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1.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 478-482, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000868

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Ischemia of the inner ear may damage the otoconia. However, no study has explored any changes in the configuration of otoconia after transient ischemia of the labyrinth. @*Methods@#Nineteen 7-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either the sham (n=5) or the experimental group (n=14). The rats in the experimental group were subjected to global ischemia for 20 minutes using a four-vessel occlusion model, and were sacrificed seven days after the procedure. The rats in the sham group were sacrificed without any procedure. The otolithic organs (utricle and saccule) were dissected out for scanning electron microscope. @*Results@#The otolithic organs in the sham group showed their normal gross configuration with a dense clumping of otoconia with a normal hexagonal morphology and a smooth surface. The otolithic organs in the experimental group also maintained a grossly normal configuration, but each otoconia showed irregular surfaces with numerous cracks or furrows, especially in the periphery of the otoconial bed. @*Conclusions@#The current study showed that otoconial degeneration may occur even after transient ischemia of the labyrinth. This finding supports an association between cerebral ischemia and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

2.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1355-1362, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999832

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This phase II, open-label, multicenter study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of a rituximab intensification for the 1st cycle with every 21-day of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP-21) among patients with previously untreated advanced-stage or bulky diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). @*Materials and Methods@#Ninety-two patients with stage III/IV or bulky DLBCL from 21 institutions were administered 8 cycles of R-CHOP-21 with an additional one dose of rituximab intensification on day 0 of the 1st cycle (RR-CHOP). The primary endpoint was a complete response (CR) rate after 3 cycles of chemotherapy. @*Results@#Among the 92 DLBCL patients assessed herein, the response rate after 3 cycles of chemotherapy was 88.0% (38.0% CR+50.0% partial response [PR]). After the completion of 8 cycles of chemotherapy, the overall response rate was observed for 68.4% (58.7% CR+9.8% PR). The 3-year progression-free survival rate was 64.0%, and the 3-year overall survival rate was 70.4%. Febrile neutropenia was one of the most frequent grade 3 adverse events (40.0%) and 5 treatment-related deaths occurred. Compared with the clinical outcomes of patients who received R-CHOP chemotherapy as a historical control, the interim CR rate was higher in male patients with RR-CHOP (20.5% vs. 48.8%, p=0.016). @*Conclusion@#Rituximab intensification on days 0 to the 1st cycle of the standard 8 cycles R-CHOP-21 for advanced DLBCL yielded favorable response rates after the 3 cycles of chemotherapy and acceptable toxicities, especially for male patients. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01054781.

3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 523-530, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976701

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This single-arm phase II trial investigate the efficacy and safety of S-1 plus oxaliplatin (SOX) in patients with metastatic breast cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients with metastatic breast cancer previously treated with anthracyclines and taxanes were enrolled. Patients received S-1 (40-60 mg depending on patient’s body surface area, twice a day, day 1-14) and oxaliplatin (130 mg/m2, day 1) in 3 weeks cycle until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR) according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumor 1.1. Secondary endpoints included time-to-progression (TTP), duration-of-response (DoR), overall survival (OS), and adverse events. @*Results@#A total of 87 patients were enrolled from 11 institutions in Korea. Hormone receptor was positive in 54 (62.1%) patients and six (6.9%) had human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–positive disease. Forty-eight patients (85.1%) had visceral metastasis and 74 (55.2%) had more than three sites of metastases. The ORR of SOX regimen was 38.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 26.9 to 50.0) with a median TTP of 6.0 months (95% CI, 5.1 to 6.9). Median DoR and OS were 10.3 months (95% CI, 5.5 to 15.1) and 19.4 (95% CI, not estimated) months, respectively. Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia was reported in 28 patients (32.1%) and thrombocytopenia was observed in 23 patients (26.6%). @*Conclusion@#This phase II study showed that SOX regimen is a reasonable option in metastatic breast cancer previously treated with anthracyclines and taxanes.

