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1.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837377

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We investigated the effect of severe calcification of the femoropopliteal artery on intervention outcomes in patients with ischemic tissue loss. @*Materials and Methods@#A retrospective review of the first endovascular treatment of the femoropopliteal artery for ischemic tissue loss between May 2010 and February 2018 was performed. The calcification of femoropopliteal lesions was estimated by the Compliance 360° score, and lesions with a score of 4 were defined as severe calcification lesions. @*Results@#Overall, 135 first femoropopliteal endovascular procedures on 135 limbs from 112 patients were included in this study. Among the 135 limbs that received treatement of the femoropopliteal arteries, 74 limbs had Trans-Atlantic Inter Society Consensus (TASC) A or B lesions and 61 limbs had TASC C or D lesions. Among 61 cases of TASC C or D lesions, 21 limbs (34.4%) had severe calcification; there was no statistically significant difference in limb salvage (P=0.75), and amputationfree survival (P=0.11) based on the degree of calcification. However, the survival rate in TASC C or D lesions was significantly different between the two groups (non-severe calcification group vs severe calcification group at 1-year, 2-years, and 3-years: 88.6%, 79.7%, and 61.0% vs 70.0%, 56.0%, and 28.0%, respectively, P=0.01). In multivariate analysis of influencing factors for poor survival in TASC C or D using the Cox proportional hazards model, severe calcification (hazard ratio, 2.362; 95% confidence interval, 1.035-5.391; P=0.041) was a statistically significant risk factor. @*Conclusion@#Severe femoropopliteal artery calcification was associated with poor survival, especially in TASC C or D lesions.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-84516

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Use of a composite graft combining a polytetrafluoroethylene graft with an autogenous vein is an option for limb salvage in the absence of an adequate single segment vein graft. We aimed to investigate the results of infrainguinal bypass with a composite graft. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 11 infrainguinal arterial bypasses on 11 limbs which underwent surgery from March 2012 to November 2016. RESULTS: Critical limb ischemia was common (63.6%) indication of bypass surgery and most (90.9%) of the patients had history of failed previous treatment including endovascular treatment (36.4%) and bypass surgery (72.7%). At the 2 years after graft implantations, primary patency and amputation-free survival of below-knee bypasses using composite graft were 73% and 76%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Infrainguinal arterial bypasses with composite graft had an acceptable patency. In patients without other alternative conduits for revascularization, bypass with a composite graft can be an option.


Subject(s)
Extremities , Humans , Ischemia , Limb Salvage , Polytetrafluoroethylene , Retrospective Studies , Saphenous Vein , Transplants , Veins
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-770791

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To assess the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) following shoulder surgery and to evaluate the role of postoperative duplex ultrasonography. METHODS: The study comprised a total of 224 patients who underwent shoulder surgery, including 180 shoulder arthroscopic surgeries, 28 shoulder arthroplasties, and 16 plate fixations for proximal humerus fracture between January 2014 and December 2014. The mean age of patients was 59.0 years, and there were 81 men and 143 women. Clinical data, including body mass index, blood tests, metabolic work-up for liver and renal function, previous, and present medical history, were evaluated. Duplex ultrasonography in the operative arm was performed on 2 to 4 days after surgery. RESULTS: The overall incidence of VTE following shoulder surgery was 0.45% (1/224). One patient with open reduction and plate fixation for proximal humerus fracture had asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis that showed complete remission after anticoagulant medication during a 2-month period. Four patients had asymptomatic superficial cephalic vein thrombosis and complete remission without any treatment. There was no case of pulmonary embolism. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of VTE following shoulder surgery was extremely low in Asians. Duplex ultrasonography may be not considered a routine follow-up of shoulder surgery and can be selectively performed in high-risk or symptomatic patients for VTE.


