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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874190

ABSTRACT

Background@#Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is increasingly used for immunosuppressive drug tests. However, most LC-MS/MS tests are laboratory-developed and their agreement is unknown in different Korean laboratories.This interlaboratory comparison study evaluated test reproducibility and identified potential error sources. @*Methods@#Test samples containing three concentrations of tacrolimus, sirolimus, everolimus, cyclosporine, and mycophenolic acid were prepared by pooling surplus samples from patients undergoing routine therapeutic drug monitoring and tested in duplicate in the participating 10 clinical laboratories. Reconstitution and storage experiments were conducted for the commonly used commercial calibrator set. The robust estimators of reproducibility parameters were calculated. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (rho, ρ) was used to evaluate the correlation between drugs. Multiple linear regression was used to determine whether the experimental conditions alter the calibration curves. @*Results@#The reproducibility coefficient of variation exceeded 10% only for sirolimus concentrations 1 and 2 (10.8% and 12.5%, respectively) and everolimus concentrations 1 and 2 (12.3% and 11.4%, respectively). The percent difference values showed weak correlations between sirolimus and everolimus (ρ = 0.334, P = 0.175). The everolimus calibration curve slope was significantly altered after reconstitution following prolonged 5°C storage (P = 0.015 for 14 days; P = 0.025 for 28 days); the expected differences at 6 ng/mL were 0.598% for 14 days and 0.384% for 28 days. @*Conclusions@#LC-MS/MS test reproducibility for immunosuppressive drugs seems to be good in the Korean clinical laboratories. Continuous efforts are required to achieve test standardization and harmonization, especially for sirolimus and everolimus.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874174

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second-most-common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, and an accurate and non-invasive biomarker for the early detection and monitoring of HCC is required. We assessed pathogenic variants of HCC driver genes in cell-free DNA (cfDNA) from HCC patients who had not undergone systemic therapy. @*Methods@#Plasma cfDNA was collected from 20 HCC patients, and deep sequencing was performed using a customized cfDNA next-generation sequencing panel, targeting the major HCC driver genes (TP53, CTNNB1, TERT) that incorporates molecular barcoding. @*Results@#In 13/20 (65%) patients, we identified at least one pathogenic variant of two major HCC driver genes (TP53 and CTNNB1), including 16 variants of TP53 and nine variants of CTNNB1. The TP53 and CTNNB1 variants showed low allele frequencies, with median values of 0.17% (range: 0.06%–6.99%) and 0.07% (range: 0.05%–0.96%), respectively. However, the molecular coverage of variants was sufficient, with median values of 5,543 (range: 2,317–9,088) and 7,568 (range: 2,400–9,633) for TP53 and CTNNB1 variants, respectively. @*Conclusions@#Our targeted DNA sequencing successfully identified low-frequency pathogenic variants in the cfDNA from HCC patients by achieving high coverage of unique molecular families. Our results support the utility of cfDNA analysis to identify somatic gene variants in HCC patients.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762472

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC) is caused by pathogenic variants in BRCA and other cancer-related genes. We analyzed variants in BRCA gene and other cancer-related genes in HBOC patients to evaluate the clinical validity of next-generation sequencing (NGS) multi-gene panel testing. METHODS: The BRCA1/2 NGS testing was conducted for 262 HBOC patients. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and direct Sanger sequencing were performed for confirmation. Multi-gene panel testing was conducted for 120 patients who did not possess BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants but met the National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria. RESULTS: Pathogenic variants in BRCA1/2 were detected in 30 HBOC patients (11.5%). Additionally, four out of the 120 patients possessed pathogenic variants by multi-gene panel testing (3.3%): MSH2 (c.256G>T, p.Glu86*), PMS2 (c.1687C>T, p.Arg563*), CHEK2 (c.546C>A, p.Tyr182*), and PALB2 (c.3351-1G>C). All the four patients had a family history of cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Multi-gene panel testing could be a significant screening tool for HBOC patients, especially for those with a family history of cancer.


