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1.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 160-189, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894568

ABSTRACT

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. Although its incidence is gradually decreasing, about half of the world's population still get infected. H. pylori infection is responsible for substantial gastrointestinal morbidity worldwide. It is the most common cause of gastric and duodenal ulcers as well as gastric cancer. Since the revision of the H. pylori Clinical Practice Guidelines in 2013, the eradication rate of H. pylori has gradually decreased with the use of classical triple therapy, wherein amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and proton pump inhibitors are administered, for 7 days. According to a nationwide randomized controlled study conducted by the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research released in 2018, the intention-to-treat eradication rate was only 63.9%, which was due to increased antimicrobial resistance induced by the use of antibiotics, especially clarithromycin. The update of clinical practice guideline for treatment of H. pylori was developed based on evidence-based medicine by conducting a meta-analysis. The draft recommendations were finalized after expert consensus on three recommendations regarding the indication for treatment and eight recommendations on the treatment itself. These guidelines are designed to provide patients, nurses, medical school students, policymakers, and clinicians with clinical evidence to guide primary care and treatment of H. pylori infection. These may differ from current medical insurance standards and will be revised further, if necessary, based on research-based evidence.

2.
Gut and Liver ; : 168-195, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874584

ABSTRACT

Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. Although the prevalence of H. pylori is gradually decreasing, approximately half of the world's population still becomes infected with this disease. H. pylori is responsible for substantial gastrointestinal morbidity worldwide, with a high disease burden. It is the most common cause of gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer. Since the revision of the H. pylori clinical practice guidelines in 2013 in Korea, the eradication rate of H. pylori has gradually decreased with the use of a clarithromycin-based triple therapy for 7 days. According to a nationwide randomized controlled study conducted by the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research released in 2018, the intention-to-treat eradication rate was only 63.9%, which was mostly due to increased antimicrobial resistance, especially from clarithromycin. The clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of H. pylori were updated according to evidence-based medicine from a meta-analysis conducted on a target group receiving the latest level of eradication therapy. The draft recommendations developed based on the meta-analysis were finalized after an expert consensus on three recommendations regarding the indication for treatment and eight recommendations for the treatment itself. These guidelines were designed to provide clinical evidence for the treatment (including primary care treatment) of H. pylori infection to patients, nurses, medical school students, policymakers, and clinicians. These may differ from current medical insurance standards and will be revised if more evidence emerges in the future.

3.
Gut and Liver ; : 85-91, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874566

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Risk prediction models using a deep neural network (DNN) have not been reported to predict the risk of advanced colorectal neoplasia (ACRN). The aim of this study was to compare DNN models with simple clinical score models to predict the risk of ACRN in colorectal cancer screening. @*Methods@#Databases of screening colonoscopy from Kangbuk Samsung Hospital (n=121,794) and Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong (n=3,728) were used to develop DNN-based prediction models. Two DNN models, the Asian-Pacific Colorectal Screening (APCS) model and the Korean Colorectal Screening (KCS) model, were developed and compared with two simple score models using logistic regression methods to predict the risk of ACRN. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) of the models were compared in internal and external validation databases. @*Results@#In the internal validation set, the AUCs of DNN model 1 and the APCS score model were 0.713 and 0.662 (p0.1). @*Conclusions@#Simple score models for the risk prediction of ACRN are as useful as DNN-based models when input variables are limited. However, further studies on this issue are warranted to predict the risk of ACRN in colorectal cancer screening because DNN-based models are currently under improvement.

