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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899938

ABSTRACT

Background@#Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a potentially devastating cerebrovascular attack with a high proportion of poor outcomes and mortality. Recent studies have reported decreased mortality with the improvement in devices and techniques for treating ruptured aneurysms and neurocritical care. This study investigated the relationship between hospital volume and shortand long-term mortality in patients treated with subarachnoid hemorrhage. @*Methods@#We selected subarachnoid hemorrhage patients treated with clipping and coiling from March–May 2013 to June–August 2014 using data from Acute Stroke Registry, and the selected subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients were tracked in connection with data of Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service to evaluate the short-term and long-term mortality. @*Results@#A total of 625 subarachnoid hemorrhage patients were admitted to high-volume hospitals (n = 355, 57%) and low-volume hospitals (n = 270, 43%) for six months. The mortality of SAH patients treated with clipping and coiling was 12.3%, 20.2%, 21.4%, and 24.3% at 14 days, three months, one year, and five years, respectively. The short-term and long-term mortality in high-volume hospitals was significantly lower than that in low-volume hospitals. On Cox regression analysis of death in patients with severe clinical status, lowvolume hospitals had significantly higher mortality than high-volume hospitals during shortterm follow-up. On Cox regression analysis in the mild clinical status group, there was no statistical difference between high-volume hospitals and low-volume hospitals. @*Conclusion@#In subarachnoid hemorrhage patients treated with clipping and coiling, lowvolume hospitals had higher short-term mortality than high-volume hospitals. These results from a nationwide database imply that acute SAH should be treated by a skilled neurosurgeon with adequate facilities in a high-volume hospital.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892234

ABSTRACT

Background@#Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a potentially devastating cerebrovascular attack with a high proportion of poor outcomes and mortality. Recent studies have reported decreased mortality with the improvement in devices and techniques for treating ruptured aneurysms and neurocritical care. This study investigated the relationship between hospital volume and shortand long-term mortality in patients treated with subarachnoid hemorrhage. @*Methods@#We selected subarachnoid hemorrhage patients treated with clipping and coiling from March–May 2013 to June–August 2014 using data from Acute Stroke Registry, and the selected subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients were tracked in connection with data of Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service to evaluate the short-term and long-term mortality. @*Results@#A total of 625 subarachnoid hemorrhage patients were admitted to high-volume hospitals (n = 355, 57%) and low-volume hospitals (n = 270, 43%) for six months. The mortality of SAH patients treated with clipping and coiling was 12.3%, 20.2%, 21.4%, and 24.3% at 14 days, three months, one year, and five years, respectively. The short-term and long-term mortality in high-volume hospitals was significantly lower than that in low-volume hospitals. On Cox regression analysis of death in patients with severe clinical status, lowvolume hospitals had significantly higher mortality than high-volume hospitals during shortterm follow-up. On Cox regression analysis in the mild clinical status group, there was no statistical difference between high-volume hospitals and low-volume hospitals. @*Conclusion@#In subarachnoid hemorrhage patients treated with clipping and coiling, lowvolume hospitals had higher short-term mortality than high-volume hospitals. These results from a nationwide database imply that acute SAH should be treated by a skilled neurosurgeon with adequate facilities in a high-volume hospital.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763112

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There was no practical guideline for the management of patients with central nervous system tumor in Korea in the past. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, developed the guideline for glioblastoma successfully and published it in Brain Tumor Research and Treatment, the official journal of KSNO, in April 2019. Recently, the KSNO guideline for World Health Organization (WHO) grade III cerebral glioma in adults has been established. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified by searches in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. Scope of the disease was confined to cerebral anaplastic astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma in adults. RESULTS: Whenever radiological feature suggests high grade glioma, maximal safe resection if feasible is globally recommended. After molecular and histological examinations, patients with anaplastic astrocytoma, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant should be primary treated by standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy whereas those with anaplastic astrocytoma, NOS, and anaplastic astrocytoma, IDH-wildtype should be treated following the protocol for glioblastomas. In terms of anaplastic oligodendroglioma, IDH-mutant and 1p19q-codeletion, and anaplastic oligodendroglioma, NOS should be primary treated by standard brain radiotherapy and neoadjuvant or adjuvant PCV (procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine) combination chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that WHO grade III cerebral glioma of adults should be treated by maximal safe resection if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to molecular and histological features of tumors.


