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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919478

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although respiratory tract infection is one of the most important factors triggering acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD), limited data are available to suggest an epidemiologic pattern of microbiology in South Korea. @*Methods@#A multicenter observational study was conducted between January 2015 and December 2018 across 28 hospitals in South Korea. Adult patients with moderate-to-severe acute exacerbations of COPD were eligible to participate in the present study. The participants underwent all conventional tests to identify etiology of microbial pathogenesis. The primary outcome was the percentage of different microbiological pathogens causing AE-COPD. A comparative microbiological analysis of the patients with overlapping asthma–COPD (ACO) and pure COPD was performed. @*Results@#We included 1,186 patients with AE-COPD. Patients with pure COPD constituted 87.9% and those with ACO accounted for 12.1%. Nearly half of the patients used an inhaled corticosteroid-containing regimen and one-fifth used systemic corticosteroids. Respiratory pathogens were found in 55.3% of all such patients. Bacteria and viruses were detected in 33% and 33.2%, respectively. Bacterial and viral coinfections were found in 10.9%. The most frequently detected bacteria were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.8%), and the most frequently detected virus was influenza A (10.4%). Multiple bacterial infections were more likely to appear in ACO than in pure COPD (8.3% vs. 3.6%, p=0.016). @*Conclusion@#Distinct microbiological patterns were identified in patients with moderate-to-severe AE-COPD in South Korea. These findings may improve evidence-based management of patients with AE-COPD and represent the basis for further studies investigating infectious pathogens in patients with COPD.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904172

ABSTRACT

Cough is the most common respiratory symptom that can have various causes. It is a major clinical problem that can reduce a patient’s quality of life. Thus, clinical guidelines for the treatment of cough were established in 2014 by the cough guideline committee under the Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases. From October 2018 to July 2020, cough guidelines were revised by members of the committee based on the first guidelines. The purpose of these guidelines is to help clinicians efficiently diagnose and treat patients with cough. This article highlights the recommendations and summary of the revised Korean cough guidelines. It includes a revised algorithm for the evaluation of acute, subacute, and chronic cough. For a chronic cough, upper airway cough syndrome (UACS), cough variant asthma (CVA), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) should be considered in differential diagnoses. If UACS is suspected, first-generation antihistamines and nasal decongestants can be used empirically. In cases with CVA, inhaled corticosteroids are recommended to improve cough. In patients with suspected chronic cough due to symptomatic GERD, proton pump inhibitors are recommended. Chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis, lung cancer, aspiration, intake of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, intake of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, habitual cough, psychogenic cough, interstitial lung disease, environmental and occupational factors, tuberculosis, obstructive sleep apnea, peritoneal dialysis, and unexplained cough can also be considered as causes of a chronic cough. Chronic cough due to laryngeal dysfunction syndrome has been newly added to the guidelines.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896468

ABSTRACT

Cough is the most common respiratory symptom that can have various causes. It is a major clinical problem that can reduce a patient’s quality of life. Thus, clinical guidelines for the treatment of cough were established in 2014 by the cough guideline committee under the Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases. From October 2018 to July 2020, cough guidelines were revised by members of the committee based on the first guidelines. The purpose of these guidelines is to help clinicians efficiently diagnose and treat patients with cough. This article highlights the recommendations and summary of the revised Korean cough guidelines. It includes a revised algorithm for the evaluation of acute, subacute, and chronic cough. For a chronic cough, upper airway cough syndrome (UACS), cough variant asthma (CVA), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) should be considered in differential diagnoses. If UACS is suspected, first-generation antihistamines and nasal decongestants can be used empirically. In cases with CVA, inhaled corticosteroids are recommended to improve cough. In patients with suspected chronic cough due to symptomatic GERD, proton pump inhibitors are recommended. Chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis, lung cancer, aspiration, intake of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, intake of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, habitual cough, psychogenic cough, interstitial lung disease, environmental and occupational factors, tuberculosis, obstructive sleep apnea, peritoneal dialysis, and unexplained cough can also be considered as causes of a chronic cough. Chronic cough due to laryngeal dysfunction syndrome has been newly added to the guidelines.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875452

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study evaluated the validity and reliability of the Korean version of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS-K) for use in clinical practice and research on Korean smokers. @*Methods@#The Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale was translated into Korean and then back-translated into English. The authors reviewed the translation and back-translation and approved the final questionnaire draft. The validity and reliability of the WSWS-K were evaluated based on data collected from 300 participants. Construct validity was evaluated with a confirmatory factor analysis.Criterion-related validity was assessed by examining the relationships between the subscales of the WSWS-K and the matched items of the Korean version of the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS-K). @*Results@#The participants were predominantly male (93.6%) and the mean age was 59.23 ± 15.19 years. The confirmatory factor analysis revealed that fit indices (namely, the goodness-of-fit index, adjusted goodness-of-fit index, comparative f it index, and the normed f it index) exceeded or approached 0.9. Cronbach’s alpha for the entire scale was 0.87. The total score of the WSWS-K had a statistically significant positive correlation with that of the MNWS-K (Pearson’s correlation coefficient, 0.768; p < 0.01). Additionally, we performed linear regression between the WSWS-K and MNWS-K scores after adjusting for age, gender, comorbidity, and smoking history. After this adjustment, the p value of the WSWS-K was < 0.001. @*Conclusions@#The WSWS-K had satisfactory validity and reliability. The WSWS-K can be used with acceptable validity and reliability in research and clinical evaluation of Korean smokers.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715659

