 1.089–1.680). @*Conclusion@#The annual FEV1 /FVC decline rate was 0.32%p in the general population in Korea. The incidence rate of OLD and the hazards of all-cause and respiratory mortality were increased in rapid FEV1 /FVC decliners.

4.
Journal of Korean Critical Care Nursing ; (3): 71-86, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967351

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#: This study aims to investigate the status of delirium intervention in adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients and the perception of this delirium by medical staff. @*Methods@#: This retrospective study involves 185 patients, whereas, a descriptive survey is conducted with 197 medical staff members. @*Results@#: The delirium group includes 100 patients (54.1%). The incidence of delirium is 64.9% in the medical ICU, 65.9% in the surgical ICU, 42.4% in the neuro ICU, and 46.5% in the cardiac ICU. The percentages of delirium prevention intervention differs between the two groups: 65.0% in the delirium group and 95.3% in the non-delirium group. The medical staff recognize that delirium is a common problem in the ICU (100.0%) and requires active medical intervention (98.5%). @*Conclusion@#: The length of stay at the ICU is longer in the delirium group than in the non-delirium group. It is necessary to standardize delirium prevention and treatment protocols to be equally applicable to all ICU patients.

5.
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery ; : 135-144, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966727

ABSTRACT

Background@#Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) has become the treatment of choice for the management of massive rotator cuff tears combined with cuff tear arthropathy, and many novel designs have been proposed to overcome the shortcomings of classic RTSA. This study sought to evaluate and compare RTSA outcomes among patients with cuff tear arthropathy treated by a medialized inlay humerus implant with a neck shaft angle of 155° or a lateralized onlay implant with a neck shaft angle of 145°. @*Methods@#A retrospective review of 32 inlay implants and 32 onlay implants was performed. The active range of motion (ROM), visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, motor power for elevation and external rotation, and functional scores including the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, Constant score, and Korean Shoulder Scoring system were assessed before surgery, at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery, and at the last follow-up at least 24 months after surgery. Scapular notching, lateral humeral offset, and deltoid wrapping offset were assessed for radiographic evaluation. @*Results@#The preoperative demographic data of both groups showed no significant differences (p > 0.05). The mean follow-up period was 24.9 months. Significant improvements in forward flexion, functional scores, and pain VAS score were observed in both groups at the last follow-up. No significant differences in ROM or functional scores were found between two groups at each time point, except that the onlay implant group exhibited a significantly greater range of external rotation at 3 and 12 months after surgery and at the last follow-up. The rate of scapular notching and the final power improvement did not show significant differences between the groups. @*Conclusions@#Primary RTSA using inlay or onlay humerus implants was associated with recovery from pseudoparalysis and good clinical outcomes. However, RTSA with onlay humerus implantation led to clinically superior results in terms of external rotation.

6.
Blood Research ; : 42-50, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966440

ABSTRACT

Background@#Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) has not been investigated in Korean patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasm. @*Methods@#This study analyzed the prevalence at diagnosis and clinical features of AVWS in patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), prefibrotic/early primary myelofibrosis (pre-PMF), or overt PMF (PMF) diagnosed between January 2019 and December 2021 at Chungam National University Hospital, Daejeon, Korea. AVWS was defined as below the lower reference limit (56%) of ristocetin cofactor activity (VWF:RCo). @*Results@#Sixty-four consecutive patients (36 with ET, 17 with PV, 6 with pre-PMF, and 5 with PMF;30 men and 34 women) with a median age of 67 years (range, 18‒87 yr) were followed for a median of 25.1 months (range, 2.6‒46.4 mo). AVWS was detected in 20 (31.3%) patients at diagnosis and was most frequent in ET patients (41.4%), followed by patients with pre-PMF (33.3%) and PV (17.6%) patients. VWF:RCo was negatively correlated with the platelet count (r=0.937; P =0.002). Only one episode of minor bleeding occurred in a patient with ET and AVWS. Younger age (<50 yr) [odds ratio (OR), 7.08; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.27‒39.48; P =0.026] and thrombocytosis (>600×10 9 /L) (OR, 13.70; 95% CI, 1.35‒138.17; P =0.026) were independent risk factors for developing AVWS. @*Conclusion@#AVWS based on VWF:RCo was common in patients with ET and pre-PMF, but less common in patients with PV in the Korean population. Clinically significant bleeding is rare in these patients.

