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1.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : s57-s69, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926842

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#Vitamin D is produced in the skin during sun exposure and is also ingested from foods. The role of vitamin D needs to be considered in the prevention and management of various diseases. Moreover, since the majority of Koreans spend their days indoors, becoming susceptible to the risk of vitamin D deficiency. The current study aims to prepare a basis for determining dietary reference intake of vitamin D in Korea, by reviewing the evidence against various diseases and risks.MATERIALS/METHODS: Literature published in Korea and other countries between 2014 and 2018 was prioritized based on their study design and other criteria, and evaluated using the RoB 2.0 assessment form and United States Department of Agriculture Nutrition Evidence Library Conclusion Statement Evaluation Criteria. @*RESULTS@#Of the 1,709 studies, 128 studies were included in the final systematic analysis after screening. To set the dietary reference intakes of vitamin D based on the selected articles, blood 25(OH)D levels and indicators of bone health were used collectively. Blood vitamin D levels and ultraviolet (UV) exposure time derived from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed to establish the dietary reference intakes of vitamin D for each stage of the life cycle. The adequate intake levels of vitamin D, according to age and gender, were determined to be in the range of 5–15 μg/day, and the tolerable upper intake level was established at 25–100 μg/day. @*CONCLUSIONS@#The most important variable for vitamin D nutrition is lifestyle. A balanced diet comprising foods with high contents of vitamin D is important, as is vitamin D synthesis after UV exposure. The adequate intake level of vitamin D mentioned in the 2015 Dietary Reference Intakes for Korean (KDRI) remained unchanged in the 2020 KDRI for the management of vitamin D nutrition in Koreans.

2.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 203-212, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902855

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#The branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), including isoleucine, leucine, and valine, promote muscle protein synthesis. However, obesity may interfere with protein synthesis by dysregulating mitochondrial function in the muscles.This study aimed to examine the association between dietary intake levels of BCAA and skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) in middle-aged participants, and the effect of obesity/ abdominal obesity on this association. @*SUBJECTS/METHODS@#The data of 3,966 men and women aged 50–64 years who participated in the 2008–2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed.Intake levels of energy-adjusted dietary amino acids were obtained using a 24-hour dietary recall. SMI was calculated by dividing the appendicular skeletal muscle mass by body weight (kg) and multiplying the result by 100%. Multivariable general linear models were used to analyze the association of dietary BCAA intake levels with SMI. @*RESULTS@#The beneficial effects of energy-adjusted dietary BCAA intakes on SMI were greater in the non-obesityon-abdominal obesity groups; however, no significant associations were observed in the obesity/abdominal obesity groups (P > 0.05). @*CONCLUSIONS@#Healthy weight and sufficient intake of dietary BCAA are recommended to maintain muscle mass.

3.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 203-212, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895151

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#The branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), including isoleucine, leucine, and valine, promote muscle protein synthesis. However, obesity may interfere with protein synthesis by dysregulating mitochondrial function in the muscles.This study aimed to examine the association between dietary intake levels of BCAA and skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) in middle-aged participants, and the effect of obesity/ abdominal obesity on this association. @*SUBJECTS/METHODS@#The data of 3,966 men and women aged 50–64 years who participated in the 2008–2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed.Intake levels of energy-adjusted dietary amino acids were obtained using a 24-hour dietary recall. SMI was calculated by dividing the appendicular skeletal muscle mass by body weight (kg) and multiplying the result by 100%. Multivariable general linear models were used to analyze the association of dietary BCAA intake levels with SMI. @*RESULTS@#The beneficial effects of energy-adjusted dietary BCAA intakes on SMI were greater in the non-obesityon-abdominal obesity groups; however, no significant associations were observed in the obesity/abdominal obesity groups (P > 0.05). @*CONCLUSIONS@#Healthy weight and sufficient intake of dietary BCAA are recommended to maintain muscle mass.