Subject(s)
Adult , Astrocytoma , Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Central Nervous System , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Humans , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Korea , Lomustine , Oligodendroglioma , Radiotherapy , World Health Organization
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763111

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There was no practical guideline for the management of patients with central nervous system tumor in Korea for many years. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, has developed the guideline for glioblastoma. Subsequently, the KSNO guideline for World Health Organization (WHO) grade II cerebral glioma in adults is established. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified by searching PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords regarding diffuse astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma of brain in adults. RESULTS: Whenever radiological feature suggests lower grade glioma, the maximal safe resection if feasible is recommended globally. After molecular and histological examinations, patients with diffuse astrocytoma, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-wildtype without molecular feature of glioblastoma should be primarily treated by standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy (Level III) while those with molecular feature of glioblastoma should be treated following the protocol for glioblastomas. In terms of patients with diffuse astrocytoma, IDH-mutant and oligodendroglioma (IDH-mutant and 1p19q codeletion), standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant PCV (procarbazine+lomustine+vincristine) combination chemotherapy should be considered primarily for the high-risk group while observation with regular follow up should be considered for the low-risk group. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that WHO grade II gliomas should be treated by maximal safe resection, if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to molecular and histological features of tumors and clinical characteristics of patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Astrocytoma , Brain , Central Nervous System , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Follow-Up Studies , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Humans , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Korea , Oligodendroglioma , Radiotherapy , World Health Organization
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739672

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has been no practical guidelines for the management of patients with central nervous system (CNS) tumors in Korea for many years. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, started to prepare guidelines for CNS tumors from February 2018. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. RESULTS: First, the maximal safe resection if feasible is recommended. After the diagnosis of a glioblastoma with neurosurgical intervention, patients aged ≤70 years with good performance should be treated by concurrent chemoradiotherapy with temozolomide followed by adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy (Stupp's protocol) or standard brain radiotherapy alone. However, those with poor performance should be treated by hypofractionated brain radiotherapy (preferred)±concurrent or adjuvant temozolomide, temozolomide alone (Level III), or supportive treatment. Alternatively, patients aged >70 years with good performance should be treated by hypofractionated brain radiotherapy+concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide or Stupp's protocol or hypofractionated brain radiotherapy alone, while those with poor performance should be treated by hypofractionated brain radiotherapy alone or temozolomide chemotherapy if the patient has methylated MGMT gene promoter (Level III), or supportive treatment. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that glioblastomas should be treated by maximal safe resection, if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to the individual comprehensive condition of the patient.


Subject(s)
Brain , Central Nervous System , Chemoradiotherapy , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Glioblastoma , Humans , Korea , Radiotherapy
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717501

ABSTRACT

Gliosarcoma (GS), known as variant of glioblastoma multiforme, is aggressive and very rare primary central nervous system malignant neoplasm. They are usually located in the supratentorial area with possible direct dural invasion or only reactive dural thickening. However, in this case, GS was located in lateral side of left posterior cranial fossa. A 78-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with 3 month history of continuous dizziness and gait disturbance without past medical history. A gadolinium-enhanced MRI demonstrated 5.6×4.8×3.2 cm sized mass lesion in left posterior cranial fossa, heterogeneously enhanced. The patient underwent left retrosigmoid craniotomy with navigation system. The tumor was combined with 2 components, whitish firm mass and gray colored soft & suckable mass. On pathologic report, the final diagnosis was GS of WHO grade IV. In spite of successful gross total resection of tumor, we were no longer able to treat because of the patient's rejection of adjuvant treatment. The patient survived for nine months without receiving any special treatment from the hospital.


