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1.
Ultrasonography ; : 204-211, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919554

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and ethanol ablation (EA) are effective and safe for benign symptomatic thyroid nodules (BSTNs). However, relatively little is known about the effects of these procedures on patients’ quality of life (QoL). This prospective, multicenter study evaluated the effects of RFA and EA on changes in thyroid-specific QoL in patients with BSTNs and assessed the volume reduction and safety of these procedures. @*Methods@#Eighty-six consecutive patients with 86 BSTNs were prospectively included from two medical centers. RFA was performed for 55 BSTNs with solidity ≥50% and EA was performed for 31 BSTNs with solidity <50%. QoL was evaluated using an 11-scale, multiple-choice thyroid-specific QoL questionnaire. Nodule characteristics and QoL were evaluated at diagnosis and 1, 6, and 12 months after treatment. Overall QoL was rated from 0 (good) to 4 (poor). @*Results@#The mean longest size and volume of the index nodule were 4.2±1.5 cm and 21.6±22.1 mL, respectively. Patients received 1.1 treatments on average (range, 1 to 2). Significant post-treatment volume reductions were noted; however, the EA group showed a higher volume reduction than the RFA group at 1 (78.7%-16.1% vs. 49.1%-15.8%), 6 (86.3%-21.7% vs. 73.0%-14.5%), and 12 (90.9%-14.9% vs. 80.3%-12.4%) months. The score for each scale of the QoL questionnaire improved significantly during follow-up (all P<0.001). Overall QoL improved significantly, from 1.7±0.9 at diagnosis to 0.6±0.7 at the 12-month follow-up (P<0.001). There were no major complications. @*Conclusion@#Both RFA and EA are safe and effective in reducing nodule volume and improving thyroid-specific QoL in patients with BSTNs.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919473

ABSTRACT

Background@#Because the etiologies of bronchiectasis and related diseases vary significantly among different regions and ethnicities, this study aimed to develop a diagnostic bundle for bronchiectasis in South Korea. @*Methods@#A modified Delphi method was used to develop expert consensus statements on a diagnostic bundle for bronchiectasis in South Korea. Initial statements proposed by a core panel, based on international bronchiectasis guidelines, were discussed in an online meeting and two email surveys by a panel of experts (≥70% agreement). @*Results@#The study involved 21 expert participants, and 30 statements regarding a diagnostic bundle for bronchiectasis were classified as recommended, conditional, or not recommended. The consensus statements of the expert panel were as follows: A standardized diagnostic bundle is useful in clinical practice; diagnostic tests for specific diseases, including immunodeficiency and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, are necessary when clinically suspected; initial diagnostic tests, including sputum microbiology and spirometry, are essential in all patients with bronchiectasis, and patients suspected with rare causes such as primary ciliary dyskinesia should be referred to specialized centers. @*Conclusion@#Based on this Delphi survey, expert consensus statements were generated including specific diagnostic, laboratory, microbiological, and pulmonary function tests required to manage patients with bronchiectasis in South Korea.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919336

ABSTRACT

Stiripentol is an anti-epileptic drug for the treating of refractory status epilepticus. It has been reported that stiripentol can attenuate seizure severity and reduce seizure-induced neuronal damage in animal models of epilepsy. The objective of the present study was to investigate effects of post-treatment with stiripentol on cognitive deficit and neuronal damage in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region of the hippocampus proper following transient ischemia in the forebrain of gerbils. To evaluate ischemia-induced cognitive impairments, passive avoidance test and 8-arm radial maze test were performed. It was found that post-treatment with stiripentol at 20 mg/kg, but not 10 or 15 mg/kg, reduced ischemia-induced memory impairment. Transient ischemia-induced neuronal death in the CA1 region was also significantly attenuated only by 20 mg/kg stiripentol treatment after transient ischemia. In addition, 20 mg/kg stiripentol treatment significantly decreased ischemia-induced astrocyte damage and immunoglobulin G leakage. In brief, stiripentol treatment after transient ischemia ameliorated transient ischemia-induced cognitive impairment in gerbils, showing that pyramidal neurons were protected and astrocyte damage and blood brain barrier leakage were significantly attenuated in the hippocampus. Results of this study suggest stiripentol can be developed as a candidate of therapeutic drug for ischemic stroke.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919195

