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1.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 82-98, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875135

ABSTRACT

Sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles are normal anatomic variants with varying morphological appearances and incidences. They are usually small osseous fragments with well-corticated margins located adjacent to the joint space and bone. Patients with sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles are usually asymptomatic and commonly encountered in clinical practice. These sesamoids and accessory bones are occasionally painful because of fractures, dislocations, degenerative changes, avascular necrosis, accessory bone infections, or abnormalities of the adjacent tissue, such as nerve entrapment, tenosynovitis, or soft tissue impingement. This article aimed to illustrate the imaging features of symptomatic sesamoids bones and accessory ossicles at various anatomic locations and describe their clinical features and radiological differential diagnosis.

2.
Intestinal Research ; : 62-70, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874639

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) can serve as biomarkers for diagnosing and assessing disease activity in ulcerative colitis (UC). We investigated their clinical significance in UC. @*Methods@#We analyzed 48 patients with UC who underwent measurement of fecal calprotectin (FC) and endoscopy and 96 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. NLR and PLR were compared between the patients and healthy controls. The endoscopic activity was divided into 2 groups: group 1 (mild to moderate inflammation) and group 2 (severe inflammation) according to the Mayo endoscopic subscore in UC. @*Results@#To diagnose UC, the optimal cutoff of NLR and PLR was 2.26 (sensitivity 54.2%; specificity 90.6%; positive likelihood ratio 5.778, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.944–11.339; area under the curve [AUC] 0.774, 95% CI, 0.690–0.859) and 179.8 (sensitivity 35.4%; specificity 90.6%; positive likelihood ratio 3.778, 95% CI 1.821–7.838; AUC 0.654, 95% CI 0.556–0.753), respectively. The optimal cutoff to differentiate group 1 and group 2 was 3.44, 175.9, and 453 µg/g for NLR, PLR, and FC, respectively (sensitivity, 63.6% vs. 90.9% vs. 81.8%; specificity, 81.1% vs. 78.4% vs. 73.0%; positive likelihood ratio, 3.364 vs. 4.205 vs. 3.027; AUC, 0.714 vs. 0.897 vs. 0.813). PLR had the highest AUC and positive likelihood ratio. @*Conclusions@#NLR and PLR help differentiate patients with UC from healthy controls. NLR, PLR, and FC indicate endoscopic activity and may reflect intestinal mucosal conditions.

3.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 231-239, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900397

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Belching disorder (BD) is clinically distinct from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) with belching. Supragastric belching (SGB) is closely associated with reflux episodes. This study investigates belch characteristics in association with reflux, compared between patients with BD and those who had GERD with belching. @*Methods@#Impedance pH monitoring data from 10 patients with BD and 10 patients with GERD who exhibited belching were retrospectively analyzed. Belches were considered “isolated“ or “reflux-related” and acidicon-acidic. Belch characteristics were compared between patients with BD and those with GERD. @*Results@#Symptomatic belches were more frequent in patients with BD than in patients with GERD (median, 160.5 vs 56.0, P < 0.05). SGB was the most common type in both groups; common subtypes comprised “isolated“ in patients with BD and “isolated during the reflux period” in patients with GERD. Reflux-related SGB was more common in patients with GERD than in BD (78.3% vs 45.2%, P < 0.005).Both “preceding belching” including the reflux period and acidic SGB were more common in patients with GERD than in BD (31.8% vs 8.6% and 38.1% vs 8.9%, both P < 0.05). Supragastric belch number positively correlated with all reflux episodes in patients with GERD (adjusted R2 = 0.572, P = 0.007). @*Conclusions@#BD is characterized by more belching, compared to GERD. SGB is more frequently associated with reflux in GERD than in BD; acidity may be related to GERD. In BD, SGB is typically non-acidic and unrelated to reflux. Distinct SGB characteristics may reflect different pathogenic mechanisms of reflux and associated symptoms.