Subject(s)
Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome , Humans , Mass Screening , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739122

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To validate the clinical application of chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) as a first-tier clinical diagnostic test and to determine the impact of CMA results on patient clinical management, we conducted a multicenter prospective study in Korean patients diagnosed as having developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). METHODS: We performed both CMA and G-banding cytogenetics as the first-tier tests in 617 patients. To determine whether the CMA results directly influenced treatment recommendations, the referring clinicians were asked to complete a 39-item questionnaire for each patient separately after receiving the CMA results. RESULTS: A total of 122 patients (19.8%) had abnormal CMA results, with either pathogenic variants (N=65) or variants of possible significance (VPS, N=57). Thirty-five well-known diseases were detected: 16p11.2 microdeletion syndrome was the most common, followed by Prader-Willi syndrome, 15q11-q13 duplication, Down syndrome, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Variants of unknown significance (VUS) were discovered in 51 patients (8.3%). VUS of genes putatively associated with developmental disorders were found in five patients: IMMP2L deletion, PTCH1 duplication, and ATRNL1 deletion. CMA results influenced clinical management, such as imaging studies, specialist referral, and laboratory testing in 71.4% of patients overall, and in 86.0%, 83.3%, 75.0%, and 67.3% of patients with VPS, pathogenic variants, VUS, and benign variants, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical application of CMA as a first-tier test improves diagnostic yields and the quality of clinical management in patients with DD/ID, ASD, and MCA.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autistic Disorder , Cytogenetics , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Down Syndrome , Humans , Intellectual Disability , Korea , Microarray Analysis , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne , Prader-Willi Syndrome , Prospective Studies , Referral and Consultation , Specialization
5.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 161-165, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760500

ABSTRACT

The Clinical Mass Spectrometry Research Committee (CMSRC), in affiliation with the Korean Society of Clinical Chemistry (KSCC), conducted a questionnaire survey on opinions about the general status of clinical mass spectrometric analysis in Korea. As a result, we understand that this field has passed through the introductory stage and is settled as a field of clinical laboratory testing in Korea, with the number of new laboratories performing mass spectrometric analysis being low. In spite of the many difficulties in introducing and operating clinical mass spectrometric analysis, there is a strong interest in this field, and even though further expansion is expected, there are still many issues to be resolved. In the future, it will be necessary to make concrete and thorough efforts to further develop the laboratory tests using clinical mass spectrometric analysis in Korea, centering on the CMSRC affiliated with the KSCC.


Subject(s)
Chemistry, Clinical , Korea , Mass Spectrometry
6.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 119-124, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715907

ABSTRACT

Pathogenic variants of bone morphogenic protein receptor type 2 gene (BMPR2) are related to the majority of cases of heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Over 400 pathogenic variants have been identified. However, clinical characterization of PAH is still incomplete. We present a case of heritable PAH in a Korean family showing serious clinical presentation with high penetrance. Genetic sequencing revealed a known heterozygous BMPR2 pathogenic variant, c.418+5G>A, at a splice site of intron 3. Serious clinical presentation with high penetrance suggested that the interplay of other factors with pathologic variants might be in genotype-phenotype correlation. Further studies are needed to clarify these issues for the development of personalized medicine approaches for PAH.


Subject(s)
Familial Primary Pulmonary Hypertension , Genetic Association Studies , Humans , Hypertension , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Introns , Penetrance , Precision Medicine , Pulmonary Artery
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719029

ABSTRACT

Most cases of congenital hyperthyroidism are autoimmune forms caused by maternal thyroid stimulating antibodies. Nonautoimmune forms of congenital hyperthyroidism caused by activating mutations of the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) gene are rare. A woman gave birth to a boy during an emergency cesarean section at 33 weeks of gestation due to fetal tachycardia. On the 24th day of life, thyroid function tests were performed due to persistent tachycardia, and hyperthyroidism was confirmed. Auto-antibodies to TSHR, thyroid peroxidase, and thyroglobulin were not found. The patient was treated with propylthiouracil and propranolol, but hyperthyroidism was not well controlled. At 3 months of age, the patient had craniosynostosis and hydrocephalus, and underwent a ventriculoperitoneal shunt operation. Direct sequencing of the TSHR gene showed a heterozygous mutation of c.1899C>A (p.Asp633Glu) in exon 10. No mutations were discovered in any of the parents in a familial genetic study. We have reported a case of sporadic nonautoimmune congenital hyperthyroidism, by a missense mutation of the TSHR gene, for the first time in South Korea.


