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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919482

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a condition of increased blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries and is diagnosed with an increased a mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥25 mm Hg. This condition may be associated with multiple clinical situations. Based on pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical presentation, hemodynamic profiles, and treatment strategies, the patients were classified into five clinical groups. Although there have been major advances in the management of PH, it is still associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis and treatment of PH have been performed mainly by following European guidelines, even in Korea because the country lacks localized PH guidelines. European treatment guidelines do not reflect the actual status of Korea. Therefore, the European diagnosis and treatment of PH have not been tailored well to suit the needs of Korean patients with PH. To address this issue, we developed this guideline to facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of PH appropriately in Korea, a country where the consensus for the diagnosis and treatment of PH remains insufficient. This is the first edition of the guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of PH in Korea, and it is primarily based on the ‘2015 ESC/ERS Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension.’ with the acceptance and adaptation of recent publications of PH.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890353

ABSTRACT

Background@#Previously developed prediction models for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have limited performance. We developed a deep learning (DL) based model using a cohort representative of the Korean population. @*Methods@#This study was conducted on the basis of the National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening (NHIS-HEALS) cohort of Korea. Overall, 335,302 subjects without T2DM at baseline were included. We developed the model based on 80% of the subjects, and verified the power in the remainder. Predictive models for T2DM were constructed using the recurrent neural network long short-term memory (RNN-LSTM) network and the Cox longitudinal summary model. The performance of both models over a 10-year period was compared using a time dependent area under the curve. @*Results@#During a mean follow-up of 10.4±1.7 years, the mean frequency of periodic health check-ups was 2.9±1.0 per subject. During the observation period, T2DM was newly observed in 8.7% of the subjects. The annual performance of the model created using the RNN-LSTM network was superior to that of the Cox model, and the risk factors for T2DM, derived using the two models were similar; however, certain results differed. @*Conclusion@#The DL-based T2DM prediction model, constructed using a cohort representative of the population, performs better than the conventional model. After pilot tests, this model will be provided to all Korean national health screening recipients in the future.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898057

ABSTRACT

Background@#Previously developed prediction models for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have limited performance. We developed a deep learning (DL) based model using a cohort representative of the Korean population. @*Methods@#This study was conducted on the basis of the National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening (NHIS-HEALS) cohort of Korea. Overall, 335,302 subjects without T2DM at baseline were included. We developed the model based on 80% of the subjects, and verified the power in the remainder. Predictive models for T2DM were constructed using the recurrent neural network long short-term memory (RNN-LSTM) network and the Cox longitudinal summary model. The performance of both models over a 10-year period was compared using a time dependent area under the curve. @*Results@#During a mean follow-up of 10.4±1.7 years, the mean frequency of periodic health check-ups was 2.9±1.0 per subject. During the observation period, T2DM was newly observed in 8.7% of the subjects. The annual performance of the model created using the RNN-LSTM network was superior to that of the Cox model, and the risk factors for T2DM, derived using the two models were similar; however, certain results differed. @*Conclusion@#The DL-based T2DM prediction model, constructed using a cohort representative of the population, performs better than the conventional model. After pilot tests, this model will be provided to all Korean national health screening recipients in the future.

4.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 200-208, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875618