4.
Journal of the Korean Dysphagia Society ; (2): 56-64, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836361

ABSTRACT

Methods@#We developed a questionnaire related to VFSS protocols and test diet. It was sent to the expert physicians who directly implementing VFSS in 35 training hospitals, which were sent out and collected by e-mail from December 7, 2017 to February 19, 2018. Among them, 12 out of 28 hospitals selected randomly and we conducted field survey including observing the process of the VFSS. @*Results@#The most common protocol was to provide a test sample with 7 stages (28.1%). In the order of provided test samples, ‘the small amount of liquid’ was the most provided in the 1st stage (53.1%). Among the used samples of thin liquid level, the mixing ratio of the liquid samples and barium was not uniform among each institution. ‘Yogurt (semi-solid type)’ was the most commonly used sample for ‘nectar thick’ and ‘honey thick’ diet. Various samples were used on ‘pudding thick’ diet. @*Conclusion@#These results indicate that, in the 32 Korean general hospitals, each hospital uses samples depending on experience or according to its own standards rather than unified standard among the institutions. Thus, the protocols for each hospital are not standardized, which make them difficult to the accurate sharing of information about the test results. Therefore, it will be necessary to make a consensus for the protocol and establish nationwide standard of VFSS through future research

5.
Journal of the Korean Dysphagia Society ; (2): 25-34, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-645153

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to develop a new screening dysphagia questionnaire for elderly people. METHOD: Initial questionnaire for mastication and swallowing function of elderly people were composed of 20 questions. Total of 30 experts were invited to participate in the Delphi survey, including physiatrists, occupational therapists and dietitians. Modified Delphi method was performed into two rounds. Twenty young adults and twenty elderly volunteers were tested with these items and were compared with other pre-existing tests. Also, validity of selected evaluating items was tested using VFSS. RESULT: For the first round of surveys, a consensus was reached on 72.5% of the questionnaire. Final agreement was reached on 98% of the questionnaire. The results of the first round survey with the 20 evaluation items and second round showed that the content validity ratio (CVR) and stability were high enough and met the criteria of consistent agreement from a group of specialists. The final round survey following the 1st and 2nd round survey was implemented, which finally reduced to 14 items from initial 20 items. The researcher allocated the items into the 3 categories. The score of the developed item were highly correlated with that of the pre-existing screening questionnaire and time parameters of the VFSS showing a significant difference according to the score. CONCLUSION: We developed a screening tool for evaluation of chewing nad swallowing function for the elderly people. Though it is necessary to be verified through large scale clinical studies, it may be simply applicable to the elderly people with mastication and swallowing dysfunction or could be evaluated by caregivers.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Young Adult , Caregivers , Consensus , Deglutition Disorders , Deglutition , Mass Screening , Mastication , Methods , NAD , Nutritionists , Specialization , Volunteers
6.
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine ; : 447-456, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-217428

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of aging on masticatory muscle function according to changes in hardness of solid food. METHODS: Each of fifteen healthy elderly and young people were selected. Subjects were asked to consume cooked rice, which was processed using the guidelines of the Universal Design Foods concept for elderly people (Japan Care Food Conference 2012). The properties of each cooked rice were categorized as grade 1, 2, 3 and 4 (5×10³, 2×10⁴, 5×10⁴, and 5×10⁵ N/m²) respectively. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was used to measure masseter activity from food ingestion to swallowing of test foods. The raw data was normalized by the ratio of sEMG activity to maximal voluntary contraction and compared among subjects. The data was divided according to each sequence of mastication and then calculated within the parameters of EMG activities. RESULTS: Intraoral tongue pressure was significantly higher in the young than in the elderly (p<0.05). Maximal value of average amplitude of the sequence in whole mastication showed significant positive correlation with hardness of food in both young and elderly groups (p<0.05). In a comparisons between groups, the maximal value of average amplitude of the sequence in whole mastication and peak amplitude in whole mastication showed that mastication in the elderly requires a higher percentage of maximal muscle activity than in the young, even with soft foods (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: sEMG data of the masseter can provide valuable information to aid in the selection of foods according to hardness for the elderly. The results also support the necessity of specialized food preparation or products for the elderly.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Aging , Deglutition , Deglutition Disorders , Eating , Electromyography , Foods, Specialized , Hardness , Masseter Muscle , Mastication , Masticatory Muscles , Tongue
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