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS) is one of the most fatal complications of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), and defibrotide is the only curative drug. We conducted this study to confirm the survival rate of VOD/SOS patients diagnosed in Korea and assess the efficacy of defibrotide. @*Methods@#Patients diagnosed with VOD/SOS after allogenic HCT between 2003 and 2020 were enrolled. We investigated day +100 survival rates and associated risk factors in patients who satisfied the modified Seattle criteria within 50 days of HCT. @*Results@#A total of 110 patients satisfied the modified Seattle criteria, of which 65.5% satisfied the Baltimore criteria. Thirty-seven patients were treated with defibrotide. The day +100 survival rate of the 110 patients was 65.3%. The survival rates in patients who did not meet the Baltimore criteria and in those who did were 86.8% and 53.7%, respectively (p = 0.001). The day +100 survival rate of patients treated with defibrotide was 50.5%. Among the patients receiving defibrotide, those whose creatinine levels were more than 1.2 times the baseline had a significantly lower survival rate at 26.7% (p = 0.014). On multivariate regression analysis, the hazard ratio of satisfaction of the Baltimore criteria was 4.54 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.69 to 12.21; p = 0.003). In patients treated with defibrotide, the hazard ratio was 8.70 (95% CI, 2.26 to 33.45; p = 0.002), when creatinine was more than 1.2 times the baseline on administration. @*Conclusions@#The day +100 survival rate was significantly lower when the Baltimore criteria were satisfied, and when there was an increase in creatinine at the time of defibrotide administration.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918887

ABSTRACT

Installation of dental implants at optimal angles and positions is critical in longterm stable implant-supported restorations. Surgery and prosthodontic procedures should be performed accurately as the treatment is planned. In this clinical case, Computer aided design and manufacturing technology was used not only to establish a precise surgical plan, but also to fabricate both provisional and definitive fixed prostheses. A surgical guide was designed to install the implants at proper positions for the definitive prostheses. The patient’s esthetic information, which was necessary for the new provisional and definitive fixed prostheses, was obtained from the existing temporary dentures. Finally, the complete mouth fixed implant-supported rehabilitation using monolithic zirconia provided the patient with functionally and esthetically satisfactory prostheses.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918875

ABSTRACT

With the development of digital dentistry, it is being applied in various ways of dental treatment. This case report presents the definitive prosthesis designed in advance with a re-established vertical dimension and the digital technology, which determined the amount of tooth preparation, in order to preserve as much tooth structure as possible in a patient with pathological wear of the posterior teeth and loss of vertical dimension. For accurate tooth preparation, the guides of the occlusal and axial surfaces were digitally and additively manufactured. Then, aesthetics and anterior guidance were established at the provisional stage. The information of the provisional restoration was delivered to the definitive stage by double scanning. The digital technology, including the virtual planning and the guided tooth removal, produced the definitive restorations satisfactory to both the patient and clinician.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917650

ABSTRACT

Complications in autologous hair transplantation are rare, with minor complications that can follow any surgical intervention. A 37-year-old female presented with pruritic, solitary, 0.6-cm-sized, skin-colored nodule on the forehead at one month after autologous hair transplantation. Histopathological findings revealed diffuse dermal granulomatous reactions with multinucleated giant cells, histiocytes, and lymphocytes around the implanted hair follicles, suggestive of foreign body reaction. The patient was treated with 3 courses of 2.5 mg/mL triamcinolone intralesional injections at 4-week intervals. Despite treatment, the lesion remained, and a novel lesion appeared near the existing lesion.Total punch removal of the lesions was performed, and the lesions resolved without recurrence for 6 weeks. A foreign body reaction in hair transplantation surgery is thought to be a rare complication after implantation of the patient’s hair has replaced synthetic fibers. Herein, we report a case of foreign body reaction caused by hair transplantation treated with total removal of the lesion.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917644