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To compare image quality in selective intracoronary contrast-injected computed tomography angiography (SelectiveCTA) with that in conventional intravenous contrast-injected CTA (IV-CTA). @*Materials and Methods@#Six pigs (35 to 40 kg) underwent both IV-CTA using an intravenous injection (60 mL) and Selective-CTA using an intracoronary injection (20 mL) through a guide-wire during/after percutaneous coronary intervention. Images of the common coronary artery were acquired. Scans were performed using a combined machine comprising an invasive coronary angiography suite and a 320-channel multi-slice CT scanner. Quantitative image quality parameters of CT attenuation, image noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), mean lumen diameter (MLD), and mean lumen area (MLA) were measured and compared. Qualitative analysis was performed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), which was calculated for analysis of interobserver agreement. @*Results@#Quantitative image quality, determined by assessing the uniformity of CT attenuation (399.06 vs. 330.21, p<0.001), image noise (24.93 vs. 18.43, p<0.001), SNR (16.43 vs. 18.52, p=0.005), and CNR (11.56 vs. 13.46, p=0.002), differed significantly between IV-CTA and Selective-CTA. MLD and MLA showed no significant difference overall (2.38 vs. 2.44, p=0.068, 4.72 vs. 4.95, p=0.078).The density of contrast agent was significantly lower for selective-CTA (13.13 mg/mL) than for IV-CTA (400 mg/mL). Agreement between observers was acceptable (ICC=0.79±0.08). @*Conclusion@#Our feasibility study in swine showed that compared to IV-CTA, Selective-CTA provides better image quality and requires less iodine contrast medium.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832992

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES@#We aim to explore the additional discriminative accuracy of a deep learning (DL) algorithm using repeated-measures data for identifying people at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), compared to Cox hazard regression.@*METHODS@#Two CVD prediction models were developed from National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort (NHIS-HEALS): a Cox regression model and a DL model. Performance of each model was assessed in the internal and 2 external validation cohorts in Koreans (National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort; NHIS-NSC) and in Europeans (Rotterdam Study). A total of 412,030 adults in the NHIS-HEALS; 178,875 adults in the NHIS-NSC; and the 4,296 adults in Rotterdam Study were included.@*RESULTS@#Mean ages was 52 years (46% women) and there were 25,777 events (6.3%) in NHIS-HEALS during the follow-up. In internal validation, the DL approach demonstrated a C-statistic of 0.896 (95% confidence interval, 0.886–0.907) in men and 0.921 (0.908–0.934) in women and improved reclassification compared with Cox regression (net reclassification index [NRI], 24.8% in men, 29.0% in women). In external validation with NHIS-NSC, DL demonstrated a C-statistic of 0.868 (0.860–0.876) in men and 0.889 (0.876–0.898) in women, and improved reclassification compared with Cox regression (NRI, 24.9% in men, 26.2% in women). In external validation applied to the Rotterdam Study, DL demonstrated a C-statistic of 0.860 (0.824–0.897) in men and 0.867 (0.830–0.903) in women, and improved reclassification compared with Cox regression (NRI, 36.9% in men, 31.8% in women).@*CONCLUSIONS@#A DL algorithm exhibited greater discriminative accuracy than Cox model approaches.TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02931500

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We aim to explore the additional discriminative accuracy of a deep learning (DL) algorithm using repeated-measures data for identifying people at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), compared to Cox hazard regression.METHODS: Two CVD prediction models were developed from National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort (NHIS-HEALS): a Cox regression model and a DL model. Performance of each model was assessed in the internal and 2 external validation cohorts in Koreans (National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort; NHIS-NSC) and in Europeans (Rotterdam Study). A total of 412,030 adults in the NHIS-HEALS; 178,875 adults in the NHIS-NSC; and the 4,296 adults in Rotterdam Study were included.RESULTS: Mean ages was 52 years (46% women) and there were 25,777 events (6.3%) in NHIS-HEALS during the follow-up. In internal validation, the DL approach demonstrated a C-statistic of 0.896 (95% confidence interval, 0.886–0.907) in men and 0.921 (0.908–0.934) in women and improved reclassification compared with Cox regression (net reclassification index [NRI], 24.8% in men, 29.0% in women). In external validation with NHIS-NSC, DL demonstrated a C-statistic of 0.868 (0.860–0.876) in men and 0.889 (0.876–0.898) in women, and improved reclassification compared with Cox regression (NRI, 24.9% in men, 26.2% in women). In external validation applied to the Rotterdam Study, DL demonstrated a C-statistic of 0.860 (0.824–0.897) in men and 0.867 (0.830–0.903) in women, and improved reclassification compared with Cox regression (NRI, 36.9% in men, 31.8% in women).CONCLUSIONS: A DL algorithm exhibited greater discriminative accuracy than Cox model approaches.TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02931500