7.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 271-280, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926992

ABSTRACT

Multidrug resistance in bacteria is an important issue and is increasing in frequency worldwide because of the limitations of therapeutic agents. From 2010 to 2019, 14 new systemic antibiotics received regulatory approval in the United States. However, few new antibiotics have been introduced in Republic of Korea to combat multidrug-resistant pathogens. Here, we introduce six novel antibiotics for Gram-positive bacteria and five for Gram-negative bacteria approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency from 2009 to October 2021, and recommend that they be approved for use in Republic of Korea at the earliest possible date.

8.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e87-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925935

ABSTRACT

Background@#Non-palpable splenomegaly in patients with polycythemia vera (PV) has seldom been addressed. In this retrospective study, we evaluated non-palpable, volumetric splenomegaly defined based on age- and body surface area (BSA)–matched criteria in patients with PV diagnosed according to the 2016 World Health Organization diagnostic criteria. @*Methods@#Patients with PV who underwent abdominal computed tomography (CT) and who had palpable splenomegaly at diagnosis from January 1991 to December 2020 at Chungnam National University Hospital were enrolled. The spleen volume of each patient was determined by volumetric analysis of abdominal CT and adjusted for the patient’s age and BSA. Then the degree of splenomegaly was classified as no splenomegaly, borderline volumetric splenomegaly, overt volumetric splenomegaly, or palpable splenomegaly. @*Results@#Of the 87 PV patients enrolled, 15 (17.2%) had no splenomegaly, whereas 17 (19.5%), 45 (51.7%), and 10 (11.5%) had borderline volumetric, overt volumetric, and palpable splenomegaly, respectively. The degree of splenomegaly did not affect the cumulative incidence of thrombotic vascular events (10-year incidence: 7.7%, 0%, 22.3%, and 50.7%, respectively, P = 0.414). By contrast, splenomegaly tended to adversely affect myelofibrotic transformation (10-year cumulative incidence: 0%, 0%, 7.1%, and 30.3%, respectively, P = 0.062). Moreover, the cumulative incidence of myelofibrotic transformation was significantly higher in patients with overt volumetric or palpable splenomegaly than those with no or borderline volumetric splenomegaly (10-year incidence: 0% vs. 10.3%, respectively; 15-year incidence: 0% vs. 26.3%, respectively, P = 0.020). Overall survival (OS) differed among patients with different degrees of splenomegaly (15-year OS: 100%, 78.6%, 71.7%, and 51.9%, respectively, P = 0.021). @*Conclusion@#The degree of splenomegaly, including volumetric splenomegaly, based on ageand BSA-matched reference spleen volumes at diagnosis reflects disease progression in PV patients. Therefore, volumetric splenomegaly should be evaluated at the time of diagnosis and taken into consideration when predicting the prognosis of patients with PV.

