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1.
Immune Network ; : e24-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890872

ABSTRACT

Due to the inconsistent fluctuation of blood supply for transfusion, much attention has been paid to the development of artificial blood using other animals. Although mini-pigs are candidate animals, contamination of mini-pig T cells in artificial blood may cause a major safety concern. Therefore, it is important to analyze the cross-reactivity of IL-7, the major survival factor for T lymphocytes, between human, mouse, and mini-pig. Thus, we compared the protein sequences of IL-7 and found that porcine IL-7 was evolutionarily different from human IL-7. We also observed that when porcine T cells were cultured with either human or mouse IL-7, these cells did not increase the survival or proliferation compared to negative controls. These results suggest that porcine T cells do not recognize human or mouse IL-7 as their survival factor.

2.
Immune Network ; : e24-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898576

ABSTRACT

Due to the inconsistent fluctuation of blood supply for transfusion, much attention has been paid to the development of artificial blood using other animals. Although mini-pigs are candidate animals, contamination of mini-pig T cells in artificial blood may cause a major safety concern. Therefore, it is important to analyze the cross-reactivity of IL-7, the major survival factor for T lymphocytes, between human, mouse, and mini-pig. Thus, we compared the protein sequences of IL-7 and found that porcine IL-7 was evolutionarily different from human IL-7. We also observed that when porcine T cells were cultured with either human or mouse IL-7, these cells did not increase the survival or proliferation compared to negative controls. These results suggest that porcine T cells do not recognize human or mouse IL-7 as their survival factor.

3.
Immune Network ; : 402-409, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-10877

ABSTRACT

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are nanomaterials that have been employed in generating diverse materials. We previously reported that CNTs induce cell death in macrophages, possibly via asbestosis. Therefore, we generated CNT-attached polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), which is an established polymer in membrane technology, and then examined whether CNT-attached PVDF is immunologically safe for medical purposes compared to CNT alone. To test this, we treated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages (RAW cells) with CNT-attached PVDF and analyzed the production of nitric oxide (NO), a potent proinflammatory mediator, in these cells. RAW cells treated with CNT-attached PVDF showed reduced NO production in response to lipopolysaccharide. However, the same treatment also decreased the cell number suggesting that this treatment can alter the homeostasis of RAW cells. Although cell cycle of RAW cells was increased by PVDF treatment with or without CNTs, apoptosis was enhanced in these cells. Taken together, these results indicate that PVDF with or without CNTs modulates inflammatory responses possibly due to activation-induced cell death in macrophages.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Asbestosis , Cell Count , Cell Cycle , Cell Death , Fluorides , Homeostasis , Inflammation , Macrophages , Membranes , Nanostructures , Nanotubes, Carbon , Nitric Oxide , Polymers
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-165352

ABSTRACT

There are some reports of renal vein thrombosis associated with acute pyelonephritis, but a case of renal artery thrombosis in acute pyelonephritis has not been reported yet. Here we report a case of renal artery thrombosis which developed in a patient with acute pyelonephritis complicated with sepsis-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). A 65-year-old woman with diabetes was diagnosed with acute pyelonephritis complicated with sepsis. Escherichia coli was isolated from both blood and urine cultures. When treated with antibiotics, her condition gradually improved. She suddenly complained of severe right flank pain without fever in the recovery phase. A computed tomography scan revealed right renal artery thrombosis with concomitant renal infarction. Prophylactic anticoagulation therapy was not suggested because of sustained thrombocytopenia and increased risk of bleeding. Flank pain resolved with conservative treatment and perfusion of infarcted kidney improved at the time of discharge. To our knowledge, this is the first case of renal artery thrombosis related to acute pyelonephritis with sepsis-induced DIC.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Dacarbazine , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation , Escherichia coli , Female , Fever , Flank Pain , Hemorrhage , Humans , Infarction , Kidney , Perfusion , Pyelonephritis , Renal Artery , Renal Veins , Sepsis , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis
5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-127450

ABSTRACT

Patients with the nephrotic syndrome are at risk of developing thromboembolic complications. Much evidence suggests that a hypercoagulable state exists in the setting of the nephrotic syndrome, but the exact mechanisms are poorly understood. The nephrotic syndrome associated with portal vein thrombosis is relatively uncommon. We experienced a case of minimal change nephrotic syndrome presented as portal vein thrombosis and acute renal failure. On renal biopsy, electron microscopic examination reveals diffuse foot process effacement. Treatment with corticosteroid and anticoagulation resulted in complete remission of proteinuria.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Biopsy , Electrons , Foot , Humans , Nephrosis, Lipoid , Nephrotic Syndrome , Portal Vein , Proteinuria , Thrombosis
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-10518