Subject(s)
Adult , Artificial Intelligence , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cohort Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Insurance, Health , Learning , Male , Mass Screening , National Health Programs
8.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 448-457, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738796

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring in the asymptomatic population can improve cardiovascular risk prediction. We aimed to assess CAC progression and the impact of coronary risk factors on the CAC progression rate in asymptomatic Korean individuals with a baseline CAC score of zero. METHODS: The study population was derived from the Korea Initiatives on Coronary Artery Calcification (KOICA) registry: a retrospective, single ethnicity, multicenter registry of asymptomatic individuals who underwent CAC scoring as a part of a health checkup. Individuals with at least two CAC scores and an initial score of zero were included. CAC progression was defined as [√CAC score (follow-up) − √CAC score (baseline)] ≥2.5. The 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk was calculated. RESULTS: Among 6,268 participants (mean age, 48.0±7.1 years; male, 80.5%), 719 (11.5%) experienced CAC progression during follow-up (median, 109 months; interquartile range, 78–208 months). The CAC progression rate was 0.3%, 1.9%, 4.3%, 8.6%, and 16.7% in years 1–5, respectively. The chance of CAC progression at 5 years was 13.1%, 22.0%, and 27.9% for individuals with a 10-year ASCVD risk of <5%, ≥5% but <7.5%, and ≥7.5%, respectively. A multivariable analysis revealed age, male sex, waist circumference, diabetes, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level as independently associated with annualized CAC progression (p<0.001, p=0.017, p=0.025, p=0.032, and p=0.003, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The probability of CAC progression is very low in Korean individuals with a CAC score of zero. However, the risk of CAC progression increases nonlinearly over time, and increases as the 10-year ASCVD risk increases.


Subject(s)
Calcium , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cholesterol , Coronary Vessels , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Korea , Lipoproteins , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Waist Circumference
9.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 353-360, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738786

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Udenafil, a new phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (PDE5i), has been used to treat erectile dysfunction. Given the proven benefit of PDE5i in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), we evaluated serial hemodynamic changes after single udenafil administration to determine the appropriate therapeutic dose. METHODS: Eighteen patients were randomly allocated into one of 3 groups: placebo, udenafil 50 mg (U50), and udenafil 100 mg (U100). Diagnosis for inclusion was idiopathic PAH or PAH associated with connective tissue disease. Patients with any contraindication to PDE5i, and/or PDE5i treatment in the past 1 month were excluded. Continuous hemodynamic monitoring was performed by placing a Swan-Ganz catheter. Information on cardiac index (CI), mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), mean systemic arterial pressure (mSAP), pulmonary arterial wedge pressure (PAWP), and pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) was obtained for 4 hours after drug administration. RESULTS: The mPAP significantly decreased in both the U50 and U100 (−11 mmHg and −8 mmHg from baseline, respectively, p < 0.1). The mSAP also decreased in both U50 and U100; however, the decrease was greater in the U100 (Δ=−8.5 mmHg and Δ=−14.0 mmHg). CI increased in the U50, but decreased in the U100. Although PVRI decreased in both, statistical significance was only achieved in the U50 compared to placebo. PAWP was stable during monitoring. U50 had at least 4 hour-effect after administration. Only 2 patients with U100 experienced mild adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first demonstration of the acute hemodynamic changes induced by udenafil. U50 is considered an optimal dose for treating PAH with more than 4-hour treatment effect. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01553721.