9.
Blood Research ; : 59-68, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925642

ABSTRACT

Background@#Information on myelofibrotic and leukemic transformations in Korean Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (Ph ‒ MPNs) is limited. @*Methods@#This study retrospectively analyzed transformations in patients diagnosed with essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV) prefibrotic/early primary myelofibrosis (pre-PMF), or overt primary myelofibrosis (PMF) based on the 2016 World Health Organization criteria between January 1996 and December 2020 at Chungam National University Hospital, Daejeon, Korea. @*Results@#A total of 351 patients (144 with ET, 131 with PV, 45 with pre-PMF, and 31 with PMF;204 men and 147 women) with a median age of 64 years (range, 15‒91 years) were followed for a median of 4.6 years (range, 0.2‒24.8 years). The 10-year incidence of overt myelofibrosis was higher in pre-PMF than in ET (31.3% and 13.7%, respectively; P =0.031) and PV (12.2%; P =0.003). The 10-year incidence of leukemic transformation was significantly higher in PMF than in ET (40.0% and 7.9%, respectively; P =0.046), pre-PMF (4.7%; P =0.048), and PV (3.2%; P =0.031). The 5-year incidence of leukemic transformation was higher in patients with secondary myelofibrosis (SMF) than in those with PMF (19.0% and 11.4%, respectively; P =0.040). The 5-year overall survival of patients with SMF was significantly worse than that of patients with pre-PMF (74% and 93%, respectively; P =0.027) but did not differ from that of patients with PMF (57%; P =0.744). @*Conclusion@#The rates and clinical courses of myelofibrotic and leukemic transformations in Korean patients with Ph ‒ MPN did not differ from those in Western populations.

10.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 851-863, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939101

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The risk factors and clinical impacts of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) remain controversial, and no data have been reported in Korea. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology and importance of CAPA diagnostic efforts and to identify the predictors of CAPA and the impacts on clinical outcomes. @*Methods@#Between January 2020 and May 2021, data of severely to critically ill COVID-19 patients were extracted from seven hospitals of the Catholic Medical Center through a clinical data warehouse. Corticosteroid use was subcategorized into total cumulative dose, early 7-day dose, mean daily dose, and duration of use. @*Results@#A total of 2,427 patients were screened, and 218 patients were included. CAPA was diagnosed in 4.6% (10/218) of all hospitalized and 11.2% (10/89) of intensive care unit patients. Total cumulative dose (over 1,000 mg as methylprednisolone) and daily high-dose corticosteroid use (over 60 mg/day) were independent predictors but not early 7-day high-dose corticosteroid use (over 420 mg/week) (odds ratio [OR], 1.731; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.350 to 8.571) nor prolonged use (OR, 2.794; 95% CI, 0.635 to 13.928). In-hospital overall mortality was 11.9% (26 of 218). CAPA itself did not affect the outcome; rather, daily high-dose steroid use significantly increased the 30-day mortality (hazard ratio, 5.645; 95% CI, 1.225 to 26.091). @*Conclusions@#CAPA was not uncommon, especially in critically ill patients. Daily high-dose corticosteroid use was the predictor of CAPA and associated with high mortality rates. High-dose corticosteroids use after early inflammatory phase should be avoided, and active surveillance methods for CAPA are essential for those high-risk patients.

11.
Journal of Dental Hygiene Science ; (6): 115-125, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937847

ABSTRACT

Background@#In the dental hygiene curriculum, efforts are being made to introduce an integrated curriculum based on the competency of a dental hygienist. Because there is a connection and overlap in learning contents between Dental Nutrition and Oral Biochemistry, which are basic dental hygiene subjects, it is possible to integrate these two subjects. This study aims to derive Nutritional Biochemistry as an integrated curriculum for Dental Nutrition and Oral Biochemistry, and to develop learning goals and competencies for Dental Nutritional Biochemistry. @*Methods@#The learning contents of the integrated curriculum were composed by referring to the contents of the Dental Nutrition and Oral Biochemistry textbooks, and learning goals were derived from the learning contents. Moreover, competency was developed by analyzing the duties of a dental hygienist that can be performed through the learning goals. The Delphi survey was conducted twice to verify the content validity ratio (CVR) of the competence and the learning goal of the integrated curriculum. @*Results@#In the first Delphi survey, the CVR for two competencies was 0.56 or higher. Moreover, it was revised based on expert’s opinions, and as a result of the second Delphi survey after the revision, the CVR was either increased or maintained. Eighty-five learning goals were derived by referring to the textbook. According to CVR and expert opinions, after the first Delphi survey, the number of learning goals was reduced to 69. After the second Delphi survey, 68 learning goals were finally derived. @*Conclusion@#The development process of the integrated curriculum conducted in this study can be utilized for integration between subjects in basic dental hygiene.

