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1.
Ultrasonography ; : 34-52, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919555

ABSTRACT

Musculoskeletal ultrasonography (US) has unique advantages, such as excellent spatial resolution for superficial structures, the capability for dynamic imaging, and the ability for direct correlation and provocation of symptoms. For these reasons, US is increasingly used to evaluate problems in small joints, such as the foot and ankle. However, it is almost impossible to evaluate every anatomic structure within a limited time. Therefore, US examinations can be faster and more efficient if radiologists know where to look and image patients with typical symptoms. In this review, common etiologies of heel pain are discussed in a problem-based manner. Knowing the common pain sources and being familiar with their US findings will help radiologists to perform accurate and effective US examinations.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918626

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#Aster yomena (Kitam.) Honda (AY) has remarkable bioactivities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and anti-cancer activities. On the other hand, the effects of AY against obesity-induced insulin resistance have not been reported. Therefore, this study examined the potential of AY against obesity-associated insulin resistance in highfat diet (HFD)-fed mice.MATERIALS/METHODS: An obesity model was established by feeding C57BL/6J mice a 60% HFD for 16 weeks. The C57BL6/When ethyl acetate fraction from AY (EFAY) at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day was administered orally to mice fed a HFD for the last 4 weeks. Normal and control groups were administered water orally. The body weight and fasting blood glucose were measured every week. Dietary intake was measured every other day. After dissection, blood and tissues were collected from the mice. @*RESULTS@#The administration of EFAY reduced body and organ weights significantly compared to HFD-fed control mice. The EFAY-administered groups also improved the serum lipid profile by decreasing the triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein compared to the control group. In addition, EFAY ameliorated the insulin resistance-related metabolic dysfunctions, including the fasting blood glucose and serum insulin level, compared to the HFD-fed control mice. The EFAY inhibited lipid synthesis and insulin resistance by down-regulation of hepatic fatty acid synthase and up-regulation of the AMPactivated protein kinase pathway. EFAY also reduced lipid peroxidation in the liver, indicating that EFAY protected hepatic injury induced by obesity. @*CONCLUSIONS@#These results suggest that EFAY improved obesity-associated insulin resistance by regulating the lipid and glucose metabolism, suggesting that AY could be used as a functional food to prevent obesity and insulin resistance.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918236

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Our study aimed to evaluate the quality of radiomics studies on brain metastases based on the radiomics quality score (RQS), Transparent Reporting of a multivariable prediction model for Individual Prognosis Or Diagnosis (TRIPOD) checklist, and the Image Biomarker Standardization Initiative (IBSI) guidelines. @*Materials and Methods@#PubMed MEDLINE, and EMBASE were searched for articles on radiomics for evaluating brain metastases, published until February 2021. Of the 572 articles, 29 relevant original research articles were included and evaluated according to the RQS, TRIPOD checklist, and IBSI guidelines. @*Results@#External validation was performed in only three studies (10.3%). The median RQS was 3.0 (range, -6 to 12), with a low basic adherence rate of 50.0%. The adherence rate was low in comparison to the “gold standard” (10.3%), stating the potential clinical utility (10.3%), performing the cut-off analysis (3.4%), reporting calibration statistics (6.9%), and providing open science and data (3.4%). None of the studies involved test-retest or phantom studies, prospective studies, or cost-effectiveness analyses. The overall rate of adherence to the TRIPOD checklist was 60.3% and low for reporting title (3.4%), blind assessment of outcome (0%), description of the handling of missing data (0%), and presentation of the full prediction model (0%). The majority of studies lacked pre-processing steps, with bias-field correction, isovoxel resampling, skull stripping, and gray-level discretization performed in only six (20.7%), nine (31.0%), four (3.8%), and four (13.8%) studies, respectively. @*Conclusion@#The overall scientific and reporting quality of radiomics studies on brain metastases published during the study period was insufficient. Radiomics studies should adhere to the RQS, TRIPOD, and IBSI guidelines to facilitate the translation of radiomics into the clinical field.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918220