Subject(s)
Arterial Pressure , Catheters , Connective Tissue Diseases , Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 5 , Diagnosis , Erectile Dysfunction , Hemodynamics , Humans , Hypertension , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Male , Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors , Pulmonary Wedge Pressure , Vascular Resistance
10.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 146-159, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738770

ABSTRACT

Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging provides accurate anatomic information and advanced soft contrast, making it the reference standard for assessing cardiac volumes and systolic function. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in CMR sequences. New technical development has widened the use of CMR imaging beyond the simple characterization of myocardial scars and assessment of contractility. These novel CMR sequences offer comprehensive assessments of coronary plaque characterization, myocardial fiber orientation, and even metabolic activity, and they can be readily applied in clinical settings. CMR imaging is able to provide new insights into understanding the pathophysiologic process of underlying cardiac disease, and it can help physicians choose the best treatment strategies. Although several limitations, including the high cost and time-consuming process, have limited the widespread clinical use of CMR imaging so far, recent advances in software and hardware technologies have made the future more promising.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Volume , Cardiology , Cicatrix , Heart Diseases , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
11.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 173-180, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738767

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Decreased left atrial appendage (LAA) emptying velocity in transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is related with higher incidence of thrombus and increased risk of stroke. Patients with valve disease are at higher risk of thrombus formation before and after surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of 4-dimensional cardiac computed tomography (4DCT) to predict the risk of thrombus formation. METHODS: Between March 2010 to March 2015, total of 62 patients (mean 60±15 years old, male: 53.2%) who underwent 4DCT and TEE for cardiac valve evaluation before surgery were retrospectively included in the current study. Fractional area change in TEE view and emptying velocity at left atrial appendage in TEE view (VeTEE) were measured. Ejection fraction (EF) of left atrial appendage in computed tomography (EFCT) was calculated by 4DCT with full volume analysis. The best cut-off value of EFCT predicting presence of spontaneous echo contrast (SEC) or thrombus was evaluated, and correlation between the parameters were also estimated. RESULTS: SEC or thrombus was observed in 45.2%. EFCT and VeTEE were significantly correlated (r=0.452, p < 0.001). However, fractional area change measured by TEE showed no correlation with VeTEE (r=0.085, p=0.512). EFCT < 37.5% best predicted SEC or thrombus in the patients with valve disease who underwent 4DCT and TEE (area under the curve, 0.654; p=0.038). CONCLUSIONS: In the patients who underwent 4DCT for cardiac valve evaluation before surgery, EFCT by volume analysis might have additional role to evaluate LAA function and estimate the risk of thrombus.


Subject(s)
Atrial Appendage , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography , Heart Valve Diseases , Heart Valves , Humans , Incidence , Male , Retrospective Studies , Stroke , Thrombosis
12.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 448-457, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917318

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES@#Coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring in the asymptomatic population can improve cardiovascular risk prediction. We aimed to assess CAC progression and the impact of coronary risk factors on the CAC progression rate in asymptomatic Korean individuals with a baseline CAC score of zero.@*METHODS@#The study population was derived from the Korea Initiatives on Coronary Artery Calcification (KOICA) registry: a retrospective, single ethnicity, multicenter registry of asymptomatic individuals who underwent CAC scoring as a part of a health checkup. Individuals with at least two CAC scores and an initial score of zero were included. CAC progression was defined as [√CAC score (follow-up) −√CAC score (baseline)] ≥2.5. The 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk was calculated.@*RESULTS@#Among 6,268 participants (mean age, 48.0±7.1 years; male, 80.5%), 719 (11.5%) experienced CAC progression during follow-up (median, 109 months; interquartile range, 78–208 months). The CAC progression rate was 0.3%, 1.9%, 4.3%, 8.6%, and 16.7% in years 1–5, respectively. The chance of CAC progression at 5 years was 13.1%, 22.0%, and 27.9% for individuals with a 10-year ASCVD risk of <5%, ≥5% but <7.5%, and ≥7.5%, respectively. A multivariable analysis revealed age, male sex, waist circumference, diabetes, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level as independently associated with annualized CAC progression (p<0.001, p=0.017, p=0.025, p=0.032, and p=0.003, respectively).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The probability of CAC progression is very low in Korean individuals with a CAC score of zero. However, the risk of CAC progression increases nonlinearly over time, and increases as the 10-year ASCVD risk increases.