12.
Journal of Korean Clinical Nursing Research ; (3): 199-209, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891934

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study was conducted to investigate the nursing needs and workload of nurses according to nursing dependency for effective placement of nursing staff in the emergency department (ED). @*Methods@#In June 2020, 256 adult patients who visited the ED were classified as two groups, suspected COVID-19 patients and general patients. The participants’electronic medical records were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, x 2 -test, and Fisher's exact test using the SPSS. @*Results@#The patient dependence score showed a significant difference between the two groups, with an average of 13.99±1.85 for the suspected COVID-19 patient group and 10.58±2.10 for the general patient group (t=12.42, p<.001). There were statistically significant differences in communication (t=3.28, p=.001), mobility (t=3.29, p=.001), nutrition, elimination, and personal care (t=7.34, p<.001) among the six domains of nursing dependency. In the domains of environment, safety, health, and social needs, the dependency score was 3 for all suspected COVID-19 patients and 1 for all general patients. @*Conclusion@#The results of this study confirmed that infection control activities of emergency patients who need isolation affect the patients’ nursing dependency on nursing care.

13.
Keimyung Medical Journal ; : 125-128, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917030

ABSTRACT

Lower back pain and sciatica are common symptoms in pregnancy. Treatment options for these conditions include physical therapy, medication, interventional treatment, and surgery. This case report involved a 32 weeks pregnant woman, who visited the emergency room with a three day history of lower back and right leg pain and a visual analogue scale (VAS) score of 9 - 10. Spinal computed tomography revealed lumbar 4/5 and 5/S1 disc protrusions. An epidural catheter was placed around the L3/4 vertebrae, and 6 ml of 0.15% ropivacaine was administered for pain control. Subsequently, her VAS score reduced to 2 - 3 and she was discharged five days later.

14.
Journal of Korean Clinical Nursing Research ; (3): 279-293, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915336

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to develop a Korean nursing work environment scale for critical care nurses (KNWES-CCN) and verify its validity and reliability. @*Methods@#A total of 46 preliminary items were selected using content validity analysis of experts on 64 candidate items derived through literature reviews and in-depth interviews with critical care nurses. 535 critical care nurses from 21 hospitals responded to the preliminary questionnaire from February to March 2021. The collected data were analysed using construct, convergent and discriminant validities, and internal consistency and test-retest reliability. @*Results@#The 23 items in 4 factors accounted for 55.6% of the total variance were identified through item analysis and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). EFA was performed with maximum likelihood method including direct oblimin method. In the confirmatory factor analysis, KNWES-CCN consisted of 21 items in 4 factors by deleting the items that were not meet the condition that the factor loading over .50 or the squared multiple correlation over .30. This model was considered to be suitable because it satisfied the fit index and acceptable criteria of the model [x2 =440.47 (p<.001), CMIN/DF=2.41, GFI=.86, SRMR=.06, RMSEA=.07, TLI=.90, CFI=.91]. The item total correlation values ranged form .32 to .73 and its internal consistency was Cronbach's ⍺=.92. The reliability of the test-retest correlation coefficient was .72 and the intra-class correlation coefficient was .83. @*Conclusion@#The KNWES-CCN showed good validity and reliability. Therefore, it is expected that the use of this scale would measure and improve nursing work environment for critical care nurses in Korea.

