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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898636

ABSTRACT

Background@#Pyomyositis (PM) is a serious soft tissue infection and despite its clinical importance, previous studies have not been able to fully determine the clinical characteristics and microbial epidemiology of PM in Korea, which we therefore aimed to investigate. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively identified 140 adult patients diagnosed with PM from 13 general hospitals between January 2012 and December 2015. We analyzed the clinical and microbial characteristics of community-onset PM and compared them with communityacquired (CA) and healthcare-associated (HCA) PM. @*Results@#One hundred eleven organisms were isolated from 96 (68.6%) patients with PM.Staphylococcus aureus (38 patients) was the most common pathogen, followed by streptococci (24 patients), and enteric Gram-negative organisms (27 patients). Methicillin-resistant S.aureus (MRSA) was identified in four (2.9%) patients and in-hospital mortality reached 8.6% (12/140). Enterococci isolates were identified in the HCA PM subgroup only The proportion of MRSA isolates was not comparable between CA and HCA PM subgroups. In the 83 patients with PM infected by monomicrobial pathogens, isolates of Gram-negative organisms were more commonly found in HCA PM subgroup than in CA PM subgroup (47.6% [10/21] of patients with HCA PM vs. 20.7% [12/58] of patients with CA PM; P = 0.01). @*Conclusion@#Gram-positive cocci such as S. aureus and streptococci were dominant etiologies in community-onset PM, whereas MRSA appears to an uncommon causative organism of PM in Korea. Enteric Gram-negative organisms should also be considered as major etiologies, especially in HCA PM patient population in Korea.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890932

ABSTRACT

Background@#Pyomyositis (PM) is a serious soft tissue infection and despite its clinical importance, previous studies have not been able to fully determine the clinical characteristics and microbial epidemiology of PM in Korea, which we therefore aimed to investigate. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively identified 140 adult patients diagnosed with PM from 13 general hospitals between January 2012 and December 2015. We analyzed the clinical and microbial characteristics of community-onset PM and compared them with communityacquired (CA) and healthcare-associated (HCA) PM. @*Results@#One hundred eleven organisms were isolated from 96 (68.6%) patients with PM.Staphylococcus aureus (38 patients) was the most common pathogen, followed by streptococci (24 patients), and enteric Gram-negative organisms (27 patients). Methicillin-resistant S.aureus (MRSA) was identified in four (2.9%) patients and in-hospital mortality reached 8.6% (12/140). Enterococci isolates were identified in the HCA PM subgroup only The proportion of MRSA isolates was not comparable between CA and HCA PM subgroups. In the 83 patients with PM infected by monomicrobial pathogens, isolates of Gram-negative organisms were more commonly found in HCA PM subgroup than in CA PM subgroup (47.6% [10/21] of patients with HCA PM vs. 20.7% [12/58] of patients with CA PM; P = 0.01). @*Conclusion@#Gram-positive cocci such as S. aureus and streptococci were dominant etiologies in community-onset PM, whereas MRSA appears to an uncommon causative organism of PM in Korea. Enteric Gram-negative organisms should also be considered as major etiologies, especially in HCA PM patient population in Korea.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875544

ABSTRACT

Background@#The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) can manifest in a range of symptoms, including both asymptomatic systems which appear nearly non-existent to the patient, all the way to the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Specifically, COVID-19–associated pneumonia develops into ARDS due to the rapid progression of hypoxia, and although arterial blood gas analysis can assist in halting this deterioration, the current environment provided by the COVID-19 pandemic, which has led to an overall lack of medical resources or equipment, has made it difficult to administer such tests in a widespread manner. As a result, this study was conducted in order to determine whether the levels of oxygen saturation (SpO2) and the fraction of inhaled oxygen (FiO2) (SF ratio) can also serve as predictors of ARDS and the patient’s risk of mortality. @*Methods@#This was a retrospective cohort study conducted from February 2020 to Mary 2020, with the study’s subjects consisting of COVID-19 pneumonia patients who had reached a state of deterioration that required the use of oxygen therapy. Of the 100 COVID-19 pneumonia cases, we compared 59 pneumonia patients who required oxygen therapy, divided into ARDS and non-ARDS pneumonia patients who required oxygen, and then investigated the different factors which affected their mortality. @*Results@#At the time of admission, the ratios of SpO2, FiO2, and SF for the ARDS group differed significantly from those of the non-ARDS pneumonia support group who required oxygen (p<0.001). With respect to the predicting of the occurrence of ARDS, the SF ratio on admission and the SF ratio at exacerbation had an area under the curve which measured to be around 85.7% and 88.8% (p<0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified that the SF ratio at exacerbation (hazard ratio [HR], 0.916; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.846–0.991; p=0.029) and National Early Warning Score (NEWS) (HR, 1.277; 95% CI, 1.010–1.615; p=0.041) were significant predictors of mortality. @*Conclusion@#The SF ratio on admission and the SF ratio at exacerbation were strong predictors of the occurrence of ARDS, and the SF ratio at exacerbation and NEWS held a significant effect on mortality.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875507