4.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 231-239, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892693

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Belching disorder (BD) is clinically distinct from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) with belching. Supragastric belching (SGB) is closely associated with reflux episodes. This study investigates belch characteristics in association with reflux, compared between patients with BD and those who had GERD with belching. @*Methods@#Impedance pH monitoring data from 10 patients with BD and 10 patients with GERD who exhibited belching were retrospectively analyzed. Belches were considered “isolated“ or “reflux-related” and acidicon-acidic. Belch characteristics were compared between patients with BD and those with GERD. @*Results@#Symptomatic belches were more frequent in patients with BD than in patients with GERD (median, 160.5 vs 56.0, P < 0.05). SGB was the most common type in both groups; common subtypes comprised “isolated“ in patients with BD and “isolated during the reflux period” in patients with GERD. Reflux-related SGB was more common in patients with GERD than in BD (78.3% vs 45.2%, P < 0.005).Both “preceding belching” including the reflux period and acidic SGB were more common in patients with GERD than in BD (31.8% vs 8.6% and 38.1% vs 8.9%, both P < 0.05). Supragastric belch number positively correlated with all reflux episodes in patients with GERD (adjusted R2 = 0.572, P = 0.007). @*Conclusions@#BD is characterized by more belching, compared to GERD. SGB is more frequently associated with reflux in GERD than in BD; acidity may be related to GERD. In BD, SGB is typically non-acidic and unrelated to reflux. Distinct SGB characteristics may reflect different pathogenic mechanisms of reflux and associated symptoms.

5.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 362-369, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833865

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We aimed to evaluate associations between comorbidities, peripheral neuropathy, and spontaneous internal anal sphincter relaxation (SAR) in patients with defecatory disorders. @*Methods@#A patient was considered to exhibit SAR during high-resolution anorectal manometry (HR-ARM) when the nadir pressure is < 15 mmHg and the time from onset to relaxation was ≥ 15 seconds in the resting pressure frame. A case-control study was performed using HR-ARM data collected from 880 patients from January 2010 to May 2015. We identified 23 cases with SAR (median age 75 years; 15 females; 12 fecal incontinence and 11 constipation). We compared HR-ARM values, Charlson index comorbidity scores, neuropathy, and the prevalence of diseases that potentially cause neuropathy between controls and SAR patients. Each SAR case was compared to 3 controls. Controls were selected to match the age, gender, and examination year of each SAR case. @*Results@#Compared to controls (26.1%), SAR patients (52.2%) exhibited a significantly higher frequency of fecal incontinence. SAR patients also had higher Charlson index scores (5 vs 4, P = 0.028). Nine of 23 SAR patients (39.1%) exhibited peripheral neuropathy— this frequency was higher than that for the control group (11.6%; P = 0.003). Diseases that potentially cause neuropathy were observed in 17 of 23 SAR cases and 32 of 69 controls (P = 0.022). @*Conclusions@#SAR develops in patients with constipation and fecal incontinence but is more common in patients with fecal incontinence. Our controlled observational study implies that SAR is associated with peripheral neuropathy and more severe comorbidities.

6.
Gut and Liver ; : 611-618, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833188

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Endoscopic diagnosis of dysplasia or colitic cancer in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) is more challenging than that of colorectal neoplasia in non-colitic patients. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the endo-scopic diagnosis of “nonpedunculated” dysplasia or colitic cancer in UC patients. @*Methods@#Ten endoscopists from four countries were surveyed using photographs of 61 histologi-cally confirmed dysplastic or non-dysplastic lesions retrieved from the UC registry database of Asan Medical Center. The participants provided their assessment based on the given photographs and their intention to perform biopsy. @*Results@#The overall diagnostic performance of the 10 participants is summarized as follows: sensitivity of 88.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.3% to 91.5%), specificity of 34.8% (95% CI, 29.1% to 40.8%), positive predictive value of 63.0% (95% CI, 60.8% to 65.2%), negative predictive value of 70.2% (95% CI, 62.7% to 76.6%), and accuracy of 64.6% (95% CI, 60.7% to 68.4%). The interobserver agreement on the inten-tion to perform a biopsy was poor (Fleiss kappa=0.169). Of the three endoscopic characteristics of the lesions, includ-ing ulceration, distinctness of the borders, and pit patterns, only neoplastic pit patterns were significantly predictive of dysplasia (odds ratio, 3.710; 95% CI, 2.001 to 6.881). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of neoplastic pit patterns were 68.2% (95% CI, 63.0% to 73.2%) and 63.3% (95% CI,57.3% to 69.1%), respectively. @*Conclusions@#Diagnostic per-formance based on the endoscopist’s intention to perform a biopsy for nonpedunculated potentially dysplastic lesions in UC patients was suboptimal according to this survey-based study.