Subject(s)
Arm , Arthroplasty , Arthroscopy , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Body Mass Index , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Humerus , Incidence , Liver , Male , Pilot Projects , Pulmonary Embolism , Shoulder , Thrombosis , Ultrasonography , Veins , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-64554

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To assess the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) following shoulder surgery and to evaluate the role of postoperative duplex ultrasonography. METHODS: The study comprised a total of 224 patients who underwent shoulder surgery, including 180 shoulder arthroscopic surgeries, 28 shoulder arthroplasties, and 16 plate fixations for proximal humerus fracture between January 2014 and December 2014. The mean age of patients was 59.0 years, and there were 81 men and 143 women. Clinical data, including body mass index, blood tests, metabolic work-up for liver and renal function, previous, and present medical history, were evaluated. Duplex ultrasonography in the operative arm was performed on 2 to 4 days after surgery. RESULTS: The overall incidence of VTE following shoulder surgery was 0.45% (1/224). One patient with open reduction and plate fixation for proximal humerus fracture had asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis that showed complete remission after anticoagulant medication during a 2-month period. Four patients had asymptomatic superficial cephalic vein thrombosis and complete remission without any treatment. There was no case of pulmonary embolism. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of VTE following shoulder surgery was extremely low in Asians. Duplex ultrasonography may be not considered a routine follow-up of shoulder surgery and can be selectively performed in high-risk or symptomatic patients for VTE.


Subject(s)
Arm , Arthroplasty , Arthroscopy , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Body Mass Index , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Humerus , Incidence , Liver , Male , Pilot Projects , Pulmonary Embolism , Shoulder , Thrombosis , Ultrasonography , Veins , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-45802

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patient adherence to immunosuppressant regimens after organ transplant is crucial to preserve graft function, and simplifying the regimen improves adherence. In this study, our experience of conversion from twice-daily (b.i.d.) to once-daily (q.d.) tacrolimus (TAC) in stable liver transplant recipients is reviewed and the proper conversion regimen is investigated. METHODS: Between November 2011 and August 2012, the regimen was converted in 32 stable liver transplant recipients, and data on the conversions gathered retrospectively from medical records. TAC trough level, dose, and laboratory findings were evaluated at preconversion and 1 to 12 months after conversion. RESULTS: Conversion from b.i.d. to q.d. regimen was based on 1:1 proportion in 16 patients and dose escalation in 16 patients. The mean conversion time after transplant was 56.8 months (range; 21~94). Reconversion to b.i.d. regimen was needed in nine patients. Among these patients, seven patients needed titration due to elevated liver enzyme. The trough level decreased significantly after conversion (from 4.7 to 3.1 ng/mL) in patients with conversion at 1:1 proportion, while increasing slightly without statistical significance (3.7 to 4.0 ng/mL) in patients with dose escalation. At 1 year after conversion, dose adjustment was required to preserve trough level and graft function in 14 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our results, TAC q.d. formulation can be a useful option to improve adherence in stable liver transplant recipients. However, dose titration should be considered for preserving proper trough level in case of low TAC level or TAC single regimen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunosuppression , Liver , Medical Records , Patient Compliance , Retrospective Studies , Tacrolimus , Transplant Recipients , Transplants
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-45801

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thymoglobulin has been used for induction therapy to prevent acute rejection and delayed graft function (DGF) in kidney transplant patients. However, the usual dose of thymoglobulin is considered to be related with frequent infection. We compared the efficacy and safety of low-dose thymoglobulin to high-dose treatment in high risk recipients with kidney transplantation. METHODS: Twenty-one kidney transplant recipients underwent induction treatment with thymoglobulin and were divided into two groups: patients treated with low-dose (<6.0 mg/kg) and high-dose thymoglobulin (≥6.0 mg/kg). All patients showed one or more risk factors for acute rejection or DGF. The risk factors were re-transplantation, recipient or donor age over 60 years, human leukocyte antigen full mismatch, and panel-reactive antibody more than 50%. We compared incidence of acute rejection, infection, hematologic complications, and graft survival between two groups. RESULTS: The demographic characteristics of the two groups were comparable. Mean follow-up duration was 11.9±4.3 months, and cumulative thymoglobulin dosage was 6.3±1.6 mg/kg. The incidence rates of acute antibody-mediated rejection (AMR), DGF and infectious events as cytomegalovirus disease, or urinary tract infection were not significantly different between the two groups. Neutropenia occurred more frequently in the high-dose thymoglobulin group, but there was no statistically significant difference. The rate of graft loss were similar between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: There were no differences in graft survival, infectious disease, and hematologic problems between the two groups. We suggest to lower the dose of thymoglobulin to less than 6 mg/kg for prevent acute AMR and DGF in high risk patients.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Cytomegalovirus , Delayed Graft Function , Follow-Up Studies , Graft Survival , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents , Incidence , Kidney Transplantation , Kidney , Leukocytes , Neutropenia , Risk Factors , Tissue Donors , Transplant Recipients , Transplants , Urinary Tract Infections
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-78761