4.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 684-692, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976690

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We conducted a nationwide, multicenter, prospective registry study for newly diagnosed patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) to better define the clinical characteristics, treatment patterns, survival outcomes, and the role of upfront autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in these patients. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients with PTCL receiving chemotherapy with curative intent were registered and prospectively monitored. All patients were pathologically diagnosed with PTCL. @*Results@#A total of 191 patients with PTCL were enrolled in this prospective registry study. PTCL, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) was the most common pathologic subtype (n=80, 41.9%), followed by angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) (n=60, 31.4%). With a median follow-up duration of 3.9 years, the 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 39.5% and 60.4%, respectively. The role of upfront ASCT was evaluated in patients who were considered transplant-eligible (n=59). ASCT was performed as an upfront consolidative treatment in 32 (54.2%) of these patients. There were no significant differences in PFS and OS between the ASCT and non-ASCT groups for all patients (n=59) and for patients with PTCL-NOS (n=26). However, in patients with AITL, the ASCT group was associated with significantly better PFS than the non-ASCT group, although there was no significant difference in OS. @*Conclusion@#The current study demonstrated that the survival outcomes with the current treatment options remain poor for patients with PTCL-NOS. Upfront ASCT may provide a survival benefit for patients with AITL, but not PTCL-NOS.

5.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 325-333, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966481

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common hematologic malignancy worldwide. Although substantial improvement has been achieved by the frontline rituximab-based chemoimmunotherapy, up to 40%-50% of patients will eventually have relapsed or refractory disease, whose prognosis is extremely dismal. @*Materials and Methods@#We have carried out two prospective cohort studies that include over 1,500 DLBCL patients treated with rituximab plus CHOP (#NCT01202448 and #NCT02474550). In the current report, we describe the outcomes of refractory DLBCL patients. Patients were defined to have refractory DLBCL if they met one of the followings, not achieving at least partial response after 4 or more cycles of R-CHOP; not achieving at least partial response after 2 or more cycles of salvage therapy; progressive disease within 12 months after autologous stem cell transplantation. @*Results@#Among 1,581 patients, a total of 260 patients met the criteria for the refractory disease after a median time to progression of 9.1 months. The objective response rate of salvage treatment was 26.4%, and the complete response rate was 9.6%. The median overall survival (OS) was 7.5 months (95% confidence interval, 6.4 to 8.6), and the 2-year survival rate was 22.1%±2.8%. The median OS for each refractory category was not significantly different (p=0.529). @*Conclusion@#In line with the previous studies, the outcomes of refractory DLBCL patients were extremely poor, which necessitates novel approaches for this population.

6.
Korean Journal of Pancreas and Biliary Tract ; : 121-127, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938751

ABSTRACT

Background@#/Aim: In gallbladder cancer (GBC), gender differences in incidence and mortality rates have been reported with geographic variation. However, there is little known about sex-related difference in GBC prognosis. This study compares prognostic factors according to gender for GBC. @*Methods@#We searched clinicopathological factors in all stages of 952 GBC patients from seven medical centers in Korea. A total of 927 patients were enrolled and surgery with curative resection was performed in 499 patients. @*Results@#Carbohydrate antigen (≥37 U/mL) was a significant prognostic factor in both females and males (odd ratio [OR], 4.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.13-5.89; p2; an independent predictor of poor prognosis via multivariate analysis (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.05; p=0.005, OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02-1.08; p=0.002). Body mass index (BMI) also showed gender difference, and lower BMI (≤25 kg/m2) was the significant good indicator of multivariate analysis for lymph node metastasis in female patients (OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.23-0.77; p=0.005) but, the significant poor indicator of univariate analysis for advanced T-stage in male (OR, 2.79; 95% CI, 1.40-5.54; p=0.003). @*Conclusions@#These results suggest that there is a possibility of gender difference in GBC prognosis. Age and high BMI were poor prognostic factors for curative resection for female GBC patients.

7.
Korean Journal of Pancreas and Biliary Tract ; : 135-139, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938749

ABSTRACT

Biliary stent migration is one of the late complications of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Most of the biliary stent migration is asymptomatic and successfully managed by stent removal. A 66-year-old man with unresectable pancreatic cancer, common bile duct obstruction, and duodenal third portion obstruction underwent endoscopic plastic biliary stent placement and duodenal uncovered metallic stent placement in two separate sessions. After 3 weeks from the duodenal stenting, he presented with hematemesis. Urgent esophagogastroduodenoscopy and magnetic resonance imaging showed hemobilia. The patient recovered with conservative managements. Cross-sectional imagings done 2 months later demonstrated the penetration of the biliary stent into portal vein. Here, we present a case of delayed hemobilia caused by penetration of biliary plastic stent into the portal vein.