7.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 276-285, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832169

ABSTRACT

The area of endoscopic application has been continuously expanded since its introduction in the last century and the frequency of its use also increased stiffly in the last decades. Because gastrointestinal endoscopy is naturally exposed to diseased internal organs and contact with pathogenic materials, endoscopy mediated infection or disease transmission becomes a major concern in this field. Gastrointestinal endoscopy is not for single use and the proper reprocessing process is a critical factor for safe and reliable endoscopy procedures. What needed in these circumstances is a practical guideline for reprocessing the endoscope and its accessories which is feasible in the real clinical field to guarantee acceptable prevention of pathogen transmission. This guideline contains principles and instructions of the reprocessing procedure according to the step by step. And it newly includes general information and updated knowledge about endoscopy-mediated infection and disinfection. Multiple societies and working groups participated to revise; Korean Association for the Study of the Liver, the Korean Society of Infectious Diseases, Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research, the Korean Society of Gastroenterology, Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Cancer, Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases, Korean Pancreatobiliary Association, the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Nurses and Associates and Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Through this cooperation, we enhanced communication and established a better concordance. We still need more researches in this field and fill up the unproven area. And our guidelines will be renewed accordingly.

8.
Intestinal Research ; : 516-526, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785864

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: When determining the subsequent management after endoscopic resection of the early colon cancer (ECC), various factors including the margin status should be considered. This study assessed the subsequent management and outcomes of ECCs according to margin status.METHODS: We examined the data of 223 ECCs treated by endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) from 215 patients during 2004 to 2014, and all patients were followed-up at least for 2 years.RESULTS: According to histological analyses, the margin statuses of all lesions after EMR were as follows: 138 cases (61.9%) were negative, 65 cases (29.1%) were positive for dysplastic cells on the resection margins, and 20 cases (8.9%) were uncertain. The decision regarding subsequent management was affected not only by pathologic outcomes but also by the endoscopist’s opinion on whether complete resection was obtained. Surgery was preferred if the lesion extended to the submucosa (odds ratio [OR], 25.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.09–91.42), the endoscopic resection was presumed incomplete (OR, 15.55; 95% CI, 4.28–56.56), or the lymph system was invaded (OR, 13.69; 95% CI, 1.76–106.57). Fourteen patients (6.2%) had residual or recurrent malignancies at the site of the previous ECC resection and were significantly associated with presumed incomplete endoscopic resection (OR, 4.59; 95% CI, 1.21–17.39) and submucosal invasion (OR, 5.14; 95% CI, 1.18–22.34).CONCLUSIONS: Subsequent surgery was associated with submucosa invasion, lymphatic invasion, and cancer-positive margins. Presumed completeness of the resection may be helpful for guiding the subsequent management of patients who undergo endoscopic resection of ECC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms
9.
Intestinal Research ; : 413-418, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764149