Subject(s)
Cesarean Section , Craniosynostoses , Emergencies , Exons , Female , Germ-Line Mutation , Humans , Hydrocephalus , Hyperthyroidism , Immunoglobulins, Thyroid-Stimulating , Iodide Peroxidase , Korea , Male , Mutation, Missense , Parents , Parturition , Pregnancy , Propranolol , Propylthiouracil , Receptors, Thyrotropin , Tachycardia , Thyroglobulin , Thyroid Function Tests , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-183631

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the clinical characteristics and prognosis of Fuchs dystrophy patients according to COL8A2 gene mutation status. METHODS: Eighty-one patients (162 eyes) initially diagnosed with Fuchs dystrophy from 1996 to 2015 were divided into two groups according to COL8A2 gene mutation status. Retrospective analysis was performed comparing gender, age at diagnosis, presence of family history, diabetes mellitus, symptoms of blurred vision in the morning, changes in central corneal thickness and endothelial cell density with time, need for corneal transplantation, and pre-operative corneal status in the two groups. RESULTS: Of the 81 patients, 12 were shown to harbor a COL8A2 gene mutation. Individuals with mutation were significantly associated with presence of family history, diabetes mellitus, and blurred vision in the morning (p = 0.021, p = 0.024, p = 0.044, respectively). They also had significantly thicker central cornea and lower endothelial cell density at the time of diagnosis (p = 0.020, p = 0.005, respectively). The differences in central corneal thickness and endothelial cell density between the two eyes in one patient were significantly smaller in patients with gene mutation (p = 0.043, p = 0.022, respectively). Over a 5-year follow-up period, 60.0% of eyes in patients with gene mutation and 19.2% of eyes in patients without gene mutation underwent corneal transplantation, a significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: By testing for COL8A2 gene mutation, early binocular disease progression and the possible need for corneal transplantation in the future can be predicted among patients diagnosed with Fuchs dystrophy.


Subject(s)
Cornea , Corneal Transplantation , Diabetes Mellitus , Diagnosis , Disease Progression , Endothelial Cells , Follow-Up Studies , Fuchs' Endothelial Dystrophy , Humans , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Telescopes
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-169860

ABSTRACT

Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is a rare disorder caused by genetic and epigenetic aberrations in the GNAS complex locus resulting in impaired expression of stimulatory G protein (Gsα). PHP type Ib (PHP-Ib) is characterized by hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia due to renal resistance to the parathyroid hormone, and is distinguished from PHP-Ia by the absence of osteodystrophic features. An 11-yr-old boy presented with poor oral intake and cramping lower limb pain after physical activity. Laboratory studies revealed hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and increased parathyroid hormone levels. The GNAS complex locus was evaluated using the methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) assay. Gain of methylation in the NESP55 domain and loss of methylation in the antisense (AS) transcript, XL, and A/B domains in the maternal allele were observed. Consequently, we present a case of PHP-Ib diagnosed using MS-MLPA.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Epigenomics , GTP-Binding Proteins , Humans , Hyperphosphatemia , Hypocalcemia , Lower Extremity , Male , Methylation , Motor Activity , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Muscle Cramp , Parathyroid Hormone , Pseudohypoparathyroidism
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-139841

ABSTRACT

Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS) is a rare disease with autosomal dominant inheritance that manifests through skin tumors, pulmonary cystic lesions, and renal tumors. A mutation of FLCN located on chromosome 17p11.2, which encodes a tumor-suppressor protein (folliculin), is responsible for the development of BHDS. We report the case of a patient presenting with spontaneous pneumothorax, in whom a familial genetic study revealed a novel nonsense mutation: p.(Arg379*) in FLCN.


Subject(s)
Birt-Hogg-Dube Syndrome , Codon, Nonsense , Estrone , Humans , Pneumothorax , Rare Diseases , Skin , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted , Thoracoscopy , Wills
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-139840

ABSTRACT

Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS) is a rare disease with autosomal dominant inheritance that manifests through skin tumors, pulmonary cystic lesions, and renal tumors. A mutation of FLCN located on chromosome 17p11.2, which encodes a tumor-suppressor protein (folliculin), is responsible for the development of BHDS. We report the case of a patient presenting with spontaneous pneumothorax, in whom a familial genetic study revealed a novel nonsense mutation: p.(Arg379*) in FLCN.