4.
Gut and Liver ; : 723-731, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890770

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study examined the long-term outcomes of undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer (UD EGC) with positive horizontal margins (HMs) after endoscopic resection (ER) and compared them between additional surgery and nonsurgical management. @*Methods@#From 2005 to 2015, a total of 1,124 patients with UD EGC underwent ER at 18 tertiary hospitals in Korea. Of them, 92 patients with positive HMs as the only noncurative factor (n=25) or with both positive HMs and tumor size >2 cm (n=67) were included. These patients underwent additional surgery (n=40), underwent additional endoscopic treatment (n=6), or were followed up without further treatment (n=46). @*Results@#No lymph node (LN) metastasis was found in patients who underwent additional surgery. During a median follow-up of 57.7 months (interquartile range, 27.6 to 68.8 months), no LN or distant metastases or gastric cancer-related deaths occurred in the overall cohort. At baseline, the residual cancer rate was 57.8% (26/45) after additional surgery or ER. The 5-year local recurrence rate was 33.6% among patients who were followed up without additional treatment. The 5-year overall survival rates were 95.0% and 87.8% after additional surgery and nonsurgical management (endoscopic treatment or close follow-up), respectively (log-rank p=0.224). In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, nonsurgical management was not associated with an increased risk of mortality. @*Conclusions@#UD EGC with positive HMs after ER may have favorable long-term outcomes and a very low risk of LN metastasis. Nonsurgical management may be suggested as an alternative, particularly for patients with old age or chronic illness.

5.
Gut and Liver ; : 383-390, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890758

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The risk of recurrence of colorectal adenoma among obese individuals without metabolic abnormalities or in those with metabolically healthy obesity is largely unexplored.Therefore, we longitudinally investigated the risk of adenoma occurrence in individuals undergoing surveillance colonoscopy according to metabolic status and obesity. @*Methods@#This retrospective cohort study included 16,872 Korean adults who underwent their first screening colonoscopy between 2003 and 2012 and who then underwent follow-up colonoscopy until 2017. Participants were categorized into a metabolically healthy nonobese group (reference group), a metabolically healthy obese group, a metabolically abnormal nonobese group, and a metabolically abnormal obese group. Hazard ratios (HRs) for adenoma recurrence compared to the reference group were calculated in each group. @*Results@#During a median follow-up duration of 47.3 months (interquartile range, 35.6 to 58.9 months), 3,673 (21.8%) and 292 (1.73%) participants developed adenoma and advanced adenoma, respectively. When age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, family history of colorectal cancer, and baseline adenoma risk were adjusted, the risk of adenoma recurrence was increased in metabolically healthy obese individuals (HR, 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12 to 1.57) and metabolically abnormal obese individuals (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.30) but not in metabolically abnormal nonobese individuals (HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.13). @*Conclusions@#In this study, metabolically healthy obese individuals and metabolically abnormal obese individuals exhibited increased risks of occurrence of colorectal adenoma diagnosed by surveillance colonoscopy. This finding implies that obesity itself, even without metabolic abnormalities, is associated with an increased risk of adenoma recurrence.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903681

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We aimed to develop a deep learning model for the prediction of the risk of advanced colorectal neoplasia (ACRN) in asymptomatic adults, based on which colorectal cancer screening could be customized. @*Methods@#We collected data on 26 clinical and laboratory parameters, including age, sex, smoking status, body mass index, complete blood count, blood chemistry, and tumor marker, from 70,336 first-time colonoscopy screening recipients. For reference, we used a logistic regression (LR) model with nine variables manually selected from the 26 variables. A deep neural network (DNN) model was developed using all 26 variables. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity of the models were compared in a randomly split validation group. @*Results@#In comparison with the LR model (AUC, 0.724; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.684 to 0.765), the DNN model (AUC, 0.760; 95% CI, 0.724 to 0.795) demonstrated significantly improved performance with respect to the prediction of ACRN (p < 0.001). At a sensitivity of 90%, the specificity significantly increased with the application of the DNN model (41.0%) in comparison with the LR model (26.5%) (p < 0.001), indicating that the colonoscopy workload required to detect the same number of ACRNs could be reduced by 20%. @*Conclusions@#The application of DNN to big clinical data could significantly improve the prediction of ACRNs in comparison with the LR model, potentially realizing further customization by utilizing large quantities and various types of biomedical information.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903666

ABSTRACT

Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. H. pylori is responsible for substantial gastrointestinal morbidity with a high disease burden. Since the revision of the H. pylori Clinical Practice Guidelines in 2013 in Korea, the eradication rate of H. pylori has gradually decreased with the use of a clarithromycin based triple therapy. According to a nationwide randomized controlled study by the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research released in 2018, the intention-to-treat eradication rate was only 63.9%, which was mostly due to increased antimicrobial resistance to clarithromycin. The clinical practice guidelines for treatment of H. pylori were updated based on evidence-based medicine from a meta-analysis conducted on a target group receiving the latest level of eradication therapy. The draft recommendations developed based on the meta-analysis were finalized after expert consensus on three recommendations regarding the indication for treatment and eight recommendations on the treatment itself. These guidelines were designed to provide clinical evidence for the treatment of H. pylori to patients, nurses, medical school students, policymakers, and clinicians. These may differ from current medical insurance standards, and will be revised if more evidence emerges in the future.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903640