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To compare the clinical and radiologic findings between perforated and non-perforated choledochal cysts in children. @*Materials and Methods@#Fourteen patients (mean age ± standard deviation, 1.7 ± 1.2 years) with perforated choledochal cysts (perforated group) and 204 patients (3.6 ± 3.8 years) with non-perforated choledochal cysts (non-perforated group) were included between 2000 and 2019. All patients underwent choledochal cyst excision after ultrasound, CT, or MR cholangiopancreatography. Relevant data including demographics, clinical symptoms, laboratory findings, imaging findings, and outcomes were analyzed. Statistical differences were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test and Fisher’s exact test. @*Results@#Choledochal cyst perforation occurred only in children under the age of 4 years. Acute symptoms, including fever (p < 0.001), were more common in the perforated group than in the non-perforated group. High levels of white blood cells (p = 0.004), C-reactive protein (p < 0.001), and serum amylase (p = 0.002), and low levels of albumin (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with the perforated group. All 14 patients with perforated choledochal cysts had ascites, whereas only 16% (33/204) of patients in the non-perforated group had ascites (p < 0.001). In the subgroup of patients who had ascites, a large amount of ascites (p = 0.001), increase in the amount of ascites in a short time (p < 0.001), complex ascites (p < 0.001), and perihepatic pseudocysts (p < 0.001) were more common in the perforated group than in the non-perforated group. @*Conclusion@#Children with perforated choledochal cysts have characteristic clinical and radiologic findings compared to those with non-perforated choledochal cysts. In young children with choledochal cysts, perforation should be differentiated in cases with acute symptoms, laboratory abnormalities, and characteristic ascites findings.

5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918130

ABSTRACT

Acute cholecystitis (AC), defined as inflammation of the gallbladder, is mainly caused by gallstones. Over 90% of AC results from obstruction of the cystic duct by stones or sludge, which subsequently increases the intraluminal pressure within the gallbladder and, in conjunction with the presence of bile supersaturated with cholesterol, activates an acute inflammatory cascade. Clinical features play an important role in the diagnosis of AC. The Tokyo Guidelines 2018 for acute cholecystitis designates the presence of local inflammatory signs and systemic inflammatory signs for a suspected diagnosis. It requires confirmation by radiological imaging along with these two factors for a definitive diagnosis. Thanks to less invasiveness, easy availability, ease of use, and cost-effectiveness, ultrasound (US) is usually accepted as the first choice in suspicious AC patients. A meta-analysis comparing methods of diagnosis for AC reported that the US has 81% of sensitivity and 83% of specificity. Abdominal computed tomography is recommended for diagnosing emphysematous or gangrenous cholecystitis. Meanwhile, acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) is a life-threatening disease mainly in severely ill patients. It usually affects the patients hospitalized for multiple trauma, burns, cardiopulmonary bypass surgery, long-term total parenteral nutrition or sepsis. The diagnosis of AAC is quite challenging and requires a high index of suspicion. Currently, cholecystectomy is the treatment of choice for AC, although the optimal time for surgery is still controversial. Due to high morbidity and mortality in high surgical risk groups, percutaneous gallbladder drainage can be a safe and feasible alternative to cholecystectomy, particularly for patients unfit for the surgery.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917391

ABSTRACT

In primary prevention for cardiovascular diseases, there are significant barriers to adherence including freedom from symptoms, long latency for therapeutic benefits, life-long duration of treatment, and need for combined lifestyle changes. However, to implement more systematic approaches, the focus on adherence improvement needs to be shifted away from patient factors to the effects of the treatment team and healthcare system. In addition to conventional educational approaches, more patient-oriented approaches such as patientcentered clinical communication skills, counseling using motivational strategies, decisionmaking by patient empowerment, and a multi-disciplinary team approach should be developed and implemented. Patients should be involved in a program of self-monitoring, self-management, and active counseling. Because most effective interventions on adherence improvement demand greater resources, the health care system and educational or training system of physicians and healthcare staff need to be supported for systematic improvement.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917381

ABSTRACT

With the recent rapid increase in obesity worldwide, metabolic syndrome (MetS) has gained significant importance. MetS is a cluster of obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors including abdominal obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, high blood pressure and impaired glucose tolerance. MetS is highly prevalent and strongly associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease, putting a great burden on human society. Therefore, it is very important to reduce MetS risk, which can improve patients’cardiovascular prognosis. The primary and most effective strategy to control each component of MetS is lifestyle change such as losing body weight, keeping regular exercise, adopting a healthy diet, quitting smoking and alcohol drinking in moderation. Many studies have shown that lifestyle modification has improved all components of MetS, and reduces the incidence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Here, the Korean Society of CardioMetabolic Syndrome has summarized specific and practical methods of lifestyle modification in the management of MetS in the healthcare field.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916999