Subject(s)
Birt-Hogg-Dube Syndrome , Codon, Nonsense , Estrone , Humans , Pneumothorax , Rare Diseases , Skin , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted , Thoracoscopy , Wills
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100537

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We evaluated a sensitive and quantitative method utilizing fragment analysis of the fms-like tyrosine kinase 3-internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD), simultaneously measuring mutant allele burden and length, and verified the analytical performance. METHODS: The number and allelic burden of FLT3-ITD mutations was determined by fragment analysis. Serial mixtures of mutant and wild-type plasmid DNA were used to calculate the limit of detection of fragment analysis, conventional PCR, and Sanger sequencing. Specificity was evaluated using DNA samples derived from 50 normal donors. Results of fragment analysis were compared to those of conventional PCR, using 481 AML specimens. RESULTS: Defined mixtures were consistently and accurately identified by fragment analysis at a 5% relative concentration of mutant to wild-type, and at 10% and 20% ratios by conventional PCR and direct sequencing, respectively. No false positivity was identified. Among 481 AML specimens, 40.1% (193/481) had FLT3-ITD mutations. The mutant allele burden (1.7-94.1%; median, 28.2%) and repeated length of the mutation (14-153 bp; median, 49 bp) were variable. The concordance rate between fragment analysis and conventional PCR was 97.7% (470/481). Fragment analysis was more sensitive than conventional PCR and detected 11 additional cases: seven had mutations below 10%, three cases represented conventional PCR failure, and one case showed false negativity because of short ITD length (14 bp). CONCLUSIONS: The new fragment analysis method proved to be sensitive and reliable for the detection and monitoring of FLT3-ITD in patients with AML. This could be used to simultaneously assess ITD mutant allele burden and length.


Subject(s)
Alleles , DNA , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Limit of Detection , Methods , Plasmids , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tissue Donors , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129953

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Humans , Kansas
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129939

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Humans , Kansas
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-8653

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We describe the genetic profiles of Korean patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiencies and the effects of G6PD mutations on protein stability and enzyme activity on the basis of in silico analysis. METHODS: In parallel with a genetic analysis, the pathogenicity of G6PD mutations detected in Korean patients was predicted in silico. The simulated effects of G6PD mutations were compared to the WHO classes based on G6PD enzyme activity. Four previously reported mutations and three newly diagnosed patients with missense mutations were estimated. RESULTS: One novel mutation (p.Cys385Gly, labeled G6PD Kangnam) and two known mutations [p.Ile220Met (G6PD São Paulo) and p.Glu416Lys (G6PD Tokyo)] were identified in this study. G6PD mutations identified in Koreans were also found in Brazil (G6PD São Paulo), Poland (G6PD Seoul), United States of America (G6PD Riley), Mexico (G6PD Guadalajara), and Japan (G6PD Tokyo). Several mutations occurred at the same nucleotide, but resulted in different amino acid residue changes in different ethnic populations (p.Ile380 variant, G6PD Calvo Mackenna; p.Cys385 variants, Tomah, Madrid, Lynwood; p.Arg387 variant, Beverly Hills; p.Pro396 variant, Bari; and p.Pro396Ala in India). On the basis of the in silico analysis, Class I or II mutations were predicted to be highly deleterious, and the effects of one Class IV mutation were equivocal. CONCLUSIONS: The genetic profiles of Korean individuals with G6PD mutations indicated that the same mutations may have arisen by independent mutational events, and were not derived from shared ancestral mutations. The in silico analysis provided insight into the role of G6PD mutations in enzyme function and stability.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group/genetics , Child , Child, Preschool , DNA/chemical synthesis , Exons , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase/chemistry , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency/genetics , Humans , Male , Mutation, Missense , Polymorphism, Genetic , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Republic of Korea , Sequence Analysis, DNA
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-167184