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Several studies have identified a role for nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the relationship between the plasma Nrf2 level and the extent of systemic inflammation associated with COPD status remains unclear. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with COPD were recruited from St. Paul’s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, between July 2009 and May 2012. Patients were classified into two groups according to the severity of their symptoms on initial presentation, a COPD-stable group (n = 25) and a COPD-exacerbation group (n = 30). Seventeen patients were enrolled as a control group (n = 17). The plasma levels of Nrf2 and other systemic inf lammatory biomarkers, including interleukin 6 (IL-6), surfactant protein D (SP-D), and C-reactive protein (CRP), were measured. We collected clinical data including pulmonary function test results, and analyzed the relationships between the biomarker levels and the clinical parameters. RESULTS: Plasma Nrf2 and CRP levels significantly increased in a stepwise manner with an increase in inflammatory status (control vs. COPD-stable vs. COPD-exacerbation) (p = 0.002, p < 0.001). Other biomarkers of systemic inflammation (IL-6, SP-D) exhibited similar tendencies, but significant differences were not apparent. Furthermore, we observed negative correlations between the plasma level of Nrf2 and both the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (r = –0.339, p = 0.015) and the forced expiratory ratio (FEV1/forced vital capacity [FVC]) (r = –0.342, p = 0.014). However, CRP level was not correlated with any measured parameter. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma Nrf2 levels gradually increased in line with disease severity and the extent of systemic inflammation in patients with COPD.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-6 , Korea , Lung Diseases , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Plasma , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein D , Respiratory Function Tests , Vital Capacity
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717911

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Roflumilast is the only approved oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor for the treatment of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in patients with chronic bronchitis and a history of frequent exacerbations. The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence of adverse effects associated with roflumilast treatment in a real-world setting. Further, we compared the incidence of adverse effects and the discontinuation rate among patients receiving different doses. METHODS: We identified all outpatients diagnosed with COPD at Seoul St. Mary's Hospital between May 2011 and September 2016 and retrospectively reviewed their medical records. Roflumilast was prescribed to patients in doses of 500 µg and 250 µg. RESULTS: A total of 269 COPD patients were prescribed roflumilast in our hospital during the study period. Among them, 178 patients were treated with 500 µg and 91 patients were treated with 250 µg. The incidence of adverse effects was 38.2% in the 500 µg group and 25.3% in the 250 µg group (p=0.034). The discontinuation rate of roflumilast was 41.6% (n=74) in the 500 µg group and 23.1% (n=21) in the 250 µg group (p=0.003). When adjusted by age, sex, smoking status, and lung function, 500 µg dose was significantly associated with the discontinuation of roflumilast (odds ratio, 2.87; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: There was a lower incidence of adverse effects and discontinuation among patients treated with 250 µg compared with 500 µg dose. Further studies regarding the optimal dose of roflumilast are required.


Subject(s)
Bronchitis, Chronic , Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 4 , Humans , Incidence , Lung , Medical Records , Outpatients , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Retrospective Studies , Seoul , Smoke , Smoking
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-81398

ABSTRACT

Non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease is a relatively rare cause of neutropenic fever in patients with hematologic malignancies. During the neutropenic period, performing invasive procedures for microbiological or pathological confirmation is difficult. In addition, the optimal treatment duration for NTM disease in patients with leukemia, especially prior to stem cell transplantation (SCT), has not been documented. Therefore, we report a case of pneumonia with necrotizing lymphadenitis caused by Mycobacterium kansasii diagnosed during chemotherapy being performed for acute myeloid leukemia. The radiologic findings were similar to those of invasive fungal pneumonia; however, a bronchoalveolar washing fluid culture confirmed that the pathogen was M. kansasii. After 70 days from starting NTM treatment, allogeneic SCT was performed without any complications. The patient fully recovered after 12 months of NTM treatment, and neither reactivation of M. kansasii infection nor related complications were reported.


Subject(s)
Drug Therapy , Fever , Hematologic Neoplasms , Humans , Leukemia , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Lymphadenitis , Mycobacterium kansasii , Mycobacterium , Pneumonia , Stem Cell Transplantation , Stem Cells
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-87486

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Obstructive sleep apnea is becoming more important in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients. This study investigated the prevalence of high risk for obstructive sleep apnea in GERD patients in comparison with that in healthy controls using the Berlin Questionnaire. We also investigated the risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea in GERD patients. METHODS: We enrolled 1,007 subjects: 776 healthy controls, 115 individuals with erosive reflux disease, and 116 with non-erosive reflux disease. GERD was diagnosed and classified using endoscopy and a reflux questionnaire. The Berlin Questionnaire was used to evaluate obstructive sleep apnea. RESULTS: More patients in the GERD group (28.2%) had higher risk for obstructive sleep apnea than healthy controls (20.4%, P = 0.036). More patients with non-erosive disease (32.8%) had higher risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) than patients with erosive disease (20.9%) and controls (20.4%, P = 0.010). On multivariate analysis, non-erosive disease was a high risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea (odds ratio [OR], 1.82; P = 0.011). Age > or = 55 years (OR, 1.83; P or = 25 kg/m2) (OR, 2.76; P or = 55, and a high BMI are associated with high risk for OSA.


Subject(s)
Berlin , Body Mass Index , Endoscopy , Esophagitis , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive
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