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#As antibiotic resistance increases and new first-line therapies emerge, salvage therapies for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication failures are becoming more common and complicated. This study aimed to systematically review overall salvage regimens after previous failure of H. pylori eradication. @*Materials and Methods@#A systematic review of randomized clinical trials evaluating salvage therapies after previous H. pylori eradication failure was performed. A meta-analysis was conducted when an adequate number of studies suitable for grouping was found. @*Results@#Overall, 36 studies with 77 treatment arms were identified, and they were highly heterogeneous regarding previously failed regimens and salvage regimens under comparison. Bismuth quadruple therapy after failure of standard triple therapy showed a pooled intention-to-treat (ITT) eradication rate of 75.5% (95% CI, 71.6~79.1%), and the rates were significantly higher with 14-day therapy than 7-day therapy by 9% (95% CI, 2~15%). Levofloxacin triple therapy after failure of standard triple therapy demonstrated a pooled ITT eradication rate of 73.3% (95% CI, 68.4~77.3%). In direct comparison, the two regimens were not significantly different in eradication rates. No study evaluated salvage regimens after the failure of bismuth or non-bismuth quadruple therapy. @*Conclusions@#The current studies regarding salvage regimens are highly heterogeneous. Bismuth quadruple therapy and levofloxacin triple therapy may be a reliable option after failure of standard triple therapy, but the regional profile of antibiotic resistance should be considered. Further studies are needed for salvage regimens after failure of non-bismuth or bismuth quadruple therapy.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903638

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The eradication rate of the first-line standard triple therapy (STT) for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has decreased since 2000; therefore, other first-line therapies are required. This study was aimed at investigating the efficacy of bismuth-containing quadruple therapy (PBMT) for first-line H. pylori eradication compared to STT, sequential therapy (SQT), and concomitant therapy (CT). @*Materials and Methods@#The Ovid-MEDLINE, Koreamed, EMBASE, KMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from January 2008 to July 2018. All identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing PBMT and non-PBMT for first-line H. pylori eradication therapy were included in the final analysis. @*Results@#A total of 3,653 patients from seven RCTs were enrolled. The pooled eradication rates of PBMT by intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses were 82.1% (95% CI, 68.2~90.8%) and 88.8% (95% CI, 77.1~94.9%), respectively. However, no statistically significant difference was observed in eradication rates of the 10- or 14-day PBMT as compared to 14-day STT, 10-day SQT, and 10-day CT in ITT and PP analyses. PBMT was significantly higher in adverse events than in the other eradication regimens (RR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.11~2.44). Considerable heterogeneity in adverse events was observed among studies (χ2=88.7; P<0.001, I2=93%). @*Conclusions@#PBMT can be the first-line treatment for H. pylori eradication in Korea when other first-line options, including STT, SQT, or CT, are unavailable due to their high adverse event rates.

10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903635

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Standard triple therapy, including a proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin, has been recommended as the first-line for Helicobacter pylori infection. However, the eradication rate of standard triple therapy has declined over the past years because of the increasing resistance to clarithromycin in Korea. We analyzed the eradication rates and the 10-year change in the eradication rates in Korea. @*Methods@#PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed were searched for studies published between January 2007 and June 2018. The pooled eradication rates and their 95% CIs were estimated using a random-effect logistic regression model. @*Results@#Twenty-six randomized controlled studies on standard triple therapy conducted in Korea were selected. The intention-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol analyses showed pooled eradication rates of standard triple therapy of 71.6% (95% CI, 69.9~73.3%) and 79.6% (95% CI, 76.6~82.2%), respectively. The eradication rate decreased with time. The ITT analysis showed that the 14-day therapy (78.1% [95% CI, 75.2~80.7%]) had significantly higher eradication rates than the 7-day therapy (70.0% [95% CI, 68.5~71.4%]) (P<0.01). @*Conclusions@#These results suggest that the eradication rate of standard triple therapy, as the first-line therapy, has shown an unacceptable decrease. The eradication rate increased when the duration of therapy was increased to 14 days, but it was not satisfactory. Therefore, other treatment regimens or therapies based on susceptibility tests should be considered for the first-line therapy.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903550