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study compared the efficacy, compliance, and safety of bowel preparation between sodium picosulfate with magnesium citrate (SPMC) and oral sulfate solution (OSS). METHODS: A prospective randomized multicenter study was performed. Split preparation methods were performed in both groups; the SPMC group, 2 sachets on the day before, and 1 sachet on the day of the procedure, the OSS group, half of the OSS with 1 L of water on both the day before and the day of the procedure. The adenoma detection rate (ADR), adequacy of bowel preparation using the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale (BBPS) score, patient satisfaction on a visual analog scale (VAS), and safety were compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS: This study analyzed 229 patients (121 in the SPMC group and 108 in the OSS group). ADR showed no differences between 2 groups (51.7% vs. 41.7%, P>0.05). The mean total BBPS score (7.95 vs. 8.11, P>0.05) and adequate bowel preparation rate (94.9% vs. 96.3%, P>0.05) were similar between the 2 groups. The mean VAS score for taste (7.62 vs. 6.87, P=0.006) was significantly higher in the SPMC group than in the OSS group. There were no significant differences in any other safety variables between the 2 groups except nausea symptom (36.1% vs. 20.3%, P=0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Bowel preparation for colonoscopy using low volume OSS and SPMC yielded similar ADRs and levels of efficacy. SPMC had higher levels of satisfaction for taste and feeling than did OSS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenoma , Citric Acid , Colonoscopy , Compliance , Magnesium , Nausea , Patient Satisfaction , Prospective Studies , Sodium , Visual Analog Scale , Water
10.
Gut and Liver ; : 176-182, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763831

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The use of a low-volume bowel cleansing agent is associated with a greater willingness to undergo repeat colonoscopy. Oral sulfate solution (OSS) is a recently approved low-volume agent; however, its efficacy and safety in the elderly population remain unclear. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of the OSS preparation, in comparison to those of a standard polyethylene glycol (PEG; 4 L) preparation, in elderly patients. METHODS: A multicenter, randomized, investigator-blinded study was conducted. Participants were randomized to receive OSS or 4-L PEG with a split-dose regimen. Bowel cleansing efficacy was assessed using the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale (BBPS). Acceptance, satisfaction, and preparation-related symptoms were recorded. Additionally, blood parameters were analyzed for electrolyte abnormalities and nephrotoxicity. RESULTS: A total of 193 patients were analyzed. No group differences in overall bowel cleansing efficacy were observed, with “adequate” preparations achieved in 95.9% (93/97) and 94.8% (91/96) of patients in the OSS and 4L PEG groups, respectively (p=0.747). However, mean BBPS scores for the entire (p=0.010) and right colon (p=0.001) were significantly higher in the OSS group than in the 4-L PEG group. The severity of clinical adverse events and frequency of acute kidney injury were similarly low, and no clinically meaningful electrolyte changes were identified. Self-reported scores regarding amount (p<0.001) and feeling (p=0.007), as well as overall satisfaction (p=0.001) and willingness to repeat the preparation (92.8% vs 67.7%, p<0.001), were significantly better in the OSS group than in the 4-L PEG group. CONCLUSIONS: In elderly individuals, OSS with a split-dose regimen has greater acceptability and comparable efficacy in bowel cleansing compared to 4-L PEG. (Clinical trials registration number: NCT03112967)


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Acute Kidney Injury , Cathartics , Colon , Colonoscopy , Detergents , Polyethylene Glycols , Treatment Outcome
11.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 237-244, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-61973

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave (PSPW) index and esophageal baseline impedance (BI) are novel impedance parameters used to evaluate esophageal chemical clearance and mucosal integrity. However, their relationship with reflux symptoms is not known. We aim to evaluate the correlations of PSPW index and esophageal BI with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH (MII-pH) tracings in patients with suspected GERD. Reflux symptoms were also analyzed from checklists using ordinal scales. The PSPW index and esophageal BIs in 6 spots (z1–z6) were measured. Bivariate (Spearman) correlation was used to analyze the relationship between the PSPW index or esophageal BI, and the degree of GERD symptoms measured. RESULTS: The MII-pH records of 143 patients were analyzed. The PSPW index was significantly lower in patients who had heartburn and negatively correlated with the degree of heartburn (r = −0.186, P < 0.05). On the contrary, the PSPW index was not significantly correlated with the degree of dysphagia (r = −0.013, P = 0.874). Distal esophageal BI was not significantly correlated with heartburn, but negatively correlated with the degree of dysphagia (z3: r = −0.328, z4: r = −0.361, z5: r = −0.316, z6: r = −0.273; P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that delayed chemical clearance of the esophagus may induce heartburn, but that it is not related to dysphagia. However, a lack of esophageal mucosal integrity may be related to dysphagia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Checklist , Deglutition Disorders , Electric Impedance , Esophagus , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Heartburn , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Retrospective Studies , Weights and Measures
12.
Intestinal Research ; : 338-344, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-117802