8.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 297-300, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937149

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory acquired Blaschko-linear dermatoses (IABLD) are a continuous concept involving diseases such as lichen striatus, blaschkitis, and atopic dermatitis. However, atopic dermatitis that showed increase in severity along Blaschko lines is rarely reported on its own. Herein, we report a rare case of atopic dermatitis with secondary prurigo nodularis along Blaschko lines, which may be valuable in broadening the concept of IABLD. A 28-year-old male presented with multiple, pruritic, brownish nodules on the left lower extremity along Blaschko lines for 3 to 4 years. The patient had atopic dermatitis since childhood. Histopathologic findings revealed compact orthohyperkeratosis, hypergranulosis, spongiosis, and irregular acanthosis in the epidermis. Fibrosis with vertically arranged collagen fibers and perivascular lymphohistiocytic infiltration were shown in the upper dermis. We diagnosed the case as secondary prurigo nodularis along Blaschko lines, accompanied by the preceding atopic dermatitis. We hypothesized that the patient’s underlying atopic dermatitis increased in severity along Blaschko lines, and prurigo nodularis occurred due to frequent scratching. The lesions improved with topical methylprednisolone cream, oral antihistamines and intralesional triamcinolone injection.

9.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 190-200, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919191

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Treatment decisions for locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (LA-HNSCC) are complicated, and multi-modal treatments are usually indicated. However, it is challenging for older patients to complete treatments. Thus, we investigated disease characteristics, real-world treatment, and outcomes in older LA-HNSCC patients. @*Methods@#Older patients (aged ≥ 70 years) were selected from a large nationwide cohort that included 445 patients with stage III–IVB LA-HNSCC from January 2005 to December 2015. Their data were retrospectively analyzed and compared with those of younger patients. @*Results@#Older patients accounted for 18.7% (83/445) of all patients with median age was 73 years (range, 70 to 89). Proportions of primary tumors in the hypopharynx and larynx were higher in older patients and older patients had a more advanced T stage and worse performance status. Regarding treatment strategies of older patients, 44.5% of patients received concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT), 41.0% underwent surgery, and 14.5% did not complete the planned treatment. Induction chemotherapy (IC) was administered to 27.7% (23/83) of older patients; the preferred regimen for IC was fluorouracil and cisplatin (47.9%). For CCRT, weekly cisplatin was prescribed 3.3 times more often than 3-weekly cisplatin (62.2% vs. 18.9%). Older patients had a 60% higher risk of death than younger patients (hazard ratio, 1.6; p = 0.035). Oral cavity cancer patients had the worst survival probability. @*Conclusions@#Older LA-HNSCC patients had aggressive tumor characteristics and received less intensive treatment, resulting in poor survival. Further research focusing on the older population is necessary.

10.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 109-117, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913830

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Certain patient subgroups who do not respond to induction chemotherapy (IC) show inherent chemoresistance in locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (LA-HNSCC). This study aimed to assess the prognostic value of IC, and role of IC in guiding the selection of a definitive locoregional therapy. @*Materials and Methods@#Out of the 445 patients in multi-institutional LA-HNSCC cohort, 158 (36%) receiving IC were enrolled. The study outcome was to assess overall survival (OS) through IC responsiveness and its role to select subsequent treatments. @*Results@#Among 135 patients who completed subsequent treatment following IC, 74% responded to IC (complete response in 17% and partial response in 58%). IC-non-responders showed 4.5 times higher risk of mortality than IC-responders (hazard ratio, 4.52; 95% confidence interval, 2.32 to 8.81; p < 0.001). Among IC-responders, 84% subsequently received definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) and OS was not differed by surgery or CCRT (p=0.960). Regarding IC-non-responders, 54% received CCRT and 46% underwent surgery, and OS was poor in CCRT (24-month survival rate of 38%) or surgery (24-month survival rate of 63%). @*Conclusion@#Response to IC is a favorable prognostic factor. For IC-responders, either surgery or CCRT achieved similar survival probabilities. For IC-non-responder, multidisciplinary approach was warranted reflecting patients’ preference, morbidity, and prognosis.