ABSTRACT

Background@#Dermatofibromas (DF) are fibrohistiocytic tumors of unknown etiology, and multiple DF (MDF) are relatively rare. MDF have been reported in the setting of autoimmune diseases, human immunodeficiency virus infection, or comorbidities treated with immunosuppressive drugs. @*Objective@#The present study investigated whether underlying conditions with impaired immune function are associated with MDF. @*Methods@#A total of 338 patients with DF was enrolled. We divided patients into two groups as MDF and solitary DF (SDF) groups. We retrospectively reviewed patient medical records and classified all patients by underlying diseases. Statistical significance of SDF and MDF for each conditions was analyzed. @*Results@#The demographics and comorbidities were compared between MDF group (n=82) and SDF group (n=256). Among underlying conditions, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (odds ratio, 10.397; 95% confidence interval, 2.743∼39.404; p<0.001) was significantly associated with MDF over SDF. Vitiligo and post status of kidney transplant were related more highly to MDF (p=0.014; p=0.014, respectively) than to SDF. Presence of overall comorbidities, autoimmune diseases, and immunosuppressive drug use were associated with DF number (p<0.001;p<0.001; p<0.001, respectively). @*Conclusion@#We propose an association between MDF and comorbidities, especially SLE and immunosuppressant use. MDF lesions seem to be impacted by compromised immune function. This is of significance since it is essential to search for associated conditions in patients presenting with MDF in dermatologic clinical settings.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917390

ABSTRACT

no abstract available.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916881

ABSTRACT

Acute coronary syndrome involves three types of coronary artery disease associated with sudden rupture of coronary artery plaque, and has a clinical presentation ranging from ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) to non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) or unstable angina. Cardiac CT can help quantify and characterize atherosclerotic plaques. According to a previous study, low-attenuation plaque, napkin ring sign, positive remodeling, spotty calcification, and increased perivascular fat attenuation are associated with plaque ruptures on cardiac CT. Therefore, coronary artery stenosis, as well as acute coronary artery syndrome, can be diagnosed using cardiac CT.

12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916442

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the long-term outcome and prognostic factors according to the degree of obstruction after silicone tube intubation in patients with nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO). @*Methods@#From March 2016 to July 2020, the medical records of 145 eyes of 107 patients with NLDO who underwent silicone tube intubation and had been followed for more than 6 months were analyzed retrospectively. The preoperative lacrimal irrigation and degree of obstruction were classified into three groups, and the surgery outcome was also evaluated. Successful surgery was defined as a case in which the epiphora improved, the height of the tear meniscus decreased, and there was no reflux in the postoperative lacrimal irrigation. Risk factors for recurrence were analyzed using a Cox proportional hazards model and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. @*Results@#Surgery was successful in 99 eyes (68.3%), while recurrence occurred in 46 eyes (31.7%) after silicone tube removal. The average follow-up period was 23.09 months. The recurrence rate was 30.4%, 29.3%, and 50.0% for functional, partial, and total NLDO, respectively, and did not differ significantly (p = 0.300). The risk of recurrence was higher at older age (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.079, p < 0.001) and with a history of facial palsy (aHR = 4.031, p = 0.019), and was lower in the functional NLDO group than in the total NLDO group (aHR = 0.368, p = 0.040). In the Kaplan–Meier survival analysis, the total NLDO group differed significantly from the functional NLDO group (log-rank, p = 0.011). @*Conclusions@#Age, a history of facial palsy, and the degree of preoperative obstruction were associated with the prediction of recurrence after silicone tube intubation in patients with NLDO.

13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916286

ABSTRACT

The development of medical and device treatment of heart failure (HF) has improved the survival and quality of life in HF patients. However, not all HF patients respond well to these up-to-date HF treatments. We have termed these non-responders as advanced HF patients. The definition, diagnosis, and treatment of advanced HF are discussed in this review article.Current Concepts: After current guideline-directed treatments, advanced HF patients can experience aggravation and decompensation, usually resulting in hospitalization for the symptoms and volume control. Recurrent decompensation or hospitalization can cause a vicious cycle between the heart and other vital organs, such as the kidney and liver. Current and up-to-date guidelines recommend treatments, including heart transplant, left ventricular assist device (LVAD), and hospice care, for advanced HF. Given the limitation of heart transplant donors, LVAD can be used as a bridge to transplant, in addition to destination therapy. Updated LVAD system can reduce pump-related thrombosis, stroke, and bleeding.Discussion and Conclusion: Current guidelines suggest early recognition of advanced HF and referral to advanced HF specialists. Despite advances in the treatments of advanced HF, unmet needs for further improving clinical outcomes and quality of life exist.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915537