Subject(s)
Aged , Central Nervous System , Cranial Fossa, Posterior , Craniotomy , Diagnosis , Dizziness , Gait , Glioblastoma , Gliosarcoma , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717479

ABSTRACT

Traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) is an important cause of severe visual loss after blunt or penetrating head and facial trauma. High-dose steroids and surgical interventions have been applied in the indirect TON. However, there is no convincing evidence that results of the treatment have any strong benefits in terms of improvement of visual acuity. Nevertheless, surgical decompression should be considered in the case of a direct bony compression to the optic nerve and a progressive visual loss in indirect TON. Neurosurgeon should be aware the surgical indication, optimal timing and relevant technique for the optic canal (OC) decompression. In this review article, we will focus on the surgical approaches to the OC and how to decompress it.


Subject(s)
Decompression , Decompression, Surgical , Head , Neurosurgeons , Optic Nerve , Optic Nerve Injuries , Steroids , Visual Acuity
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717478

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The pathophysiology of chronic subdural hematoma (CSH) is not yet clear. Trauma alone is not sufficient to result in CSH in young individuals, while a trivial injury can result in CSH in older adults. Although the causality and apportionment of trauma are important issues in CSH, especially in terms of insurance, it is too obscure to solve all struggles. METHODS: There are three key factors for producing CSH. First, CSH necessitates a potential subdural reservoir. Other important precipitating factors are trauma and coagulopathy. However, these factors are not sufficient to cause CSH development. The trauma apportionment score (TAS) can be used to compare the relative importance of these three factors. Here, we applied the TAS to 239 consecutive cases of CSH. We retrospectively obtained the patients' history and laboratory results from their medical records. RESULTS: The TAS ranged from −5 to 5. The most common score was 0. If we defined the cause of CSH as being combined when the TAS was 0, then the cause was combined in 30 cases (12.6%). If we extended the criteria for a combined cause from 0 to −1 to 1, the cause was combined in 107 cases (44.8%). Regardless of the criteria used, traumatic CSHs were more common than were spontaneous CSHs. Spontaneous CSHs were more common in older than in younger patients (p < 0.01, Fisher's exact test). CONCLUSION: The TAS is a useful tool for differentiating the causality of CSH.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aging , Craniocerebral Trauma , Hematoma, Subdural, Chronic , Humans , Insurance , Intracranial Pressure , Medical Records , Precipitating Factors , Retrospective Studies
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-203988

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We evaluate the rates and outcomes of major procedure-related complications during coiling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2007 and 2015, 436 intracranial saccular aneurysms were treated. Complications are categorized as three types: intraprocedural aneurysm rupture (IAR), thromboembolism (TE), and post-procedural early rebleeding (PER). And we evaluated the risk factors of procedure related complications by multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Complications occurred in 61 aneurysms (14%). The overall incidence of complications in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was significantly higher than in unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA) (20% vs. 6%). The incidence of IAR and TE were higher in SAH than in UIA (IAR 12% vs. 4%, TE 7% vs. 3%, p 0.05). All 7 patients who had IAR during BAC had good recovery. In multiple logistic regression analysis, female gender, SAH, and intraventricular hemorrhage were associated with procedure related complication (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Endovascular coil embolization is a minimally invasive procedure, but incidence of its complication is not low, especially in SAH. BAC can be a good tool to avoid poor outcome from unexpected IAR during coiling. While IA tirofiban injection is a useful therapy in TE during coiling, sometimes we are aware of the risk of the early rebleeding in SAH patients.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Embolization, Therapeutic , Female , Hemorrhage , Humans , Incidence , Intracranial Aneurysm , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Rupture , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Thromboembolism
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-62047