11.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 558-562, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899166

ABSTRACT

Background@#and PurposeTo determine the diagnostic value of straight head hanging (SHH) in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo involving the posterior semicircular canal (PC-BPPV). @*Methods@#We retrospectively included 62 patients (age=56.2±15.0 years, 47 female) with unilateral PC-BPPV who underwent both the Dix-Hallpike maneuver and SHH before receiving canalith repositioning therapy (CRT) between September 2017 and July 2020 at the Dizziness Center of Seoul National University Bundang Hospital in South Korea (16 patients, 25.8%) or the Neurology Outpatient Clinic of Aerospace Central Hospital in China (46 patients, 74.2%). SHH was performed before (n=29, group A) or after (n=33, group B) the Dix-Hallpike maneuver. @*Results@#Torsional upbeat nystagmus typical of PC-BPPV was induced during SHH in 52 (83.9%) patients, and the incidence of this type of positional nystagmus did not differ between the groups A and B (79.3% vs. 87.9%, p=0.569). The maximum slow-phase velocity of the induced upbeat nystagmus was higher during SHH than during the Dix-Hallpike maneuver toward the lesion side [range=2.0–60.0°/s (median=18.5°/s) vs. range=2.7–40.0°/s (median=13.4°/s), p<0.001]. Reversal of the positional nystagmus was observed upon resuming the sitting position after SHH in 47 (75.8%) patients and after the Dix-Hallpike maneuver in 54 (87.7%) patients, with no significant difference between the groups (p=0.082). @*Conclusions@#SHH is effective for diagnosing PC-BPPV. Given its simplicity, SHH may be performed before the Dix-Hallpike maneuver, and CRT may be attempted thereafter when the typical positional nystagmus for unilateral PC-BPPV is induced during SHH.

12.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e174-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899913

ABSTRACT

Background@#Drug-resistance surveillance (DRS) data provide key information for building an effective treatment regimen in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB).This study was conducted to investigate the patterns and trends of additional drug resistance in MDR-TB patients in South Korea. @*Methods@#Phenotypic drug susceptibility test (DST) results of MDR-TB patients collected from seven hospitals in South Korea from 2010 to 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. @*Results@#In total, 633 patients with MDR-TB were included in the analysis. Of all patients, 361 (57.0%) were new patients. All patients had additional resistance to a median of three antiTB drugs. The resistance rates of any fluoroquinolone (FQ), linezolid, and cycloserine were 26.2%, 0.0%, and 6.3%, respectively. The proportions of new patients and resistance rates of most anti-TB drugs did not decrease during the study period. The number of additional resistant drugs was significantly higher in FQ-resistant MDR-TB than in FQ-susceptible MDR-TB (median of 9.0 vs. 2.0). Among 26 patients with results of minimum inhibitory concentrations for bedaquiline (BDQ) and delamanid (DLM), one (3.8%) and three (11.5%) patients were considered resistant to BDQ and DLM with interim critical concentrations, respectively. Based on the DST results, 72.4% and 24.8% of patients were eligible for the World Health Organization's longer and shorter MDR-TB treatment regimen, respectively. @*Conclusion@#The proportions of new patients and rates of additional drug resistance in patients with MDR-TB were high and remain stable in South Korea. A nationwide analysis of DRS data is required to provide effective treatment for MDR-TB patients in South Korea.

13.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 85-91, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874467

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Small bowel malignancies often present a diagnostic challenge due to their relative rarity and nonspecific clinical symptoms. However, technical developments in endoscopic instruments, including video capsule endoscopy (VCE) and enteroscopy, have allowed for the visualization of the entire small bowel. This study aimed to investigate the clinicopathological features of small bowel malignant tumors diagnosed by VCE and double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) in a single tertiary center. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed VCE and DBE findings from Korea University Guro Hospital from January 2010 through September 2018. @*Results@#A total of 510 VCE and 126 DBE examinations were performed in 478 patients. Small bowel malignancies were diagnosed in 28 patients (15 males; mean age, 61.0 years; range, 42 to 81 years). Among them, 8 had lymphoma, 8 had primary adenocarcinoma, 7 had gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and 5 had metastatic cancer. Abdominal pain and obstructive symptoms were the most common findings in metastatic cancers (4/5, 80%). On the other hand, obscure gastrointestinal bleeding was the most common symptom of GIST (6/7, 85.7%) and adenocarcinoma (3/8, 37.5%). @*Conclusions@#Approximately 6% of the patients who underwent either VCE or DBE were diagnosed with small bowel malignancy. These findings demonstrated the different clinical characteristics among small bowel malignancies and merit further study.