ABSTRACT

Superficial nonampullary duodenal epithelial tumors are considered rare but have been increasingly recognized in recent years.Accordingly, the importance of endoscopic treatment for the lesions are also increasing. An endoscopic resection can be considered for duodenal adenoma and mucosal cancer. The choice of resection method should be made based on the size of the lesion, endoscopic findings, pathologic diagnosis, and risk of procedure-related complication. For small adenomas <10 mm in size, endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), cold snare polypectomy, and underwater EMR can be considered. An en bloc or piecemeal resection using EMR or underwater EMR can be selected for 10-20 mm sized adenomas. For lesions ≥20 mm in size or suspicious for mucosal cancer, an endoscopic submucosal dissection followed by closure of the mucosal defect conducted by an experienced endoscopist is appropriate.

12.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 160-189, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902272

ABSTRACT

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. Although its incidence is gradually decreasing, about half of the world's population still get infected. H. pylori infection is responsible for substantial gastrointestinal morbidity worldwide. It is the most common cause of gastric and duodenal ulcers as well as gastric cancer. Since the revision of the H. pylori Clinical Practice Guidelines in 2013, the eradication rate of H. pylori has gradually decreased with the use of classical triple therapy, wherein amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and proton pump inhibitors are administered, for 7 days. According to a nationwide randomized controlled study conducted by the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research released in 2018, the intention-to-treat eradication rate was only 63.9%, which was due to increased antimicrobial resistance induced by the use of antibiotics, especially clarithromycin. The update of clinical practice guideline for treatment of H. pylori was developed based on evidence-based medicine by conducting a meta-analysis. The draft recommendations were finalized after expert consensus on three recommendations regarding the indication for treatment and eight recommendations on the treatment itself. These guidelines are designed to provide patients, nurses, medical school students, policymakers, and clinicians with clinical evidence to guide primary care and treatment of H. pylori infection. These may differ from current medical insurance standards and will be revised further, if necessary, based on research-based evidence.

13.
Gut and Liver ; : 723-731, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898474

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study examined the long-term outcomes of undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer (UD EGC) with positive horizontal margins (HMs) after endoscopic resection (ER) and compared them between additional surgery and nonsurgical management. @*Methods@#From 2005 to 2015, a total of 1,124 patients with UD EGC underwent ER at 18 tertiary hospitals in Korea. Of them, 92 patients with positive HMs as the only noncurative factor (n=25) or with both positive HMs and tumor size >2 cm (n=67) were included. These patients underwent additional surgery (n=40), underwent additional endoscopic treatment (n=6), or were followed up without further treatment (n=46). @*Results@#No lymph node (LN) metastasis was found in patients who underwent additional surgery. During a median follow-up of 57.7 months (interquartile range, 27.6 to 68.8 months), no LN or distant metastases or gastric cancer-related deaths occurred in the overall cohort. At baseline, the residual cancer rate was 57.8% (26/45) after additional surgery or ER. The 5-year local recurrence rate was 33.6% among patients who were followed up without additional treatment. The 5-year overall survival rates were 95.0% and 87.8% after additional surgery and nonsurgical management (endoscopic treatment or close follow-up), respectively (log-rank p=0.224). In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, nonsurgical management was not associated with an increased risk of mortality. @*Conclusions@#UD EGC with positive HMs after ER may have favorable long-term outcomes and a very low risk of LN metastasis. Nonsurgical management may be suggested as an alternative, particularly for patients with old age or chronic illness.