ABSTRACT

Background@#In 2017, we established an airway call (AC) team composed of anesthesiologists to improve emergency airway management outside the operating room. In this retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from the airway registry, we describe the characteristics of patients attended to and practices by the AC team during the first 4 years of implementation. @*Methods@#All AC team activations in which an airway intervention was performed by the AC team between June 2017 and May 2021 were analyzed. @*Results@#In all, 359 events were analyzed. Activation was more common outside of working hours (62.1%) and from the intensive care unit (85.0%); 36.2% of AC activations were due to known or anticipated difficult airway, most commonly because of acquired airway anomalies (n = 49), followed by airway edema or bleeding (n = 32) and very young age (≤ 1 years; n = 30). In 71.3% of the cases, successful intubation was performed by the AC team at the first attempt. However, three or more attempts were performed in 33 cases. The most common device used for successful intubation was the videolaryngoscope (59.7%). Tracheal intubation by the AC team failed in nine patients, who then required surgical airway insertion by otolaryngologists. However, there were no airway-related deaths. @*Conclusions@#When coupled with appropriate assistance from an otolaryngologist AC system, an AC team composed of anesthesiologists could be an efficient way to provide safe airway management outside the operating room.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915513

ABSTRACT

Background@#Some reports have suggested that the clinical and economic burdens of asthma are associated with blood eosinophil levels. The association between clinical burden and blood eosinophil counts were evaluated in a Korean adult asthma cohort. @*Methods@#Clinical information including blood eosinophil counts that were not affected by systemic corticosteroids were extracted from the Cohort for Reality and Evolution of Adult Asthma in Korea database. Clinical burden was defined as 1) asthma control status, 2) medication demand and 3) acute exacerbation (AE) events during 1 consecutive year after enrollment. All patients were divided into atopic and non-atopic asthmatics. The associations between asthma outcomes and the blood eosinophil count were evaluated. @*Results@#In total, 302 patients (124 atopic and 178 non-atopic asthmatics) were enrolled. In all asthmatics, the risk of severe AE was higher in patients with blood eosinophil levels < 100 cells/µL than in patients with levels ≥ 100 cells/µL (odds ratio [OR], 5.406; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.266–23.078; adjusted P = 0.023). Among atopic asthmatics, the risk of moderate AE was higher in patients with blood eosinophil levels ≥ 300 cells/µL than in patients with levels < 300 cells/µL (OR, 3.558; 95% CI, 1.083–11.686; adjusted P = 0.036). Among non-atopic asthmatics, the risk of medication of Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) steps 4 or 5 was higher in patients with high blood eosinophil levels than in patients with low blood eosinophil levels at cutoffs of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 cells/µL. @*Conclusion@#The baseline blood eosinophil count may predict the future clinical burden of asthma.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913706

ABSTRACT

Licochalcone H (LCH) is a phenolic compound synthetically derived from licochalcone C (LCC) that exerts anticancer activity. In this study, we investigated the anticancer activity of LCH in human skin cancer A375 and A431 cells. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) cell viability assay was used to evaluate the antiproliferative activity of LCH. Cell cycle distribution and the induction of apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Western blotting assays were performed to detect the levels of proteins involved in cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. LCH inhibited the growth of cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. The annexin V/propidium iodide double staining assay revealed that LCH induced apoptosis, and the LCH-induced apoptosis was accompanied by cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. Western blot analysis showed that the phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 was decreased by treatment with LCH. The inhibition of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway by pharmacological inhibitors against JAK2/STAT3 (cryptotanshinone (CTS) and S3I-201) simulated the antiproliferative effect of LCH suggesting that LCH induced apoptosis by modulating JAK2/STAT3 signaling.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913335