13.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 146-159, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917268

ABSTRACT

Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging provides accurate anatomic information and advanced soft contrast, making it the reference standard for assessing cardiac volumes and systolic function. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in CMR sequences. New technical development has widened the use of CMR imaging beyond the simple characterization of myocardial scars and assessment of contractility. These novel CMR sequences offer comprehensive assessments of coronary plaque characterization, myocardial fiber orientation, and even metabolic activity, and they can be readily applied in clinical settings. CMR imaging is able to provide new insights into understanding the pathophysiologic process of underlying cardiac disease, and it can help physicians choose the best treatment strategies. Although several limitations, including the high cost and time-consuming process, have limited the widespread clinical use of CMR imaging so far, recent advances in software and hardware technologies have made the future more promising.

14.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 173-180, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917265

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES@#Decreased left atrial appendage (LAA) emptying velocity in transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is related with higher incidence of thrombus and increased risk of stroke. Patients with valve disease are at higher risk of thrombus formation before and after surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of 4-dimensional cardiac computed tomography (4DCT) to predict the risk of thrombus formation.@*METHODS@#Between March 2010 to March 2015, total of 62 patients (mean 60±15 years old, male: 53.2%) who underwent 4DCT and TEE for cardiac valve evaluation before surgery were retrospectively included in the current study. Fractional area change in TEE view and emptying velocity at left atrial appendage in TEE view (VeTEE) were measured. Ejection fraction (EF) of left atrial appendage in computed tomography (EFCT) was calculated by 4DCT with full volume analysis. The best cut-off value of EFCT predicting presence of spontaneous echo contrast (SEC) or thrombus was evaluated, and correlation between the parameters were also estimated.@*RESULTS@#SEC or thrombus was observed in 45.2%. EFCT and VeTEE were significantly correlated (r=0.452, p < 0.001). However, fractional area change measured by TEE showed no correlation with VeTEE (r=0.085, p=0.512). EFCT < 37.5% best predicted SEC or thrombus in the patients with valve disease who underwent 4DCT and TEE (area under the curve, 0.654; p=0.038).@*CONCLUSIONS@#In the patients who underwent 4DCT for cardiac valve evaluation before surgery, EFCT by volume analysis might have additional role to evaluate LAA function and estimate the risk of thrombus.

15.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 353-360, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917227

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES@#Udenafil, a new phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (PDE5i), has been used to treat erectile dysfunction. Given the proven benefit of PDE5i in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), we evaluated serial hemodynamic changes after single udenafil administration to determine the appropriate therapeutic dose.@*METHODS@#Eighteen patients were randomly allocated into one of 3 groups: placebo, udenafil 50 mg (U50), and udenafil 100 mg (U100). Diagnosis for inclusion was idiopathic PAH or PAH associated with connective tissue disease. Patients with any contraindication to PDE5i, and/or PDE5i treatment in the past 1 month were excluded. Continuous hemodynamic monitoring was performed by placing a Swan-Ganz catheter. Information on cardiac index (CI), mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), mean systemic arterial pressure (mSAP), pulmonary arterial wedge pressure (PAWP), and pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) was obtained for 4 hours after drug administration.@*RESULTS@#The mPAP significantly decreased in both the U50 and U100 (−11 mmHg and −8 mmHg from baseline, respectively, p < 0.1). The mSAP also decreased in both U50 and U100; however, the decrease was greater in the U100 (Δ=−8.5 mmHg and Δ=−14.0 mmHg). CI increased in the U50, but decreased in the U100. Although PVRI decreased in both, statistical significance was only achieved in the U50 compared to placebo. PAWP was stable during monitoring. U50 had at least 4 hour-effect after administration. Only 2 patients with U100 experienced mild adverse events.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This is the first demonstration of the acute hemodynamic changes induced by udenafil. U50 is considered an optimal dose for treating PAH with more than 4-hour treatment effect.TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01553721.