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disabling gastrointestinal disorder that diminishes the quality of life of the affected individuals. Limited data are available regarding the impact of IBD on the daily life of Koreans. METHODS: Self-administered, computer-aided, internet-based questionnaires were distributed to members of a Korean patient organization for IBD from March to April 2013, by the Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases. RESULTS: A total of 599 patients with IBD (387 with Crohn's disease [CD] and 212 with ulcerative colitis [UC]) were enrolled. The majority of patients (81%) expressed feelings of fatigue, weakness, and being worn out in their daily lives during times of flare; this percentage was reduced to 61% during remission. Respondents were absent from work or school for an average period of 18 days because of illness, within the first 6 months; the majority of respondents (64%) felt stressed about their absence. Forty-six percent of the respondents reported having received unfair comments at work, or having suffered discrimination. Forty-seven percent of the respondents felt that IBD had negatively affected their income and earnings. Compared with patients with UC, those with CD reported a more frequent negative impact of IBD on work, or more economic burden. More than half of the respondents (61%) reported that IBD had prevented them from making or keeping friends. CONCLUSIONS: IBD significantly impacts daily life, including work, education, and social relationships. Treatment that addresses the full spectrum of life of a patient would be more effective.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colitis, Ulcerative , Crohn Disease , Discrimination, Psychological , Education , Fatigue , Friends , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Intestinal Diseases , Quality of Life , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 379-387, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-195025

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Endoscopic mucosal resection with circumferential mucosal incision (CMI-EMR) may offer benefits comparable to those of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), while requiring less technical proficiency than ESD. METHODS: We retrospectively compared the outcomes of CMI-EMR (n=34) and size-matched ESD (n=102), which were performed by a Korean endoscopist for colorectal epithelial lesions of 20–35 mm. Procedural parameters of CMI-EMRs performed by an American ESD novice (n=30) were compared with those performed by the Korean endoscopist. RESULTS: The lesion size was 22.3±3.9 mm and 22.9±2.4 mm in the CMI-EMR and size-matched ESD groups, respectively (p=0.730). The resection time was 12.7±7.0 minutes in the CMI-EMR group and 45.6±30.1 minutes in the ESD group (p<0.001). The en bloc resection rate was 94.1% in the CMI-EMR group and 100% in the ESD group (p=0.061). There were no differences in the en bloc resection and complication rates of CMI-EMRs between a Korean and an American endoscopist. CONCLUSIONS: For the treatment of moderate-size colorectal lesions, CMI-EMR showed a trend toward lower en bloc resection rate, but required shorter procedure time than ESD. CMI-EMR outcomes were similar when performed by a Korean ESD expert and an American ESD novice.


Subject(s)
Colon , Colorectal Neoplasms , Rectum , Retrospective Studies
14.
Intestinal Research ; : 467-474, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-197217

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although the role of capsule endoscopy (CE) in Crohn's disease (CD) has expanded, CE is not used routinely for diagnosing and evaluating CD in Korea. We aimed to investigate current patterns of practice and evaluate the clinical significance of the use of CE in CD in Korean patients. METHODS: Among 651 CE procedures performed for various indications, we retrospectively analyzed the medical records of patients who underwent CE in 57 cases of suspected CD (sCD) and 14 cases of established CD (eCD). RESULTS: In the sCD group, CE was most commonly used for the initial diagnosis of CD (54.4%). Capsule retention was found in only 1 patient in the eCD group (1/71, 1.4%). In the sCD group, 28.1% of patients were diagnosed with CD on the basis of CE findings; other diseases diagnosed included tuberculous enteritis (7.0%), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced enteropathy (5.3%), and other enteritis (17.5%). Only 11.5% of patients with eCD (14/122) underwent CE. The indication for CE in the 14 patients with eCD was to assess disease extent and activity. The overall diagnostic yield of CE was 59.7%. Therapeutic strategies were changed in 70.2% of patients in the sCD group and 50% of those in the eCD group based on CE findings. CONCLUSIONS: In clinical practice, CE was most commonly indicated for the initial diagnosis of CD and was not generally performed in patients with eCD. CE appears to be an effective diagnostic modality for evaluating sCD and is useful for determining therapeutic strategies for patients with sCD and those with eCD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Capsule Endoscopy , Crohn Disease , Diagnosis , Enteritis , Korea , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies
15.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 542-547, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-209985