14.
Journal of Nutrition and Health ; : 474-488, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915786

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Malnutrition in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is a significant factor affecting their adequate growth and development. This study aimed at conducting surveys and evaluating the dietary intake of children with CP according to their BMI classification and to thereby highlight the dietary factors affecting the nutritional status of these children. @*Methods@#A total of 16 children were enrolled between the age of four and twelve. These subjects were further classified into three groups, namely underweight, normal and obese, with 6, 8, and 2 children in each group, respectively. The general characteristics, motor disturbances, body composition, feeding problems, eating habits, nutritional intake, dietary variety, and food frequency for children with CP were evaluated. @*Results@#It was observed that motor disturbances tended to increase in underweight children with CP. A significant decrease (p < 0.05) in disturbances related to oral feeding was observed with an increase in obesity. The pattern of eating habits revealed that subjects in the underweight group consumed unbalanced meals, while those in the obese group tended to consume larger meals at a faster pace. The feeding disturbance data revealed that those in the underweight group could not prepare their meals while the obese group had the problem of overeating and consuming an unbalanced diet (p < 0.05). @*Conclusion@#It is necessary for both children with CP, who have a high degree of disability, and their caregivers to take lessons on adequate nutrient intake to prevent malnutrition.Moreover, it is necessary for the caregivers and children with CP having a low degree of disability to take lessons on providing and consuming a balanced diet and to focus on the intake of sufficient calcium in order to prevent obesity.

15.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e174-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892209

ABSTRACT

Background@#Drug-resistance surveillance (DRS) data provide key information for building an effective treatment regimen in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB).This study was conducted to investigate the patterns and trends of additional drug resistance in MDR-TB patients in South Korea. @*Methods@#Phenotypic drug susceptibility test (DST) results of MDR-TB patients collected from seven hospitals in South Korea from 2010 to 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. @*Results@#In total, 633 patients with MDR-TB were included in the analysis. Of all patients, 361 (57.0%) were new patients. All patients had additional resistance to a median of three antiTB drugs. The resistance rates of any fluoroquinolone (FQ), linezolid, and cycloserine were 26.2%, 0.0%, and 6.3%, respectively. The proportions of new patients and resistance rates of most anti-TB drugs did not decrease during the study period. The number of additional resistant drugs was significantly higher in FQ-resistant MDR-TB than in FQ-susceptible MDR-TB (median of 9.0 vs. 2.0). Among 26 patients with results of minimum inhibitory concentrations for bedaquiline (BDQ) and delamanid (DLM), one (3.8%) and three (11.5%) patients were considered resistant to BDQ and DLM with interim critical concentrations, respectively. Based on the DST results, 72.4% and 24.8% of patients were eligible for the World Health Organization's longer and shorter MDR-TB treatment regimen, respectively. @*Conclusion@#The proportions of new patients and rates of additional drug resistance in patients with MDR-TB were high and remain stable in South Korea. A nationwide analysis of DRS data is required to provide effective treatment for MDR-TB patients in South Korea.

16.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 558-562, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891462

ABSTRACT

Background@#and PurposeTo determine the diagnostic value of straight head hanging (SHH) in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo involving the posterior semicircular canal (PC-BPPV). @*Methods@#We retrospectively included 62 patients (age=56.2±15.0 years, 47 female) with unilateral PC-BPPV who underwent both the Dix-Hallpike maneuver and SHH before receiving canalith repositioning therapy (CRT) between September 2017 and July 2020 at the Dizziness Center of Seoul National University Bundang Hospital in South Korea (16 patients, 25.8%) or the Neurology Outpatient Clinic of Aerospace Central Hospital in China (46 patients, 74.2%). SHH was performed before (n=29, group A) or after (n=33, group B) the Dix-Hallpike maneuver. @*Results@#Torsional upbeat nystagmus typical of PC-BPPV was induced during SHH in 52 (83.9%) patients, and the incidence of this type of positional nystagmus did not differ between the groups A and B (79.3% vs. 87.9%, p=0.569). The maximum slow-phase velocity of the induced upbeat nystagmus was higher during SHH than during the Dix-Hallpike maneuver toward the lesion side [range=2.0–60.0°/s (median=18.5°/s) vs. range=2.7–40.0°/s (median=13.4°/s), p<0.001]. Reversal of the positional nystagmus was observed upon resuming the sitting position after SHH in 47 (75.8%) patients and after the Dix-Hallpike maneuver in 54 (87.7%) patients, with no significant difference between the groups (p=0.082). @*Conclusions@#SHH is effective for diagnosing PC-BPPV. Given its simplicity, SHH may be performed before the Dix-Hallpike maneuver, and CRT may be attempted thereafter when the typical positional nystagmus for unilateral PC-BPPV is induced during SHH.