16.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 265-272, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713094

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Impaired left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) and the presence of microalbuminuria indicate early cardiac and renal dysfunction. We aimed to determine the relationships among 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (BP) variables, LV GLS, and urine albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) in hypertensive patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 130 hypertensive patients (mean age 53 years; 59 men) underwent 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring, measurements of peripheral and central BPs, and transthoracic echocardiography. Patients with apparent LV systolic dysfunction (LV ejection fraction < 50%) or chronic kidney disease were not included. LV GLS was calculated using two-dimensional speckle tracking, and UACR was analyzed from spot urine samples. RESULTS: In simple correlation analysis, LV GLS showed the most significant correlation with mean daytime diastolic BP (DBP) (r=0.427, p < 0.001) among the various BP variables analyzed. UACR revealed a significant correlation only with night-time mean systolic BP (SBP) (r=0.253, p=0.019). In multiple regression analysis, daytime mean DBP and night-time mean SBP were independent determinants for LV GLS (β=0.35, p=0.028) and log UACR (β=0.49, p=0.007), respectively, after controlling for confounding factors. Daytime mean DBP showed better diagnostic performance for impaired LV GLS than did peripheral or central DBPs, which were not diagnostic. Night-time mean SBP showed satisfactory diagnostic performance for microalbuminuria. CONCLUSION: There are different associations for daytime and night-time BP with early cardiac and renal dysfunction. Ambulatory BP monitoring provides more relevant BP parameters than do peripheral or central BPs regarding early cardiac and renal dysfunction in hypertensive patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure/physiology , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Echocardiography , Female , Heart/physiopathology , Humans , Hypertension/diagnostic imaging , Kidney/physiopathology , Kidney Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Regression Analysis , Systole/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology
17.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 273-278, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713093

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We determined factors associated with long-term outcomes of patients who underwent successful percutaneous mitral balloon valvuloplasty (PMV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between August 1980 and May 2013, 1187 patients underwent PMV at Severance Hospital, Seoul, Korea. A total of 742 patients who underwent regular clinic visits for more than 10 years were retrospectively analyzed. The endpoints consisted of repeated PMV, mitral valve (MV) surgery, and cardiovascular-related death. RESULTS: The optimal result, defined as a post-PMV mitral valve area (MVA) >1.5 cm² and mitral regurgitation ≤Grade II, was obtained in 631 (85%) patients. Over a mean follow up duration of 214±50 months, 54 (7.3%) patients underwent repeat PMV, 4 (0.5%) underwent trido-PMV, and 248 (33.4%) underwent MV surgery. A total of 33 patients (4.4%) had stroke, and 35 (4.7%) patients died from cardiovascular-related reasons. In a multivariate analysis, echocardiographic score [p=0.003, hazard ratio=1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01–2.41] and post-MVA cut-off (p 8 and post-MVA ≤1.76 cm² were independent predictors of poor long-term clinical outcomes after PMV, including MV reintervention, stroke, and cardiovascular-related death.


Subject(s)
Adult , Catheterization , Echocardiography , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Mitral Valve Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Multivariate Analysis , Proportional Hazards Models , Republic of Korea , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
18.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 82-89, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65059

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The 2013 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) cholesterol management guidelines advocate the use of statin treatment for prevention of cardiovascular disease. We aimed to assess the usefulness of coronary artery calcium (CAC) for stratifying potential candidates of statin use among asymptomatic Korean individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 31375 subjects who underwent CAC scoring as part of a general health examination were enrolled in the current study. Statin eligibility was categorized as statin recommended (SR), considered (SC), and not recommended (SN) according to ACC/AHA guidelines. Cox regression analysis was employed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidential intervals (CI) after stratifying the subjects according to CAC scores of 0, 1–100, and >100. Number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one mortality event during study follow up was calculated for each group. RESULTS: Mean age was 54.4±7.5 years, and 76.3% were male. During a 5-year median follow-up (interquartile range; 3–7), there were 251 (0.8%) deaths from all-causes. A CAC >100 was independently associated with mortality across each statin group after adjusting for cardiac risk factors (e.g., SR: HR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.07–2.38; SC: HR, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.09–8.13, and SN: HR, 3.14; 95% CI, 1.08–9.17). Notably, patients with CAC >100 displayed a lower NNT in comparison to the absence of CAC or CAC 1–100 in SC and SN groups. CONCLUSION: In Korean asymptomatic individuals, CAC scoring might prove useful for reclassifying patient eligibility for receiving statin therapy based on updated 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines.