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: In Korea, the nationwide gastric cancer screening program recommends biennial screening for individuals aged 40 years or older by way of either an upper gastrointestinal series or endoscopy. The national endoscopic quality assessment (QA) program began recommending endoscopy in medical institutions in 2009. We aimed to assess the effect, burden, and cost of the QA program from the viewpoint of medical institutions. METHODS: We surveyed the staff of institutional endoscopic units via e-mail. RESULTS: Staff members from 67 institutions replied. Most doctors were endoscopic specialists. They responded as to whether the QA program raised awareness for endoscopic quality (93%) or improved endoscopic practice (40%). The percentages of responders who reported improvements in the diagnosis of gastric cancer, the qualifications of endoscopists, the quality of facilities and equipment, endoscopic procedure, and endoscopic reprocessing were 69%, 60%, 66%, 82%, and 75%, respectively. Regarding reprocessing, many staff members reported that they had bought new automated endoscopic preprocessors (3%), used more disinfectants (34%), washed endoscopes longer (28%), reduced the number of endoscopies performed to adhere to reprocessing guidelines (9%), and created their own quality education programs (59%). Many responders said they felt that QA was associated with some degree of burden (48%), especially financial burden caused by purchasing new equipment. Reasonable quality standards (45%) and incentives (38%) were considered important to the success of the QA program. CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic quality has improved after 5 years of the mandatory endoscopic QA program.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Disinfectants , Education , Electronic Mail , Endoscopes , Endoscopy , Korea , Mass Screening , Motivation , Specialization , Stomach Neoplasms
16.
Gut and Liver ; : 489-490, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-177087

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Colonoscopy
17.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 444-448, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-205869

ABSTRACT

During colonoscopy, air insufflation to distend the lumen and facilitate careful inspection and scope insertion can induce pain and cause discomfort. Carbon dioxide (CO₂) insufflation can decrease abdominal pain and discomfort during and after colonoscopy. The advantage of CO₂ insufflation is the rapid absorption of the gas across the intestine. Another painless option is water-assisted colonoscopy. Two methods for water-assisted colonoscopy are available: water immersion and water exchange. In a recent direct comparison, the water exchange method was superior to water immersion, CO₂ insufflation, and air insufflation with respect to pain during colonoscopy, although it still had the disadvantage of being a time-consuming procedure. Cap-assisted colonoscopy is a simple technique involving the use of a small transparent cap attached to the tip of the scope. Three studies showed an advantage of this technique in terms of reduced patient discomfort compared with the conventional method. Three robotic colonoscopy systems (Endotics System [Era Endoscopy], NeoGuide [NeoGuide Systems Inc.], and Invendoscope [Invendo Medical]) have been introduced to evaluate pain reduction during colonoscopy, but none has been widely adopted and used in practice. In this review, clinical trials of several techniques and new devices for painless colonoscopy are described and summarized.


Subject(s)
Humans , Abdominal Pain , Absorption , Carbon Dioxide , Colonoscopy , Immersion , Insufflation , Intestines , Methods , Water
18.
Gut and Liver ; : 699-705, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-166359