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The efficacies of lopinavir-ritonavir or hydroxychloroquine remain to be determined in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To compare the virological and clinical responses to lopinavir-ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine treatment in COVID-19 patients. @*Methods@#This retrospective cohort study included patients with COVID-19 treated with lopinavir-ritonavir or hydroxychloroquine at a single center in Korea from February 17 to March 31, 2020. Patients treated with lopinavir-ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine concurrently and those treated with lopinavir-ritonavir or hydroxychloroquine for less than 7 days were excluded. Time to negative conversion of viral RNA, time to clinical improvement, and safety outcomes were assessed after 6 weeks of follow-up. @*Results@#Of 65 patients (mean age, 64.3 years; 25 men [38.5%]), 31 were treated with lopinavir-ritonavir and 34 were treated with hydroxychloroquine. The median duration of symptoms before treatment was 7 days and 26 patients (40%) required oxygen support at baseline. Patients treated with lopinavir-ritonavir had a significantly shorter time to negative conversion of viral RNA than those treated with hydroxychloroquine (median, 21 days vs. 28 days). Treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24 to 4.21) and younger age (aHR, 2.64; 95% CI 1.43 to 4.87) was associated with negative conversion of viral RNA. There was no significant difference in time to clinical improvement between lopinavir-ritonavir- and hydroxychloroquine-treated patients (median, 18 days vs. 21 days). Lymphopenia and hyperbilirubinemia were more frequent in lopinavir-ritonavir-treated patients compared with hydroxychloroquine-treated patients. @*Conclusions@#Lopinavir-ritonavir was associated with more rapid viral clearance than hydroxychloroquine in mild to moderate COVID-19, despite comparable clinical responses. These findings should be confirmed in randomized, controlled trials.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832330

ABSTRACT

Background@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic that had affected more than eight million people worldwide by June 2020. Given the importance of the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) for host immunity, we retrospectively evaluated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of moderate-to-severe COVID-19 in patients with diabetes. @*Methods@#We conducted a multi-center observational study of 1,082 adult inpatients (aged ≥18 years) who were admitted to one of five university hospitals in Daegu because of the severity of their COVID-19-related disease. The demographic, laboratory, and radiologic findings, and the mortality, prevalence of severe disease, and duration of quarantine were compared between patients with and without DM. In addition, 1:1 propensity score (PS)-matching was conducted with the DM group. @*Results@#Compared with the non-DM group (n=847), patients with DM (n=235) were older, exhibited higher mortality, and required more intensive care. Even after PS-matching, patients with DM exhibited more severe disease, and DM remained a prognostic factor for higher mortality (hazard ratio, 2.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.38 to 4.15). Subgroup analysis revealed that the presence of DM was associated with higher mortality, especially in older people (≥70 years old). Prior use of a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor or a renin-angiotensin system inhibitor did not affect mortality or the clinical severity of the disease. @*Conclusion@#DM is a significant risk factor for COVID-19 severity and mortality. Our findings imply that COVID-19 patients with DM, especially if elderly, require special attention and prompt intensive care.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914589

ABSTRACT

The measles outbreak in Daegu of January 2019 made 6 teaching hospitals' organization test the measles immunity of their healthcare workers (HCWs). We found that 6,935 (75.9%) of 9,132 HCWs tested seropositive for anti-measles immunoglobulin G (IgG), and seropositivity rate was very different between 6 hospitals (range, 59.9–93.1%). The seroprevelence was lowest in the age of twenties, but the rate was different between 6 hospitals (range 47.0–85.5%). Therefore, to prevent measles from spreading to HCWs, each hospital should make their own data periodically about anti-measles IgG seropositivity of their HCWs.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719576