ABSTRACT

Mitral regurgitation (MR) is the most common heart disease in small-breed dogs. Mitral repair, which comprise artificial chorda tendineae implantation and mitral annuloplasty, has become the mainstay of treatment in the veterinary field. We report on two small dogs who underwent mitral repair surgery for MR. A Hegar dilator was used during mitral annuloplasty for accurate and reproducible surgery. In both cases, mitral regurgitant flow almost disappeared after surgery, and clinical signs improved. The treatment regimen was terminated 3 months after the surgery. We concluded that using a Hegar dilator may facilitate mitral valve repair surgery.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916888

ABSTRACT

Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is an inherited autosomal-dominant tumor-predisposition disorder caused by germline mutations in the TP53 tumor suppressor gene. Since patients with LFS are likely to develop therapy-related cancers, radiation therapy should be avoided if breast cancer is found in these individuals. Herein, we present a case of secondary breast cancer in an LFS patient after radiation and chemotherapy for the first diagnosed breast sarcoma.

10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916337

ABSTRACT

Treatment options for patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) so far have relied on off-label and empiric drugs. Advances in the understanding of NMOSD pathogenesis have led to the development of highly effective disease-modifying therapies, and for the first time in this disease, class I treatment evidence is available. We aim to shortly summarize the pathogenesis and biological targets for acute and preventive therapy of patients with NMOSD. We focus on conventional immunotherapies and the recently approved novel biological drugs, eculizumab, inebilizumab, and satralizumab, and conclude with a brief outlook on future therapeutic approaches.

11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916282

ABSTRACT

Background@#A bill for the mandatory installation of closed-circuit television (CCTV) in operating rooms, still likely in breach of the constitution, was approved. When a bill infringing on individuals’ fundamental rights is drafted, alternative means of minimizing the infringement of the offender’s rights should be considered ahead of the draft. To this end, alternatives on the bill identified through the consciousness of the offender would be most realistic and much more effective. Thus, this study examined doctors’ consciousness on the mandatory installation of CCTV in operating rooms, the appropriateness of punishment for members who commit immoral and unethical behaviors, and doctors’ alternative ideas to CCTV installation in operating rooms. @*Methods@#The online survey was conducted for a week from July 9, 2021, to July 16, 2021, by the Korean Medical Association Doctors News, and 2,345 doctor members responded to the investigation. @*Results@#According to the survey, the following alternatives to CCTV installation in operating rooms were proposed: strengthening punishment for performing ghost surgery (38.3%), placing cameras at the entrance of the operating room (21.8%), mandatory written consent (pledge) (13.7%) to prevent ghost surgery for medical staff participating in the surgery, promoting self-purification (whistle-blowing) (11.5%), and a biometrics function for entering operating rooms (8.8%). @*Conclusion@#The revised medical law delegated legislative devices to subordinate statutes for minimizing infringement. Thus, new regulations should be set to reduce infringement of fundamental rights. It is hoped that doctors’ consciousness on new law could be preliminary data to regulate new rules in discussing lower statutes.

12.
Journal of Stroke ; : 166-175, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915930

ABSTRACT

Antithrombotic therapy is a cornerstone of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) management and secondary stroke prevention. Since the first version of the Korean Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) for stroke was issued in 2009, significant progress has been made in antithrombotic therapy for patients with AIS, including dual antiplatelet therapy in acute minor ischemic stroke or high-risk transient ischemic stroke and early oral anticoagulation in AIS with atrial fibrillation. The evidence is widely accepted by stroke experts and has changed clinical practice. Accordingly, the CPG Committee of the Korean Stroke Society (KSS) decided to update the Korean Stroke CPG for antithrombotic therapy for AIS. The writing members of the CPG committee of the KSS reviewed recent evidence, including clinical trials and relevant literature, and revised recommendations. A total of 35 experts were invited from the KSS to reach a consensus on the revised recommendations. The current guideline update aims to assist healthcare providers in making well-informed decisions and improving the quality of acute stroke care. However, the ultimate treatment decision should be made using a holistic approach, considering the specific medical conditions of individual patients.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915748