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Ischemic preconditioning (IPC), including remote IPC (rIPC) and direct IPC (dIPC), is a promising method to decrease ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. This study tested the effect of both rIPC and dIPC on the genes for antioxidant enzymes and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related proteins. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty rats were randomly divided into the control and study groups. In the control group (n=10), the right hind limb was sham-operated. The left hind limb (IscR) of the control group underwent IR injury without IPC. In the study group (n=10), the right hind limb received IR injury after 3 cycles of rIPC. The IscR received IR injury after 3 cycles of dIPC. Gene expression was analyzed by Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction from the anterior tibialis muscle. RESULTS: The expression of the antioxidant enzyme genes including glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) 1 and catalase (CAT) were significantly reduced in IscR compared with sham treatment. In comparison with IscR, rIPC enhanced the expression of GPx, SOD2, and CAT genes. dIPC enhanced the expression of SOD2 and CAT genes. The expression of SOD2 genes was consistently higher in rIPC than in dIPC, but the difference was only significant for SOD2. The expression of genes for ER stress-related proteins tended to be reduced in IscR in comparison with sham treatment. However, the difference was only significant for C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). In comparison with IscR, rIPC significantly up-regulated activating transcription factor 4 and CHOP, whereas dIPC up-regulated CHOP. CONCLUSION: Both rIPC and dIPC enhanced expression of genes for antioxidant enzymes and ER stress-related proteins.


Subject(s)
Activating Transcription Factor 4 , Animals , Catalase , Cats , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Extremities , Gene Expression , Glutathione Peroxidase , Ischemic Preconditioning , Methods , Muscle, Skeletal , Placebos , Rats , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reperfusion Injury , Superoxide Dismutase
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114114

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of fluid on the acid-base and electrolytes status and renal function after kidney transplantation (KT). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 103 patients who underwent KT. Analyses were performed separately according to the donor type (living, 52; deceased, 51). In the living donor KT group, 28 patients received normal saline solution (NS) and 24 patients received Hartmann's solution (HS). In the deceased donor KT group, 27 patients received NS, and 24 received HS. The acid-base and electrolyte status, urine volume, and renal function between patients receiving NS and patients receiving HS were compared in each group. RESULTS: Regardless of donor type, there were no differences in potassium, pH, base excess, PCO2 and HCO3 between HS and NS on immediate postoperative and postoperative day 1. However, changes to neutral acid-base balance in terms of pH, HCO3, and base excess were significantly higher in HS than in NS. In living donor KT, NS increased serum potassium and chloride significantly during fluid therapy. On postoperative day 7, renal function showed no difference between two groups but urine volume was significantly larger in NS than in HS. CONCLUSIONS: HS does not increase the incidence of hyperkalemia after KT. The use of HS resulted in less metabolic acidosis than the use of NS. Renal function was similar but polyuria was more severe in patients who received NS than in those who received HS.


Subject(s)
Acid-Base Equilibrium , Acidosis , Electrolytes , Fluid Therapy , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hyperkalemia , Incidence , Kidney Transplantation , Kidney , Living Donors , Polyuria , Potassium , Retrospective Studies , Sodium Chloride , Tissue Donors
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-74796

ABSTRACT

This morphometric study of the trachea was performed to provide the basic data necessary for shielding crico-thyroid membrane incision, tracheal intubation and tracheotomy in korean bodies 48 (33 male, 15 female). Tracheal measurement included the number, the length, the anteroposterior and transverse diameters of trachea, and the height of tracheal cartilages, and the inter-rings distances of cartilages. The length of trachea was 104.0+/-1.4 mm in male and 102.3+/-1.9 mm in female, but there was no significance between males and females. All of the anteroposterior and transverse diameters, and the height were longer in males, compared with females, in the first, fifth, tenth and fifteenth tracheal cartilages. The anteroposterior and transverse diameters of the first and fifteenth tracheal rings, and the height of the first tracheal ring differed significantly male's from female's. The distances between posterior end of rings of the first, tenth and fifteenth tracheal cartilages were broader in males. The inter-rings distances of tracheal cartilage were also wider in the male, and showed significant differences in the 1st~2nd and 10~11th. These results suggest that this might be useful as a clinical basic data for the emergency physician, anesthetist, and associated medical doct