ABSTRACT

Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by the proliferation of one or more myeloid lineages. The current study demonstrates that three driver mutations were detected in 82.6% of 407 MPNs with a mutation distribution of JAK2 in 275 (67.6%), CALR in 55 (13.5%) and MPL in 6 (1.5%). The mutations were mutually exclusive in principle except in one patient with both CALR and MPL mutations. The driver mutation directed the pathologic features of MPNs, including lineage hyperplasia, laboratory findings and clinical presentation. JAK2-mutated MPN showed erythroid, granulocytic and/or megakaryocytic hyperplasia whereas CALR- and MPL-mutated MPNs displayed granulocytic and/or megakaryocytic hyperplasia. The lineage hyperplasia was closely associated with a higher mutant allele burden and peripheral cytosis. These findings corroborated that the lineage hyperplasia consisted of clonal proliferation of each hematopoietic lineage acquiring driver mutations. Our study has also demonstrated that bone marrow (BM) fibrosis was associated with disease progression. Patients with overt fibrosis (grade ⩾2) presented an increased mutant allele burden (P<0.001), an increase in chromosomal abnormalities (P<0.001) and a poor prognosis (P<0.001). Moreover, among patients with overt fibrosis, all patients with wild-type JAK2/CALR/MPL (triple-negative) showed genomic alterations by genome-wide microarray study and revealed the poorest overall survival, followed by JAK2-mutated MPNs. The genetic–pathologic characteristics provided the information for understanding disease pathogenesis and the progression of MPNs. The prognostic significance of the driver mutation and BM fibrosis suggests the necessity of a prospective therapeutic strategy to improve the clinical outcome.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Bone Marrow , Chromosome Aberrations , Disease Progression , Fibrosis , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Humans , Hyperplasia , Prognosis , Prospective Studies
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56706

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Currently, the hypertension (HTN) patients undergo appropriate medical treatment, and traditional risk factors are highly controlled. Therefore, potential risk factors of atherosclerotic vascular diseases (AVD) and venous thromboembolisms (VTE) in HTN should be reconsidered. We investigated thrombophilic genetic mutations and existing biomarkers for AVD or VTE in HTN patients receiving treatment. METHODS: A total of 183 patients were enrolled: AVD with HTN (group A, n=45), VTE with HTN (group B, n=62), and HTN patients without any vascular diseases (group C, n=76). The lipid profile, homocysteine (Hcy) levels, D-dimers, fibrinogen, antithrombin, lupus anticoagulant, and anti-cardiolipin antibody (aCL) were evaluated. Prothrombin G20210A, Factor V G1691A, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C were analyzed. RESULTS: All patients revealed wild type prothrombin G20210A and Factor V G1691A polymorphisms. The frequency of MTHFR polymorphisms was 677CT (n=84, 45.9%); 677TT (n=46, 25.1%); 1298AC (n=46, 25.1%); and 1298CC (n=2, 1.1%). The MTHFR 677TT genotype tended to increase the odds ratio (OR) to AVD events in HTN patients (OR 2.648, confidence interval 0.982-7.143, P=0.05). The group A demonstrated significantly higher Hcy levels (P=0.009), fibrinogen (P=0.004), and platelet counts (P=0.04) than group C. Group B had significantly higher levels of D-dimers (P=0.0001), platelet count (P=0.0002), and aCL (P=0.02) frequency than group C. CONCLUSIONS: The MTHFR 677TT genotype and Hcy level could be potential risk factors associated with development of AVD in HTN patients receiving treatment. D-dimer and aCL might be useful to estimate the occurrence of VTE in them.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , DNA/analysis , Factor V/genetics , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Genotype , Homocysteine/blood , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Lipids/blood , Male , Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2)/genetics , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Platelet Count , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Prothrombin/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Republic of Korea , Risk Factors , Vascular Diseases/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
19.
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220927

ABSTRACT

Tacrolimus is an immunosuppressive agent used to prevent post-transplantation rejection. Tacrolimus has a narrow therapeutic window and therefore, its whole blood concentration is measured for therapeutic drug monitoring. In this report, we present two cases of falsely elevated tacrolimus concentrations identified in recipients of solid organ transplants due to analytical interferences in the antibody-conjugated magnetic immunoassay (ACMIA) method used. Tacrolimus concentrations measured using ACMIA were 4- to 8-fold higher than the values obtained using liquid-chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) or chemiluminescent micro-particle immunoassay. The cause of this interference remains unknown, but the identification of a possible false elevation of tacrolimus is of paramount importance in clinical practice. Pre-treatment of samples by ethanol extraction or using alternative methods of tacrolimus measurement such as LC-MS/MS are necessary to obtain reliable results in the event of an analytical interference.


Subject(s)
Drug Monitoring , Ethanol , Immunoassay , Mass Spectrometry , Tacrolimus , Transplants
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