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The effect of peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) on esophageal body movement in achalasia is poorly understood. This study aims to evaluate morphological changes in esophageal body movement after POEM in type III achalasia by analyzing intraluminal ultrasound (US) images in comparison to type I and II achalasia. @*Methods@#Intraluminal US images and impedance values of the distal esophagus from 47 achalasia patients who underwent POEM or pneumatic dilatation (PD) (30 patients in the POEM group and 17 patients in the PD group) with pre- and post-procedural high-resolution impedance manometry and intraluminal US examinations were analyzed. The muscle thickness (MT), muscle cross-sectional area, lumen cross-sectional area (LCSA), contractility and distensibility indices, swallow-to-distension interval, and distension duration during each bolus transport were analyzed. @*Results@#The MT increased and LCSA decreased significantly (P < 0.001), but the contractility index was not improved after POEM or PD in type I achalasia. Baseline MT increased and LCSA decreased significantly after POEM and PD in type II achalasia (P < 0.001). In contrast, MT and the swallow-to-distension interval decreased and the distension LCSA/duration and contractility index increased after POEM in type III achalasia (P < 0.001). In contrast to type I and II achalasia, in type III achalasia, these effects were unique to the POEM group. @*Conclusions@#POEM decreased the esophageal LCSA by decreasing intrabolus pressure without improving contractility in type I and II achalasia. In contrast, POEM increased esophageal body distension and contractility and improved the inhibitory process during bolus transport in type III achalasia.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915516

ABSTRACT

Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) has been reported as rare complication of vaccination. Herein, we report 2 cases of ATM after the administration of an mRNA vaccine for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The first one is an 81-year-old man who received the BNT162b2 vaccine. He presented with bilateral hand weakness. Spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed high signal intensity from the C1 to C3 vertebrae. The second is a 23-year-old woman who received the BNT162b2 vaccine and experienced tingling in her legs. Spine MRI showed a high signal intensity lesion at the conus medullaris. These patients were treated with intravenous methylprednisolone and their symptoms improved slightly. Careful follow-up is needed to identify adverse events after the administration of mRNA vaccines for COVID-19.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913817

ABSTRACT

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is becoming essential in the fields of precision oncology. With implementation of NGS in daily clinic, the needs for continued education, facilitated interpretation of NGS results and optimal treatment delivery based on NGS results have been addressed. Molecular tumor board (MTB) is multidisciplinary approach to keep pace with the growing knowledge of complex molecular alterations in patients with advanced solid cancer. Although guidelines for NGS use and MTB have been developed in western countries, there is limitation for reflection of Korea’s public health environment and daily clinical practice. These recommendations provide a critical guidance from NGS panel testing to final treatment decision based on MTB discussion.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913783

ABSTRACT

Glioblastoma is the most common malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumor (48.3%), with a median survival of only about 14.6 months. Although the CNS is an immune-privileged site, activated T cells can cross the blood-brain barrier. The recent successes of several immunotherapies for various cancers have drawn interest in immunotherapy for treatment of malignant glioma. There have been extensive attempts to evaluate the efficiency of immunotherapy against malignant glioma. Passive immunotherapy for malignant glioma includes monoclonal antibody-mediated immunotherapy, cytokine-mediated therapy, and adoptive cell transfer, also known as chimeric antigen receptor T cell treatment. On the other hand, active immunotherapy, which stimulates the patient’s adaptive immune system against specific tumor-associated antigens, includes cancer vaccines that are divided into peptide vaccines and cell-based vaccines. In addition, there is immune checkpoint blockade therapy, which increases the efficiency of immunotherapy by reducing the resistance of malignant glioma to immunotherapy. Despite centuries of efforts, immunotherapeutic successes for malignant glioma remain limited. However, many clinical trials of adoptive cell transfer immunotherapy on malignant glioma are ongoing, and the outcomes are eagerly awaited. In addition, although there are still several obstacles, current clinical trials using personalized neoantigen-based dendritic cell vaccines offer new hope to glioblastoma patients. Furthermore, immune checkpoint targeted therapy is expected to decipher the mechanism of immunotherapy resistance in malignant glioma in the near future. More studies are needed to increase the efficacy of immunotherapy in malignant glioma. We hope that immunotherapy will become a new treatment of malignant glioma.