14.
Gut and Liver ; : 383-390, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898462

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The risk of recurrence of colorectal adenoma among obese individuals without metabolic abnormalities or in those with metabolically healthy obesity is largely unexplored.Therefore, we longitudinally investigated the risk of adenoma occurrence in individuals undergoing surveillance colonoscopy according to metabolic status and obesity. @*Methods@#This retrospective cohort study included 16,872 Korean adults who underwent their first screening colonoscopy between 2003 and 2012 and who then underwent follow-up colonoscopy until 2017. Participants were categorized into a metabolically healthy nonobese group (reference group), a metabolically healthy obese group, a metabolically abnormal nonobese group, and a metabolically abnormal obese group. Hazard ratios (HRs) for adenoma recurrence compared to the reference group were calculated in each group. @*Results@#During a median follow-up duration of 47.3 months (interquartile range, 35.6 to 58.9 months), 3,673 (21.8%) and 292 (1.73%) participants developed adenoma and advanced adenoma, respectively. When age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, family history of colorectal cancer, and baseline adenoma risk were adjusted, the risk of adenoma recurrence was increased in metabolically healthy obese individuals (HR, 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12 to 1.57) and metabolically abnormal obese individuals (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.30) but not in metabolically abnormal nonobese individuals (HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.13). @*Conclusions@#In this study, metabolically healthy obese individuals and metabolically abnormal obese individuals exhibited increased risks of occurrence of colorectal adenoma diagnosed by surveillance colonoscopy. This finding implies that obesity itself, even without metabolic abnormalities, is associated with an increased risk of adenoma recurrence.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895977

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We aimed to develop a deep learning model for the prediction of the risk of advanced colorectal neoplasia (ACRN) in asymptomatic adults, based on which colorectal cancer screening could be customized. @*Methods@#We collected data on 26 clinical and laboratory parameters, including age, sex, smoking status, body mass index, complete blood count, blood chemistry, and tumor marker, from 70,336 first-time colonoscopy screening recipients. For reference, we used a logistic regression (LR) model with nine variables manually selected from the 26 variables. A deep neural network (DNN) model was developed using all 26 variables. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity of the models were compared in a randomly split validation group. @*Results@#In comparison with the LR model (AUC, 0.724; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.684 to 0.765), the DNN model (AUC, 0.760; 95% CI, 0.724 to 0.795) demonstrated significantly improved performance with respect to the prediction of ACRN (p < 0.001). At a sensitivity of 90%, the specificity significantly increased with the application of the DNN model (41.0%) in comparison with the LR model (26.5%) (p < 0.001), indicating that the colonoscopy workload required to detect the same number of ACRNs could be reduced by 20%. @*Conclusions@#The application of DNN to big clinical data could significantly improve the prediction of ACRNs in comparison with the LR model, potentially realizing further customization by utilizing large quantities and various types of biomedical information.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895962

ABSTRACT

Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. H. pylori is responsible for substantial gastrointestinal morbidity with a high disease burden. Since the revision of the H. pylori Clinical Practice Guidelines in 2013 in Korea, the eradication rate of H. pylori has gradually decreased with the use of a clarithromycin based triple therapy. According to a nationwide randomized controlled study by the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research released in 2018, the intention-to-treat eradication rate was only 63.9%, which was mostly due to increased antimicrobial resistance to clarithromycin. The clinical practice guidelines for treatment of H. pylori were updated based on evidence-based medicine from a meta-analysis conducted on a target group receiving the latest level of eradication therapy. The draft recommendations developed based on the meta-analysis were finalized after expert consensus on three recommendations regarding the indication for treatment and eight recommendations on the treatment itself. These guidelines were designed to provide clinical evidence for the treatment of H. pylori to patients, nurses, medical school students, policymakers, and clinicians. These may differ from current medical insurance standards, and will be revised if more evidence emerges in the future.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895936