Subject(s)
Cadaver , Cartilage , Emergencies , Female , Humans , Intubation , Male , Membranes , Trachea , Tracheotomy
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36944

ABSTRACT

A purpose of the study is to provide basic information in order to find better ways for more effective cadaver dissection education by analyzing education effect on paramedical students after cadaver dissection. By using questionnaires composed of 12 questions, we have surveyed 1,041 paramedical students who participate in cadaver dissection in 2013 and analysed the results. The paramedical students are the department of nursing science, operation treatment, physical therapy, alternative medicine, clinical pathology, emergency rescue and dental hygienics. As a result, we have found that cadaver dissection makes students have more respect for human life and dignity, helps students learn anatomy and major. Furthermore, the degrees of satisfaction, interest, intention of afterward participation in cadaver dissection afterward are high. However, the degrees of intention of cadaver donations are low. We need to develop cadaver dissection programme customized for each majors in order to helps students have more respect for human life and dignity, more professionalism, more effective cadaver dissection education.


Subject(s)
Cadaver , Clinical Medicine , Complementary Therapies , Education , Emergencies , Humans , Intention , Nursing , Pathology , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-95532

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The United Network for Organ Sharing developed the continuous kidney donor risk index (KDRI) for measurement of the spectrum of risk associated with the various factors known to influence graft failure. This study was conducted in order to validate the KDRI in assessment of deceased donor kidney in Koreans. METHODS: Patients (n=404) who underwent kidney transplants performed at five transplantation centers from 2000 to 2010 were studied retrospectively. The distribution of the KDRI of donor kidneys was calculated and the distribution of kidney donors by standard criteria donor (SCD)/expanded criteria donor (ECD) and KDRI was compared. The KDRI were divided into five groups: or =1.4. Graft function and graft survival among KDRI groups were analyzed. RESULTS: The mean KDRI was 1.01 (range, 0.55~1.88). More than 90% of donors had KDRI or =1.4 were ECD. The estimated GFR at one-year in the KDRI groups was 72.2, 65.8, 63.2, 69.1, and 47.1 mg/dL, respectively. Graft function was significantly lower in those with KDRI > or =1.4 (P or =1.4 (P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The KDRI is a useful tool for estimation of posttransplant outcomes in the Korean population. The KDRI can be used by physicians as an additional assessment tool to assist in the decision making process regarding donor organ selection.


Subject(s)
Decision Making , Graft Survival , Humans , Kidney , Kidney Transplantation , Retrospective Studies , Tissue Donors , Transplants
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-18372

ABSTRACT

Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a serious complication of end-stage liver disease, which is characterized by hypoxia, intrapulmonary vascular dilatation, and liver cirrhosis. Liver transplantation (LT) is the only curative treatment modality for patients with HPS. However, morbidity and mortality after LT, especially in cases of severe HPS, remain high. This case report describes a patient with typical findings of an extracardiac pulmonary arteriovenous shunt on contrast-enhanced transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), and clubbing fingers, who had complete correction of HPS by deceased donor LT. The patient was a 16-year-old female who was born with biliary atresia and underwent porto-enterostomy on the 55th day after birth. She had been suffered from progressive liver failure with dyspnea, clubbing fingers, and cyanosis. Preoperative arterial blood gas analysis revealed severe hypoxia (arterial O2 tension of 54.5 mmHg and O2 saturation of 84.2%). Contrast-enhanced TEE revealed an extracardiac right-to-left shunt, which suggested an intrapulmonary arteriovenous shunt. The patient recovered successfully after LT, not only with respect to physical parameters but also for pychosocial activity, including school performance, during the 30-month follow-up period.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Hypoxia , Arteriovenous Fistula/etiology , Biliary Atresia/diagnosis , Cyanosis/complications , Dyspnea/complications , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , End Stage Liver Disease/complications , Female , Hepatic Artery/abnormalities , Hepatopulmonary Syndrome/diagnosis , Humans , Liver Transplantation , Osteoarthropathy, Secondary Hypertrophic/complications
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-168234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted in order to evaluate the propriety of expanded donor criteria in Korea and to identify the preoperative factors influencing allograft survival and function. METHODS: We studied 404 patients who received deceased renal transplants from five transplantation centers of 2, 3 territory from 2000 to 2010. Differences in 1-year graft function, delayed graft function (DGF) rate, and graft survival rate between the standard criteria donor (SCD) and expanded criteria donor (ECD) were compared retrospectively. The preoperative factors influencing graft function and graft survival were analysed. RESULTS: SCD showed significantly better 1-year graft function than ECD (P=0.011). No differences in 1-year acute rejection rate were observed between SCD (13.2%) and ECD (16.9%) (P=0.449). Significantly higher DGF rate was observed for ECD (25.4%) than for SCD (14.1%) (P=0.022). Graft type had no significant influence on 5-year graft survival (SCD 94.5% vs. ECD 93.7%) (P =0.835). Advanced donor age (P=0.001), donor hypertension history (P=0.047), high serum creatinine (P=0.002), and cerebral infarction as cause of death (P=0.004) had a negative influence on 1-year allograft function. Significantly low graft survival was observed for advanced donor age (P =0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Graft function, DGF rates of ECD were poorer than those of SCD. Graft survival rate of ECD was comparable to that of SCD kidney. Korean Network for Organ Sharing expanded criteria may underestimate the organ quality of deceased kidney and modification may be needed in order to expand the potential donor pool through nationwide study.