ABSTRACT

Mixed-species malaria infections are often unrecognized or underestimated. We hereby report the first described case of mixed infection with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium ovale malaria in a returned traveller in Korea. In August 2016, a 25-year-old returned traveller from Cameroon and Democratic Republic of Congo presented with fever. He was diagnosed as P. falciparum malaria and successfully treated with artesunate. And 5 weeks after the completion of treatment, he presented with fever and diagnosed as P. ovale infection. P. ovale infection is a rare cause of malaria and often shows delayed presentation due to its dormant liver stage as hypnozoites. At re-presentation, the immunochromatographic test and microscopic examinations of our patient did not reveal P. ovale, which was only detected via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. This case highlights the importance of considering malaria infection even in persons who have previously received malaria treatment. It also shows the usefulness of PCR testing for diagnosing P. ovale infections, which often present with a low level of parasitaemia.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cameroon , Coinfection , Congo , Fever , Humans , Korea , Liver , Malaria , Plasmodium falciparum , Plasmodium ovale , Plasmodium , Polymerase Chain Reaction
8.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 550-553, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-77223

ABSTRACT

Zolpidem (Stilnox®, Handok, Seoul, Korea) is a hypnotic imidazopyridine that is often used to treat insomnia because it has less abuse and addiction potential than benzodiazepines. Its side effects include headache, dizziness, and nausea, but these are mild. Zolpidem intoxication rarely has severe complications. Here, we report a case of acute kidney injury due to rhabdomyolysis related to zolpidem. A 51-year-old man was admitted with drowsy mentality after taking an overdose of zolpidem in a suicide attempt. Laboratory findings showed a blood urea nitrogen of 59.9 mg/dL, serum creatinine of 5.8 mg/dL, and creatine phosphokinase of 16,210 IU/L. Acute kidney injury associated with rhabdomyolysis complicating zolpidem intoxication was diagnosed. The patient was managed with hemodialysis and recovered completely in terms of renal function and muscle enzyme levels.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Benzodiazepines , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Creatine Kinase , Creatinine , Dizziness , Headache , Humans , Middle Aged , Nausea , Renal Dialysis , Rhabdomyolysis , Seoul , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Suicide
9.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 239-245, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-28862

ABSTRACT

Corynebacterium species are non-fermentous Gram-positive bacilli that are normal flora of human skin and mucous membranes and are commonly isolated in clinical specimens. Non-diphtheriae Corynebacterium are regarded as contaminants when found in blood culture. Currently, Corynebacterium striatum is considered one of the emerging nosocomial agents implicated in endocarditis and serious infections. We report a case of native-valve infective endocarditis caused by C. striatum, which was misidentified by automated identification system but identified accurately by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, in a 55-year-old male patient. The patient had two mobile vegetations on his mitral valve, both of which had high embolic risk. Through surgical valve replacement and an antibiotic regimen, the patient recovered completely. In unusual clinical scenarios, C. striatum should not be simply dismissed as a contaminant when isolated from clinical specimens. The possibility of C. striatum infection should be considered even in an immunocompetent patient, and we suggest a genotypic assay, such as 16S rRNA sequencing, to confirm species identity.


Subject(s)
Corynebacterium , Endocarditis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mitral Valve , Mucous Membrane , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Skin , Surgical Instruments
10.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 110-114, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-190831

ABSTRACT

We report the case of a deep sternal wound infection with sternal osteomyelitis caused by Gordonia bronchialis after open-heart surgery. The isolate was identified as a G. bronchialis by 16S rRNA and hsp65 gene sequencing, having initially been misidentified as a Rhodococcus by a commercial phenotypic identification system.


Subject(s)
Osteomyelitis , Rhodococcus , Wound Infection
11.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 292-298, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-27776

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mucormycosis is an uncommon and life-threatening fungal infection. The clinical predictors of outcome were evaluated in patients with invasive mucormycosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed histologically proven cases of invasive mucormycosis in our institution from 1996 to 2012. RESULTS: A total of 64 patients were analyzed. The median age was 59 years (interquartile range [IQR], 50-67), and 32 patients (50%) were male. The most common underlying diseases were diabetes mellitus (67%), hematologic malignancy (22%), and solid cancer (19%). The most common infection sites were the rhino-orbito-cerebral area (56%) and the lungs (31%). The 180-day all-cause mortality was 33%. Disseminated infection was associated with increased mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 169.74, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.41 to 4492.64; P = 0.002). Pulmonary infection (HR: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.66; P = 0.02) and complete surgical removal of infected tissue (HR: 0.12, 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.64; P = 0.01) were associated with decreased mortality. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that patients with mucormycosis had a lower risk of mortality if they developed a pulmonary infection, rather than a disseminated infection and with complete debridement of infected tissue.