17.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 599-604, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833670

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose: Nonketotic hyperglycemia often causes transient visual field defects, but only scattered anecdotes are available in the literature. @*Methods@#We report a patient with homonymous superior quadrantanopsia due to nonketotic hyperglycemia and provide a systematic literature review of the clinical features of 40 previously reported patients (41 in total, including our case) with homonymous visual field defects in association with nonketotic hyperglycemia. @*Results@#The typical visual field defect was congruous (84.6%), homonymous hemianopsia (87.8%) with macular splitting (61.5%) or sparing (38.5%). It was transient and repetitive in 54.5% of the patients, but it developed as a persistent form in the remainder. Positive visual symptoms such as hallucinations and phosphenes developed in 73.2% of patients. Brain MRI revealed corresponding abnormalities in most patients (84.8%), characterized by a low-intensity white-matter signal or a high-intensity gray-matter signal on T2-weighted or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images with diffusion restriction or gadolinium enhancement. Most (97.0%) patients recovered completely, with 48.5% treated by glycemic control alone and the remainder also receiving antiepileptic agents. @*Conclusions@#Nonketotic hyperglycemia should be considered a possible cause of transient visual field defects, especially when it is associated with repetitive positive visual symptoms and typical MRI findings in hyperglycemic patients.

18.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 674-680, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833661

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose: Orbital and cranial form of idiopathic inflammatory pseudotumors (IIPs) are rare disorders with heterogeneous clinical presentations. Corticosteroids have been the first-line treatment for IIPs, but they are not always effective. @*Methods@#We reviewed the medical records of three patients with orbital or cranial form of IIP who were treated with tacrolimus as an adjuvant treatment. @*Results@#The three patients showed favorable outcomes with the addition of tacrolimus, which is a calcineurin inhibitor that inhibits T-cell activation and T-cell-dependent B-cell activation. @*Conclusions@#Tacrolimus may be a safe and effective immunosuppressant for refractory or relapsing form of orbital or cranial IIPs.

19.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 277-284, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833601

ABSTRACT

Background@#and PurposeThis study was designed to determine the prevalence, pattern, lesion location, and etiology of dissociation in the results of the bithermal caloric test and the horizontal video head impulse test (vHIT) in dizzy patients with various etiologies and disease durations. @*Methods@#We analyzed the results of bithermal caloric tests and vHITs performed over 26 months in 893 consecutive patients who underwent both tests within a 10-day period. @*Results@#Dissociation in the results of the two tests was found in 162 (18.1%) patients. Among them, 123 (75.9%) had abnormal caloric tests (unilateral paresis in 118 and bilateral paresis in 5) but normal vHITs. Peripheral lesions were identified in 105 (85.4%) of these patients, with the main underlying diseases being Meniere's disease (62/105, 59%) and vestibular neuritis/labyrinthitis (29/105, 27.6%). In contrast, central pathologies of diverse etiologies were found only in 18 (14.6%) patients. Abnormal vHIT (bilaterally positive in 18, unilaterally positive in 19, and hyperactive in 2) and normal caloric responses were found in 39 patients, with an equal prevalence of central (n=19) and peripheral (n=20) lesions. The peripheral lesions included vestibular neuritis/labyrinthitis in seven patients and Meniere's disease in another seven. The central lesions had diverse etiologies. @*Conclusions@#Dissociation in the results between caloric tests and horizontal vHITs is not uncommon. The present patients with abnormal caloric tests and normal vHITs mostly had peripheral lesions, while central lesions were likely to underlie those with abnormal vHITs and normal caloric tests.

20.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e130-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831481

ABSTRACT

Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) are the most severe cutaneous drug hypersensitivity reactions, which are unpredictable adverse drug reactions. SJS/TEN is associated with significant mortality and morbidity; however, effective treatment is difficult. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are well-known for their anti-inflammatory and tissue regeneration properties. The purpose of the present study was to verify whether MSCs could be applied for the treatment of SJS/TEN. We developed an SJS/TEN mouse model using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a lamotrigine-induced SJS patient. MSCs were injected into the model to verify the treatment effect. In SJS model mice treated with MSCs, ocular damage rarely occurred, and apoptosis rate was significantly lower. We demonstrated a therapeutic effect of MSCs on SJS/TEN, with these cells presenting a potential novel therapy for the management of this disorder.

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