Subject(s)
Cause of Death , Cerebral Infarction , Creatinine , Delayed Graft Function , Graft Survival , Humans , Hypertension , Kidney , Kidney Transplantation , Korea , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Tissue Donors , Transplantation, Homologous , Transplants
15.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 167-170, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-218508

ABSTRACT

We present a rare variation of the right-sided aortic arch with the retroesophageal left subclavian artery as the forth branch found in a cadaver of an 89-year-old Korean woman during a routine dissection. In this case, the first branch that arose from the ascending aorta was the left common carotid artery, which crossed ventral to the trachea in a left cephalic direction, followed by the right common carotid artery and then the right subclavian artery. Distal to these branches the aortic arch ran dorsally, passing between the esophagus and the vertebra. The left subclavian artery arose from the descending portion of the aortic arch, crossing over to the left upper extremity behind the esophagus. This anomaly was not accompanied by congenital heart disease. Accurate information regarding this variation is of great importance to surgeons for its early identification and preservation during interventions and to radiologists for precise interpretation of angiograms.


Subject(s)
Aorta , Aorta, Thoracic , Cadaver , Carotid Artery, Common , Crossing Over, Genetic , Esophagus , Female , Heart Diseases , Humans , Spine , Subclavian Artery , Trachea , Upper Extremity
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-726673

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: About 30% of the cause of admission of the patient with end-stage renal disease is reported to be related with complications of vascular access (VA). To achieve good outcome after VA surgery, routine mapping of artery and vein is recommended for the patients who are planned to have vascular access surgery. But evidence supporting routine application of ultrasonogram (USG) is scarce and the situation in Korea is different from western countries where most of the guidelines are produced. We compared the results of the vascular access surgery after physical examination only with those after selective examination with USG. METHODS: Two hundred and forty eight consecutive patients who received VA surgery in Dongsan Medical Center from Jun 2010 to May 2011 were included. Clinical data were retrospectively analyzed and the immediate postoperative failure and early suitability of hemodialysis were compared. RESULTS: One hundred eight patients (group 1) received VA without USG, 140 after USG study. Overall 13 failures were developed. There was no difference between the two groups in terms of early failure (5.6% vs. 5.0%). CONCLUSION: Selective application of duplex sonographic evaluation of vascular status in the patients who need vascular access surgery in Korea is a reasonable policy to save the limited health financial source with acceptable results.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Korea , Physical Examination , Preoperative Care , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex , Veins
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-228981