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#As antibiotic resistance increases and new first-line therapies emerge, salvage therapies for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication failures are becoming more common and complicated. This study aimed to systematically review overall salvage regimens after previous failure of H. pylori eradication. @*Materials and Methods@#A systematic review of randomized clinical trials evaluating salvage therapies after previous H. pylori eradication failure was performed. A meta-analysis was conducted when an adequate number of studies suitable for grouping was found. @*Results@#Overall, 36 studies with 77 treatment arms were identified, and they were highly heterogeneous regarding previously failed regimens and salvage regimens under comparison. Bismuth quadruple therapy after failure of standard triple therapy showed a pooled intention-to-treat (ITT) eradication rate of 75.5% (95% CI, 71.6~79.1%), and the rates were significantly higher with 14-day therapy than 7-day therapy by 9% (95% CI, 2~15%). Levofloxacin triple therapy after failure of standard triple therapy demonstrated a pooled ITT eradication rate of 73.3% (95% CI, 68.4~77.3%). In direct comparison, the two regimens were not significantly different in eradication rates. No study evaluated salvage regimens after the failure of bismuth or non-bismuth quadruple therapy. @*Conclusions@#The current studies regarding salvage regimens are highly heterogeneous. Bismuth quadruple therapy and levofloxacin triple therapy may be a reliable option after failure of standard triple therapy, but the regional profile of antibiotic resistance should be considered. Further studies are needed for salvage regimens after failure of non-bismuth or bismuth quadruple therapy.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895934

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The eradication rate of the first-line standard triple therapy (STT) for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has decreased since 2000; therefore, other first-line therapies are required. This study was aimed at investigating the efficacy of bismuth-containing quadruple therapy (PBMT) for first-line H. pylori eradication compared to STT, sequential therapy (SQT), and concomitant therapy (CT). @*Materials and Methods@#The Ovid-MEDLINE, Koreamed, EMBASE, KMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from January 2008 to July 2018. All identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing PBMT and non-PBMT for first-line H. pylori eradication therapy were included in the final analysis. @*Results@#A total of 3,653 patients from seven RCTs were enrolled. The pooled eradication rates of PBMT by intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses were 82.1% (95% CI, 68.2~90.8%) and 88.8% (95% CI, 77.1~94.9%), respectively. However, no statistically significant difference was observed in eradication rates of the 10- or 14-day PBMT as compared to 14-day STT, 10-day SQT, and 10-day CT in ITT and PP analyses. PBMT was significantly higher in adverse events than in the other eradication regimens (RR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.11~2.44). Considerable heterogeneity in adverse events was observed among studies (χ2=88.7; P<0.001, I2=93%). @*Conclusions@#PBMT can be the first-line treatment for H. pylori eradication in Korea when other first-line options, including STT, SQT, or CT, are unavailable due to their high adverse event rates.

19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895931

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Standard triple therapy, including a proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin, has been recommended as the first-line for Helicobacter pylori infection. However, the eradication rate of standard triple therapy has declined over the past years because of the increasing resistance to clarithromycin in Korea. We analyzed the eradication rates and the 10-year change in the eradication rates in Korea. @*Methods@#PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed were searched for studies published between January 2007 and June 2018. The pooled eradication rates and their 95% CIs were estimated using a random-effect logistic regression model. @*Results@#Twenty-six randomized controlled studies on standard triple therapy conducted in Korea were selected. The intention-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol analyses showed pooled eradication rates of standard triple therapy of 71.6% (95% CI, 69.9~73.3%) and 79.6% (95% CI, 76.6~82.2%), respectively. The eradication rate decreased with time. The ITT analysis showed that the 14-day therapy (78.1% [95% CI, 75.2~80.7%]) had significantly higher eradication rates than the 7-day therapy (70.0% [95% CI, 68.5~71.4%]) (P<0.01). @*Conclusions@#These results suggest that the eradication rate of standard triple therapy, as the first-line therapy, has shown an unacceptable decrease. The eradication rate increased when the duration of therapy was increased to 14 days, but it was not satisfactory. Therefore, other treatment regimens or therapies based on susceptibility tests should be considered for the first-line therapy.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895846

ABSTRACT

Superficial nonampullary duodenal epithelial tumors are considered rare but have been increasingly recognized in recent years.Accordingly, the importance of endoscopic treatment for the lesions are also increasing. An endoscopic resection can be considered for duodenal adenoma and mucosal cancer. The choice of resection method should be made based on the size of the lesion, endoscopic findings, pathologic diagnosis, and risk of procedure-related complication. For small adenomas <10 mm in size, endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), cold snare polypectomy, and underwater EMR can be considered. An en bloc or piecemeal resection using EMR or underwater EMR can be selected for 10-20 mm sized adenomas. For lesions ≥20 mm in size or suspicious for mucosal cancer, an endoscopic submucosal dissection followed by closure of the mucosal defect conducted by an experienced endoscopist is appropriate.

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