Subject(s)
Aged , American Heart Association , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cause of Death , Confidence Intervals , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Numbers Needed To Treat , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Regression Analysis , Republic of Korea , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , United States , Vascular Calcification/diagnosis
19.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 114-122, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65055

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although asymptomatic coronary artery occlusive disease is common in stroke patients, the long-term advantages of undergoing evaluation for coronary arterial disease using multi-detector coronary computed tomography (MDCT) have not been well established in stroke patients. We compared long-term cardio-cerebrovascular outcomes between patients who underwent MDCT and those who did not. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study in a prospective cohort of consecutive ischemic stroke patients. Of the 3117 patients who were registered between July 2006 and December 2012, MDCT was performed in 1842 patients [MDCT (+) group] and not in 1275 patients [MDCT (−) group]. Occurrences of death, cardiovascular events, and recurrent stroke were compared between the groups using Cox proportional hazards models and propensity score analyses. RESULTS: During the mean follow-up of 38.0±24.8 months, 486 (15.6%) patients died, recurrent stroke occurred in 297 (9.5%), and cardiovascular events occurred in 60 patients (1.9%). Mean annual risks of death (9.34% vs. 2.47%), cardiovascular events (1.2% vs. 0.29%), and recurrent stroke (4.7% vs. 2.56%) were higher in the MDCT (−) group than in the MDCT (+) group. The Cox proportional hazards model and the five propensity score-adjusted models consistently demonstrated that the MDCT (−) group was at a high risk of cardiovascular events (hazard ratios 3.200, 95% confidence interval 1.172–8.735 in 1:1 propensity matching analysis) as well as death. The MDCT (−) group seemed to also have a higher risk of recurrent stroke. CONCLUSION: Acute stroke patients who underwent MDCT experienced fewer deaths, cardiovascular events, and recurrent strokes during follow-up.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Diseases , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Multidetector Computed Tomography/statistics & numerical data , Propensity Score , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Stroke/complications
20.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 918-928, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-90202

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes. Heavy aortic calcification exacerbates arterial stiffness, which consequently heightens left ventricular (LV) afterload. We assessed the usefulness of aortic calcification for predicting adverse cardiovascular outcomes and to determine whether the relationship, if any, differed as a function of LVH. METHODS: The analytic sample was comprised of a total of 487 individuals 65 years of age or older. Thoracic aorta calcium score (TACS) was measured by coronary computed tomography, and patients were stratified according to the median (TACS, 446 mm3). LVH obtained from echocardiography was defined as LV mass index >115 g/m2 for men and >95 g/m2 for women. Cox regression reporting hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was performed to predict the risk for the composite study endpoint, defined as cardiac death, admission for heart failure, obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) requiring revascularization, or stroke. RESULTS: A total of 39 composite events (8.0%) occurred during a median follow-up of 65 months (interquartile range [IQR], 17–89 months). For those with LVH, the concurrent presence of high TACS appeared to be an independent predictor (HR, 4.51; 95% CI, 1.71–11.88; p=0.002) for the composite study endpoint. Other combined LVH and TACS subgroups were not associated with significant factors for predicting the composite study endpoint (p>0.050, all). CONCLUSION: TACS provides robust predictive utility for a composite of cardiovascular events and cardiac death in persons with LVH. This finding was less pronounced in those with a relatively healthy myocardium, defined by the absence of LVH.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aorta, Thoracic , Calcium , Coronary Artery Disease , Death , Echocardiography , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Failure , Humans , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular , Male , Myocardium , Prognosis , Stroke , Vascular Calcification , Vascular Stiffness
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