17.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 40-45, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913468

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although particulate matter likely provokes inflammatory reactions in those with chronic skin disorders like atopic dermatitis, no study has examined the relationship between particulate matter and psoriasis exacerbation. @*Objective@#This study evaluated possible associations between particulate matter and hospital visits for psoriasis patients in 7 major cities in South Korea. @*Methods@#We investigated the relationship between psoriasis and particulate matter. To do this, we used psoriasis patient data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. In addition, PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentration data spanning a 3-year time frame were obtained from the Korea Environment Corporation. @*Results@#A pattern analysis generated by the sample cross-correlation function and time series regression showed a correlation between particulate matter concentration and the number of hospital visits by psoriasis patients. However, the prewhitening method, which minimizes the effects of other variables besides particulate matter, revealed no correlation between the two. @*Conclusion@#This study suggests that particulate matter has no impact on hospital visit frequency among psoriasis patients in South Korean urban areas.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913336

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Awareness of environmental control is considered a major influence on the performance of asthma self-management behaviors that are involved in maintaining effective control of asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate whether immersive virtual reality (VR) education is effective in environmental control education for asthmatic children. @*Methods@#Thirty asthmatic children aged 9 to 13 years with aeroallergen sensitization were enrolled. Environmental control education for asthmatic subjects were performed using either immersive VR (VR group) or conventional leaflets provided by asthma specialists (control group). Five questionnaires, such as awareness of environmental control, memory, assessment of intent to act, satisfaction test, and asthma control test (ACT) questionnaires were used for estimating the effects of education. @*Results@#Awareness of environmental control, memory, and intent to act scores were significantly increased after education in both groups and the scores were maintained high until 4 weeks after education. In both group, ACT scores were maintained high scores before and 4 weeks after education. Satisfaction scores were very high in the VR group. @*Conclusion@#The increased scores in awareness of environmental control and intent to act indicate that the environmental control education using VR is worthy of attention as an effective educational tool for asthma management. Application of further developed techniques, including active environmental intervention by participants in VR, could be applied to effective asthma management.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929135

ABSTRACT

Therapeutic dentin regeneration remains difficult to achieve, and a majority of the attention has been given to anabolic strategies to promote dentinogenesis directly, whereas, the available literature is insufficient to understand the role of inflammation and inflammatory complement system on dentinogenesis. The aim of this study is to determine the role of complement C5a receptor (C5aR) in regulating dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) differentiation and in vivo dentin regeneration. Human DPSCs were subjected to odontogenic differentiation in osteogenic media treated with the C5aR agonist and C5aR antagonist. In vivo dentin formation was evaluated using the dentin injury/pulp-capping model of the C5a-deficient and wild-type mice. In vitro results demonstrate that C5aR inhibition caused a substantial reduction in odontogenic DPSCs differentiation markers such as DMP-1 and DSPP, while the C5aR activation increased these key odontogenic genes compared to control. A reparative dentin formation using the C5a-deficient mice shows that dentin regeneration is significantly reduced in the C5a-deficient mice. These data suggest a positive role of C5aR in the odontogenic DPSCs differentiation and tertiary/reparative dentin formation. This study addresses a novel regulatory pathway and a therapeutic approach for improving the efficiency of dentin regeneration in affected teeth.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Differentiation/physiology , Cells, Cultured , Complement C5a/metabolism , Dental Pulp/physiology , Dentin , Mice , Receptor, Anaphylatoxin C5a , Stem Cells
20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 413-421, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927172

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Platelet function test (PFT) results and genotype hold unique prognostic implications in East Asian patients. The aim of the PTRG-DES (Platelet function and genoType-Related long-term proGnosis in Drug-Eluting Stent-treated Patients with coronary artery disease) consortium is to assess the clinical impact thereof on long-term clinical outcomes in Korean patients with coronary artery disease during dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) including clopidogrel. @*Materials and Methods@#Searching publications on the PubMed, we reviewed clopidogrel treatment studies with PFT and/or genotype data for potential inclusion in this study. Lead investigators were invited to share PFT/genotype results, patient characteristics, and clinical outcomes to evaluate relationships among them. @*Results@#Nine registries from 32 academic centers participated in the PTRG-DES consortium, contributing individual patient data from 13160 patients who underwent DES implantation between July 2003 and August 2018. The PTRG-PFT cohort was composed of 11714 patients with available VerifyNow assay results. Platelet reactivity levels reached 218±79 P2Y12 reaction units (PRU), and high on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity based on a consensus-recommended cutoff (PRU >208) was observed in 55.9%. The PTRGGenotype cohort consisted of 8163 patients with candidate genotypes related with clopidogrel responsiveness. Of those with cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 genotype, frequencies of carrying one and two loss-of-function allele (s) (*2 or *3) were 47.9% (intermediate metabolizers) and 14.2% (poor metabolizers), respectively. @*Conclusion@#The PTRG-DES consortium highlights unique values for on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity and CYP2C19 phenotype that may be important to developing optimal antiplatelet regimens in East Asian patients.

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