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: We evaluated the characteristics of the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) and opinions regarding the National Endoscopy Quality Improvement Program (NEQIP). METHODS: We surveyed physicians performing esophagogastroduodenoscopy and/or colonoscopy screenings as part of the NCSP via e-mail between July and August in 2015. The 32-item survey instrument included endoscopic capacity, sedation, and reprocessing of endoscopes as well as opinions regarding the NEQIP. RESULTS: A total of 507 respondents were analyzed after the exclusion of 40 incomplete answers. Under the current capacity of the NCSP, the typical waiting time for screening endoscopy was less than 4 weeks in more than 90% of endoscopy units. Performance of endoscopy reprocessing was suboptimal, with 28% of respondents using unapproved disinfectants or not knowing the main ingredient of their disinfectants and 15% to 17% of respondents not following reprocessing protocols. Agreement with the NEQIP was optimal, because only 5.7% of respondents did not agree with NEQIP; however, familiarity with the NEQIP was suboptimal, because only 37.3% of respondents were familiar with the NEQIP criteria. CONCLUSIONS: The NEQ-IP remains suboptimal in Korea. Given the suboptimal performance of endoscopy reprocessing and low familiarity with the NEQIP, improved quality in endoscopy reprocessing and better understanding of the NEQIP should be emphasized in Korea.


Subject(s)
Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms , Disinfectants , Early Detection of Cancer , Electronic Mail , Endoscopes , Endoscopy , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Korea , Mass Screening , Quality Improvement , Recognition, Psychology , Stomach Neoplasms , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Intestinal Research ; : 313-317, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50553

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pneumoperitoneum is recognized as a benign and self-limiting finding after the insertion of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube, while complicated pneumoperitoneum is rarely reported. The aim of this study was to reappraise pneumoperitoneum following PEG. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 193 patients who underwent PEG from May 2008 to May 2014. All patients had a follow-up upright chest or simple abdominal radiograph after PEG. Pneumoperitoneum was quantified by measuring the height of the air column under the diaphragm and graded as small (4 cm). Clinically significant signs were defined as fever, abdominal tenderness or leukocytosis occurring after PEG insertion. RESULTS: Of the 193 study patients, 9 (4.6%) had a pneumoperitoneum visualized by radiographic imaging, graded as small in 5 patients, moderate in 2 patients and large in 2 patients. Clinically significant signs were observed in 5 (55.5%) patients with fever reported in 4 patients, abdominal tenderness in 4 patients and leukocytosis in 4 patients. The time to resolution of free air was 2-18 days. Two patients (22.2%) with moderate or large pneumoperitoneum after PEG died from either pneumonia or septic shock. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical course of pneumoperitoneum after PEG is not always benign and self-limiting. These findings suggest that clinicians should not neglect a moderate or large pneumoperitoneum, particularly in patients who have an altered mental status or received antibiotics, since peritoneal irritation cannot be observed under these circumstances.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Diaphragm , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Fever , Follow-Up Studies , Gastrostomy , Leukocytosis , Pneumonia , Pneumoperitoneum , Retrospective Studies , Shock, Septic , Thorax
20.
Gut and Liver ; : 623-628, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-216108

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Currently, the videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) is the standard tool for evaluating dysphagia. We evaluated whether the addition of endoscopist-directed flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) to VFSS could improve the detection rates of penetration, aspiration, and pharyngeal residue, compared the diagnostic efficacy between VFSS and endoscopist-directed FEES and assessed the adverse events of the FEES. METHODS: In single tertiary referral center, a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was conducted. Fifty consecutive patients suspected of oropharyngeal dysphagia were enrolled in this study between January 2012 and July 2012. RESULTS: The agreement in the detection of penetration and aspiration between VFSS and FEES of viscous food (kappa=0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15 to 0.53) and liquid food (kappa=0.22; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.42) was "fair." The agreement in the detection of pharyngeal residue between the two tests was "substantial" with viscous food (kappa=0.63; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.94) and "fair" with liquid food (kappa=0.37; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.63). Adding FEES to VFSS significantly increased the detection rates of penetration, aspiration, and pharyngeal residue. No severe adverse events were noted during FEES, except for two cases of epistaxis, which stopped spontaneously without requiring any packing. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that the addition of endoscopist-directed FEES to VFSS increased the detection rates of penetration, aspiration, and pharyngeal residue.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Deglutition/physiology , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Fluoroscopy/methods , Laryngoscopy/methods , Pharynx/diagnostic imaging , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Video Recording
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