Subject(s)
Debridement , Diabetes Mellitus , Hematologic Neoplasms , Humans , Lung , Male , Mucormycosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
12.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 452-456, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-117704

ABSTRACT

Candida glabrata is a yeast that commensally colonizes the upper cervix and vagina and has low pathogenicity in immunocompetent hosts. Here we report a case of C. glabrata chorioamnionitis and septic abortion following in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). This case suggests that infection in the upper vagina and cervix should be considered prior to having IVF-ET. We encountered a rare case of C. glabrata chorioamnionitis and septic abortion; therefore, we report this case with a review of the literature.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Septic , Candida , Candida glabrata , Cervix Uteri , Chorioamnionitis , Colon , Embryo Transfer , Embryonic Structures , Female , Fertilization in Vitro , Pregnancy , Vagina , Yeasts
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-85977

ABSTRACT

Norwegian or crusted scabies is a rare, highly contagious atypical form of scabies caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei var. homonis. It is usually associated with advanced age, immunosuppression, physical debility, and developmental disabilities. We report here a case of Norwegian scabies in an institutionalized patient with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and Down syndrome. A 56-year-old male presented at our department with pruritic rash and general weakness of 2 months' duration. Examination showed hyperkeratotic, scaly, crusted erythematous plaques on the hands, trunk, and back of the patient. The microscopic examination of the skin scales with potassium hydroxide demonstrated numerous scabies mites. The patient was treated with hemodialysis and repeated applications of 1% lindane lotion for 2 weeks. He reported significant relief of pruritus and resolution of the skin lesions after the treatment. In addition to uremic pruritus, infectious skin diseases such as Norwegian scabies should be considered in the institutionalized patients with advanced CKD and resistant pruritus.


Subject(s)
Developmental Disabilities , Down Syndrome , Exanthema , Hand , Humans , Hydroxides , Immunosuppression Therapy , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Hexachlorocyclohexane , Male , Middle Aged , Mites , Potassium , Potassium Compounds , Pruritus , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Sarcoptes scabiei , Scabies , Skin , Skin Diseases, Infectious , Weights and Measures
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-168917

ABSTRACT

Acute renal infarction usually occurs in patients with trauma, atrial fibrillation, atherosclerosis, vasculitis, and valvular heart disease. However, it may occur, though rarely, in patients with hypercoagulable states such as protein C and protein S deficiency. We report here a case of acute bilateral renal infarction associated with type II protein S deficiency without a demonstrable underlying cause. A 48-year-old male was presented to the emergency room with an abrupt, persistent pain at the left flank area. Three-dimensional abdominal computed tomography revealed wedge-shaped, well demarcated, low density lesions in both the kidneys, which were consistent with occlusions of segmental branches of both the renal arteries. Protein S activity by clot-based assay was 43% (73.7-146.3%). The patient was treated with intravenous heparin and later warfarin. He has remained symptom-free on warfarin therapy with preserved renal function during the follow-up of 5 weeks.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , Atrial Fibrillation , Emergencies , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Valve Diseases , Heparin , Humans , Infarction , Kidney , Male , Middle Aged , Protein C , Protein S , Protein S Deficiency , Renal Artery , Vasculitis , Warfarin
15.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 103-106, 2010.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-164533

ABSTRACT

In April 2009, the first swine origin pandemic influenza (H1N1 2009) infection was reported in Mexico and United states and has since spread rapidly worldwide. Finally on June 11, 2009, WHO officially declared the first pandemic of the 21st century. Until March 2010, more than 213 countries reported laboratory confirmed cases of pandemic influenza H1N1 2009, including at least 16,931 deaths. The drug of choice for treatment and prophylaxis of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza are the neuraminidase inhibitor (oseltamivir and Zanamivir). However, increased use of these drugs lead to the emergence of oseltamivir-resistant strains. We report a case of oseltamivir-resistant pandemic influenza (H1N1 2009) virus infection in a patient who were initially started with oseltamivir for laboratory-confirmed influenza. Patient's symptoms worsened despite the use of high-dose oral oseltamivir, and antiviral susceptibility test showed oseltamivir resistance (H275Y mutation). The patient resolved after treatment with zanamivir.


Subject(s)
Humans , Influenza, Human , Mexico , Neuraminidase , Oseltamivir , Pandemics , Swine , United States , Viruses , Zanamivir
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