ABSTRACT

An allergy skin test is used to diagnose certain allergies by identifying sensitized allergens. In other words, it is a test for patients who are already sensitized to certain allergens. Because of the prevailing perception that beta-lactam allergy can be dangerous and potentially lethal, the intradermal test has long been routinely performed before use to screen beta-lactam allergy in Korea. The prevalence of penicillin allergy is estimated to be 1% to 2%. However, only 14% of the subjects with perceived penicillin allergy is considered to have true penicillin allergy. Moreover, it is difficult to justify performing a skin test on subjects who are very unlikely to be sensitized to beta-lactam, such as those who never used beta-lactam or never experienced allergy after previous use of beta-lactam.Therefore, allergists recommend beta-lactam skin testing in those who have allergy after the use of beta-lactam. Nevertheless, many hospitals in Korea are conducting routine skin tests on patients regardless of a history of beta-lactam allergy, which are not clinically validated but consume considerable human and material resources. False-positive results can consequently result in inappropriate labeling of beta-lactam allergy, leading to the unnecessary restriction of medication prescriptions and the increase in medical expenses. Herein, the drug allergy working group affiliated with the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology announces an expert opinion on the preuse beta-lactam skin test for subjects without a history of beta-lactam allergy based on the objective evidence from the literature and clinical relevance.

18.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 292-295, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927151

ABSTRACT

Residential treatment centers (RTCs) are successful in isolating and closely monitoring adults confirmed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but there are concerns for children who need care. This study was conducted as a retrospective analysis of the surveillance of guardians who entered an RTC with infected pediatric patients to identify the secondary attack rate of COVID-19 to close contacts in a single RTC and to provide directions for developing guidelines for caregivers who co-isolate with infected children. When caregivers were admitted to this RTC, aside from negative confirmation before discharge, tests were additionally performed one or two times. There were 57 index children and adolescent patients who entered the RTC with their parents as caregivers. The secondary attack rate by pediatric patients to close contacts outside their households was 25% (95% confidence interval, 10.0 to 40.0) (8 out of 32 contacts). The transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 in children was close to zero at 6 days after the confirmation tests. It is reasonable to test the close contacts of pediatric patients after 7 days of isolation to identify infections among caregivers.

19.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 342-348, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927133

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) are medications generally prescribed for patients with high cardiovascular risk; however, they are suboptimally used due to frequent adverse events (AEs). The present study aimed to identify and replicate the genetic variants associated with ACEI-related AEs in the Korean population. @*Materials and Methods@#A two-stage approach employing genome-wide association study (GWAS)-based discovery and replication through target sequencing was used. In total, 1300 individuals received ACEIs from 2001 to 2007; among these, 228 were selected for GWAS. An additional 336 patients were selected for replication after screening 1186 subjects treated from 2008 to 2018.Candidate genes for target sequencing were selected based on the present GWAS, previous GWASs, and data from the PharmGKB database. Furthermore, association analyses were performed between no AE and AE or cough groups after target sequencing. @*Results@#Five genes, namely CRIM1, NELL1, CACNA1D, VOPP1, and MYBPC1, were identified near variants associated with ACEIrelated AEs. During target sequencing of 34 candidate genes, six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs5224, rs8176786, rs10766756, rs561868018, rs4974539, and rs10946364) were replicated for association with all ACEI-related AEs. Four of these SNPs and rs147912715 exhibited associations with ACEI-related cough, whereas four SNPs (rs5224, rs81767786, rs10766756, and rs4974539 near BDKRB2, NELL1, NELL1 intron, and CPN2, respectively) were significantly associated with both categories of AEs. @*Conclusion@#Several variants, including novel and known variants, were successfully replicated and found to have associations with ACEI-related AEs. These results provide rare and clinically relevant information for safer use of ACEIs.

20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 399-404, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927126

ABSTRACT

For patients with acute myocardial infarction, current management guidelines recommend implantation of a drug-eluting stent, dual antiplatelet therapy (including potent P2Y 12 inhibitors) for at least 1 year, and maintenance of life-long antiplatelet therapy.However, a pilot study showed favorable results with antithrombotic therapy without stent implantation when plaque erosion, not definite plaque rupture, was confirmed using optical coherence tomography (OCT), despite the patients having acute myocardial infarction. Here, we present a case where successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention was performed without stenting with the aid of OCT in a patient with ST-elevation myocardial infarction who developed thrombotic total occlusion of the right coronary artery.

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