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Treatment of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) remains a challenge. However, after introduction of Onyx, transarterial approach is the preferred treatment option in many centers. We report our experience of dAVFs embolization with special emphasis on transarterial approach. METHODS: Seventeen embolization procedures were performed in 13 patients with dAVFs between Jan 2009 and Oct 2014. Clinical symptoms, location and type of fistulas, embolization methods, complications, radiological and clinical outcomes were evaluated using charts and PACS images. RESULTS: All 13 patients had symptomatic lesions. The locations of fistulas were transverse-sigmoid sinus in 6, middle fossa dura in 4, cavernous sinus in 2, and superior sagittal sinus in 1 patient. Cognard types were as follows : I in 4, IIa in 2, IIa+IIb in 5, and IV in 2. Embolization procedures were performed > or =2 times in 3 patients. Nine patients were treated with transarterial Onyx embolization alone. One of these required direct surgical puncture of middle meningeal artery. Complete obliteration of fistulas was achieved in 11/13 (85%) patients. There were no complications except for 1 case of Onyx migration in cavernous dAVF. Modified Rankin scale score at post-operative 3 months were 0 in 11, and 3 in 2 patients. CONCLUSION: Transarterial Onyx embolization can be a first line therapeutic option in patients with dAVFs. However, transvenous approach should be tried first in cavernous sinus dAVF because of the risk of intracranial migration of liquid embolic materials. Furthermore, combined surgical endovascular approach can be considered as a useful option in inaccessible route.


Subject(s)
Cavernous Sinus , Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations , Fistula , Humans , Meningeal Arteries , Punctures , Superior Sagittal Sinus
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-124874

ABSTRACT

Cerebral vasospasm associated with hyperthyroidism has not been reported to cause cerebral infarction. The case reported here is therefore the first of cerebral infarction co-existing with severe vasospasm and hyperthyroidism. A 30-year-old woman was transferred to our hospital in a stuporous state with right hemiparesis. At first, she complained of headache and dizziness. However, she had no neurological deficits or radiological abnormalities. She was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism 2 months ago, but she had discontinued the antithyroid medication herself three days ago. Magnetic resonance imaging and angiography showed cerebral infarction with severe vasospasm. Thus, chemical angioplasty using verapamil was performed two times, and antithyroid medication was administered. Follow-up angiography performed at 6 weeks demonstrated complete recovery of the vasospasm. At the 2-year clinical follow-up, she was alert with mild weakness and cortical blindness. Hyperthyroidism may influence cerebral vascular hemodynamics. Therefore, a sudden increase in the thyroid hormone levels in the clinical setting should be avoided to prevent cerebrovascular accidents. When neurological deterioration is noticed without primary cerebral parenchyma lesions, evaluation of thyroid function may be required before the symptoms occur.


Subject(s)
Adult , Angiography , Angioplasty , Blindness, Cortical , Cerebral Infarction , Dizziness , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Headache , Hemodynamics , Humans , Hyperthyroidism , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Paresis , Stroke , Stupor , Thyroid Gland , Vasospasm, Intracranial , Verapamil
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69790

ABSTRACT

Intracranial pial arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are rare vascular lesions of the brain. These lesions consist of one or more arterial connection to a single venous channel without true intervening nidus. A 24-year-old woman visited to our hospital because of headache, vomiting, dizziness and memory disturbance that persisted for three days. She complained several times of drop attack because of sudden weakness on both leg. Cerebral angiograms demonstrated a giant venous aneurysm on right frontal lobe beyond the genu of corpus callosum, multiple varices on both frontal lobes fed by azygos anterior cerebral artery, and markedly dilated draining vein into superior sagittal sinus, suggesting single channel pial AVF with multiple varices. Transarterial coil embolization of giant aneurysm and fistulous portion resulted in complete disappearance of pial AVF without complication.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Anterior Cerebral Artery , Arteriovenous Fistula , Brain , Corpus Callosum , Dizziness , Embolization, Therapeutic , Female , Frontal Lobe , Headache , Humans , Leg , Memory , Superior Sagittal Sinus , Syncope , Varicose Veins , Veins , Vomiting , Young Adult
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