15.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 221-230, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913520

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Intrathecal analgesia (ITA) and transverse abdominis plane block (TAPB) are effective pain control methods in abdominal surgery. However, there is still no gold standard for postoperative pain control in minimally invasive colorectal surgery. This study aimed to investigate whether the analgesic effect could be increased when TAPB, which can further reduce wound somatic pain, was administered in low-dose morphine ITA patients. @*Methods@#Patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery were randomized into an ITA with TAPB group or an ITA group. Patients were evaluated for pain 0, 8, 16, 24, and 48 hours after surgery. The primary outcome was the total morphine milligram equivalents administered 24 hours after surgery. The secondary outcomes were pain scores, ambulatory variables, inflammation markers, hospital stay duration, and complications within 48 hours after surgery. @*Results@#A total of 64 patients were recruited, and 55 were compared. There was no significant difference in morphine use over the 24 hours after surgery in the 2 groups (ITA with TAPB, 15.3 mg vs. ITA, 10.2 mg; P = 0.270). Also, there was no significant difference in pain scores. In both groups, the average pain score at 24 and 48 hours was 2 points or less, showing effective pain control. @*Conclusion@#ITA for pain control in patients with colorectal surgery is an effective pain method, and additional TAPB was not effective.

16.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1190-1203, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903725

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Recent changes in the diagnostic criteria for myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) and increasing patient numbers necessitate updating of the data on vascular events in patients with such disorders. @*Methods@#In this single-center study, thrombotic and hemorrhagic events were retrospectively analyzed in patients diagnosed with essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV) prefibrotic/early primary myelofibrosis (pre-PMF), or PMF, based on the 2016 World Health Organization diagnostic criteria. @*Results@#Of a total of 335 consecutive patients (139 ET, 42 pre-PMF, 124 PV, and 30 PMF patients; 192 males and 143 females) of median age 64 years (range, 15 to 91), 112 (33.4%) experienced a total of 126 thrombotic events before diagnosis, at the time of diagnosis, or during follow-up over a median of 4.6 years (range, 0.1 to 26.5). Cerebrovascular thrombosis (18.8%) was the most common initial event, followed by coronary heart disease (10.1%) and splanchnic (1.5%) and peripheral thrombosis (1.5%). Arterial thrombosis was more common than venous thrombosis (31.3% vs. 2.1%, respectively; p = 0.001). Thrombosis was most frequent in PV patients (39.5%), followed by patients with pre-PMF (38.1%), ET (30.9%), and PMF (13.3%). Of the 112 patients who experienced thromboses, 53 (47%) and 39 (33.9%) had thrombotic events before and at the time of MPN diagnosis, respectively. Twenty-seven patients (8.1%) experienced 29 hemorrhagic events, of which gastrointestinal bleeding (n = 20) was the most common. @*Conclusions@#Most thrombotic events occurred before or at the time of diagnosis, and the prevalence of arterial thrombosis was markedly higher than that of venous thrombosis in patients with MPN.

17.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 491-514, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903696

ABSTRACT

In 2017, Korean Society of Medical Oncology (KSMO) published the Korean management guideline of metastatic prostate cancer. This paper is the 2nd edition of the Korean management guideline of metastatic prostate cancer. We updated recent many changes of management in metastatic prostate cancer in this 2nd edition guideline. The present guideline consists of the three categories: management of metastatic hormone sensitive prostate cancer; management of metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer; and clinical consideration for treating patients with metastatic prostate cancer. In category 1 and 2, levels of evidence (LEs) have been mentioned according to the general principles of evidence-based medicine. And grades of recommendation (GR) was taken into account the quality of evidence, the balance between desirable and undesirable effects, the values and preferences, and the use of resources and GR were divided into strong recommendations (SR) and weak recommendations (WR). A total of 16 key questions are selected. And we proposed recommendations and described key evidence for each recommendation. The treatment landscape of metastatic prostate cancer is changing very rapid and many trials are ongoing. To verify the results of the future trials is necessary and should be applied to the treatment for metastatic prostate cancer patients in the clinical practice. Especially, many prostate cancer patients are old age, have multiple underlying medical comorbidities, clinicians should be aware of the significance of medical management as well as clinical efficacy of systemic treatment.