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the usefulness of 3-tesla (3T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), T2*-weighted gradient recalled echo (GRE), and susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) in diagnosing brain death. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging findings for 10 patients with clinically verified brain death (group I) and seven patients with comatose or stuporous mentality who did not meet the clinical criteria of brain death (group II) were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Tonsilar herniation and loss of intraarterial flow signal voids (LIFSV) on T2WI were highly sensitive and specific findings for the diagnosis of brain death (p < 0.001 and < 0.001, respectively). DWI, TOF-MRA, and GRE findings were statistically different between the two groups (p = 0.015, 0.029, and 0.003, respectively). However, cortical high signal intensities in T2WI and SWI findings were not statistically different between the two group (p = 0.412 and 1.0, respectively). CONCLUSION: T2-weighted imaging, DWI, and MRA using 3T MRI may be useful for diagnosing brain death. However, SWI findings are not specific due to high false positive findings.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Brain Death/pathology , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , False Positive Reactions , Female , Humans , Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-95717

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore the relationship between students' seating preferences and academic achievement in medical school. METHODS: The subjects of this study were 109 second-year students in C medical school. The pattern of seat selection of 109 students was surveyed by participant observation for 48 days, and a questionnaire was administered to determine the factors that were considered by students. Using SPSS version 12.0, we analyzed the factors that students considered with regard to seat selection and seat preference and the frequency of seat movements between areas. We performed one-way ANOVA to analyze the differences in academic achievement between students who moved seats versus those who did not. RESULTS: The most common reasons for seat selection were to focus better on the lecture (60 students), to focus better on lecture, and to feel familiar with the same seat (60 students). Students' preferred seats were in rows A4, A7, A5, and A3 (in descending order), which are primarily the central sections, and columns B15, B1, B14, B19 (in descending order), which are primarily both ends of the division. The difference in academic achievement between students who moved seats and those who did not was not significant (p>0.05). Among students who did not move seats, the difference in academic achievement between 9 seating areas was not significant in 6 subjects (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that we should reconsider a professor's general perception regarding academic achievement according to seat location.


Subject(s)
Achievement , Humans , Schools, Medical , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-45593

ABSTRACT

Autosomal polycystic kidney disease is responsible for about 10% of the cases of end stage renal disease. The increase in kidney size is usually proportional to the degree of deterioration in renal function. At the time of transplantation, these nonfunctional kidneys can be massively enlarged and nephrectomy is required before renal transplantation. However, pretransplantation nephrectomy of polycystic kidneys has the potential risk of surgical complications, including ileus, hernias, infection, excessive bleeding and/or intestinal injury. We report here on two cases successful renal transplantation in patients with polycystic kidneys after renal contraction by renal artery embolization and without nephrectomy. The volume reduction was evaluated by CT before and 3 months after renal artery embolization and the reduction in volume was 48% and 44% in each case, respectively. The embolization was well tolerated in both cases without immediate or delayed complications except for fever and lumbar flank pain. Four months after renal artery embolization, both of the patients successfully received a transplant from living donors.


Subject(s)
Contracts , Fever , Flank Pain , Hemorrhage , Hernia , Humans , Ileus , Kidney , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Kidney Transplantation , Living Donors , Nephrectomy , Polycystic Kidney Diseases , Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant , Renal Artery , Transplants
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-47958

ABSTRACT

Primary tumors of the great vessels are rare. Most encountered cases are sarcomas which most commonly develop in the aorta, pulmonary artery, and inferior vena cava. We experienced an intimal sarcoma arising in the left common iliac artery in a 68-year-old male, who suffered from claudication in his left lower extremity for a year and was diagnosed as arteriosclerosis obliterans, clinically. Bypass surgery was performed on the obstructive lesion. Grossly, the vascular lumen was filled with dark hemorrhagic materials. Microscopically, the lesion showed proliferation of anaplastic spindle cells with a marked nuclear atypia, arranged haphazardly. There were numerous mitotic figures. Foci of cholesterol clefts were also found in the intima. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for vimentin, smooth muscle actin, and cytokeratin in certain areas. Stains for CD34, desmin, myosin heavy chain, caldesmon, and S-100 protein were negative. A pathologic diagnosis was made as intimal sarcoma with myofibroblastic differentiation.


Subject(s)
Actins , Aged , Aorta , Arteriosclerosis Obliterans , Calmodulin-Binding Proteins , Cholesterol , Coloring Agents , Desmin , Humans , Iliac Artery , Keratins , Lower Extremity , Male , Muscle, Smooth , Myofibroblasts , Myosin Heavy Chains , Pulmonary Artery , S100 Proteins , Sarcoma , Vena Cava, Inferior , Vimentin
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