18.
Journal of Korean Clinical Nursing Research ; (3): 199-209, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899638

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study was conducted to investigate the nursing needs and workload of nurses according to nursing dependency for effective placement of nursing staff in the emergency department (ED). @*Methods@#In June 2020, 256 adult patients who visited the ED were classified as two groups, suspected COVID-19 patients and general patients. The participants’electronic medical records were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, x 2 -test, and Fisher's exact test using the SPSS. @*Results@#The patient dependence score showed a significant difference between the two groups, with an average of 13.99±1.85 for the suspected COVID-19 patient group and 10.58±2.10 for the general patient group (t=12.42, p<.001). There were statistically significant differences in communication (t=3.28, p=.001), mobility (t=3.29, p=.001), nutrition, elimination, and personal care (t=7.34, p<.001) among the six domains of nursing dependency. In the domains of environment, safety, health, and social needs, the dependency score was 3 for all suspected COVID-19 patients and 1 for all general patients. @*Conclusion@#The results of this study confirmed that infection control activities of emergency patients who need isolation affect the patients’ nursing dependency on nursing care.

19.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1190-1203, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896021

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Recent changes in the diagnostic criteria for myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) and increasing patient numbers necessitate updating of the data on vascular events in patients with such disorders. @*Methods@#In this single-center study, thrombotic and hemorrhagic events were retrospectively analyzed in patients diagnosed with essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV) prefibrotic/early primary myelofibrosis (pre-PMF), or PMF, based on the 2016 World Health Organization diagnostic criteria. @*Results@#Of a total of 335 consecutive patients (139 ET, 42 pre-PMF, 124 PV, and 30 PMF patients; 192 males and 143 females) of median age 64 years (range, 15 to 91), 112 (33.4%) experienced a total of 126 thrombotic events before diagnosis, at the time of diagnosis, or during follow-up over a median of 4.6 years (range, 0.1 to 26.5). Cerebrovascular thrombosis (18.8%) was the most common initial event, followed by coronary heart disease (10.1%) and splanchnic (1.5%) and peripheral thrombosis (1.5%). Arterial thrombosis was more common than venous thrombosis (31.3% vs. 2.1%, respectively; p = 0.001). Thrombosis was most frequent in PV patients (39.5%), followed by patients with pre-PMF (38.1%), ET (30.9%), and PMF (13.3%). Of the 112 patients who experienced thromboses, 53 (47%) and 39 (33.9%) had thrombotic events before and at the time of MPN diagnosis, respectively. Twenty-seven patients (8.1%) experienced 29 hemorrhagic events, of which gastrointestinal bleeding (n = 20) was the most common. @*Conclusions@#Most thrombotic events occurred before or at the time of diagnosis, and the prevalence of arterial thrombosis was markedly higher than that of venous thrombosis in patients with MPN.

20.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 491-514, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895992

ABSTRACT

In 2017, Korean Society of Medical Oncology (KSMO) published the Korean management guideline of metastatic prostate cancer. This paper is the 2nd edition of the Korean management guideline of metastatic prostate cancer. We updated recent many changes of management in metastatic prostate cancer in this 2nd edition guideline. The present guideline consists of the three categories: management of metastatic hormone sensitive prostate cancer; management of metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer; and clinical consideration for treating patients with metastatic prostate cancer. In category 1 and 2, levels of evidence (LEs) have been mentioned according to the general principles of evidence-based medicine. And grades of recommendation (GR) was taken into account the quality of evidence, the balance between desirable and undesirable effects, the values and preferences, and the use of resources and GR were divided into strong recommendations (SR) and weak recommendations (WR). A total of 16 key questions are selected. And we proposed recommendations and described key evidence for each recommendation. The treatment landscape of metastatic prostate cancer is changing very rapid and many trials are ongoing. To verify the results of the future trials is necessary and should be applied to the treatment for metastatic prostate cancer patients in the clinical practice. Especially, many prostate cancer patients are old age, have multiple underlying medical comorbidities, clinicians should be aware of the significance of medical management as well as clinical efficacy of systemic treatment.

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