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current donor selection criteria need to be revised to ensure a reliable blood supply and for donor protection. This study was conducted to analyze the distribution of hemoglobin (Hb) levels of blood donors and to estimate the change of eligible donors when using the revised Hb criterion. METHODS: The Hb levels of all the blood donors who visited the Korean Red Cross Blood Center (KRCBC) between November 9th, 2010 and November 15th, 2010 were measured with a portable hemoglobinometer (HemoCue). The Hb levels of all the eligible donors and some of the deferred donors who visited the Hanmaeum Blood Center (HBC) from April 26th, 2010 to April 30th, 2010 and from November 9th, 2010 to November 15th, 2010 were measured with a portable hemoglobinometer (Hemo_Control). RESULTS: A total of 7,521 donors (6,500 eligible donors and 1,021 deferred donors) were enrolled. The donation eligibility rate at the KRCBC, which is where all the donors were examined, was 84.2% (3,409/4,049) and the deferral rate was 15.8% (640/4,049). The percent of blood donors whose Hb level was less than 12.5 g/dL was 2.1% of the men (44/2,145) and 34.9% of the women (664/1,904), respectively. The percent of female deferred donors with a Hb level of 12.0~12.4 g/dL was 19.3% (109/564) and the percent of male eligible donors with a Hb level of 12.5~12.9 g/dL was 2.6% (54/2,069). At the HBC, and with some deferred donors being excluded, the deferral rate of males and females was 2.0% (36/1,799) and 20.6% (345/1,673), respectively. CONCLUSION: About 20% of the female deferred donors could be expected to participate when a less strict Hb criterion (> or =12.0 g/dL) is applied. This study is thought to be helpful in order to determine the number of donors according to the Hb criteria and to create improved criteria.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , Dietary Sucrose , Donor Selection , Female , Hemoglobins , Humans , Male , Red Cross , Tissue Donors
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34007

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) causes various complications such as electrolyte imbalance, alcoholic ketoacidosis (AKA), rhabdomyolysis, and acute kidney injury (AKI). Although there have been some reports about AKA and rhabdomyolysis, AKI due to acute alcohol intoxication is rarely reported. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the medical records of 371 patients with AAI between January 2004 and May 2010 in Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital. We compared the clinical findings, morbidity and mortality rate between AKI and normal kidney function (NKF) groups. RESULTS: Of the total 371 patients with AAI, AKI occurred in 107 patients (28.8%). The peak serum creatinine level in AKI patients was 2.9+/-1.9 mg/dL. Thirteen of the 107 patients (12.1%) received renal replacement therapy. AKI group had higher incidence of decreased mentality (29.0% vs 16.3%, p=0.006), dyspnea (11.2% vs 4.9%, p=0.029) and hypotension (66.0% vs 41.7%, p<0.001), and lower incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding (22.4% vs 34.8%, p=0.019), compared to NKF group. The AKI group also had higher incidence of ketoacidosis (78.5% vs 28.8%, p<0.001), rhabdomyolysis (19.6% vs 4.2%, p<0.001), and pneumonia (22.4% vs 8.0%, p<0.001), compared to NKF group. The length of ICU stay was longer (7.4+/-10.8 vs 4.1+/-6.1 days, p=0.003) and the mortality rate was higher (17.8% vs 2.3%, p<0.001) in AKI group. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that incidence of AKI in patients with AAI was 28.8% and AKI was associated with high morbidity and mortality. And multivariate analysis demonstrated that independent risk factors of AKI were ketoacidosis and increased serum osmolality.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Alcohol-Induced Disorders , Alcoholics , Creatinine , Dyspnea , Hemorrhage , Humans , Hypotension , Incidence , Ketosis , Kidney , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Osmolar Concentration , Pneumonia , Renal Replacement Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Rhabdomyolysis , Risk Factors
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-74988

ABSTRACT

Stent placement is widely used for vascular access stenosis in hemodialysis patients as well as coronary artery stenosis. As its complication, stent fracture is not uncommon and causes restenosis after stent placement in coronary artery stenosis, but it has been rarely reported in venous stenosis of hemodialysis patients. Here we report a case of arteriovenous fistula dysfunction due to stent fracture in the cephalic arch of a hemodialysis patient.


Subject(s)
Arteriovenous Fistula , Constriction, Pathologic , Coronary Stenosis , Humans , Renal Dialysis , Stents
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-85976

ABSTRACT

Central venous stenosis or occlusion is commonly associated with placement of central venous catheters or devices. Although rare, central venous stenosis or occlusion may also develop without a history of previous central venous catheter placement. Here we report a case of central venous stenosis without a previous central catheter placement. A 76-year-old woman with hypertensive nephropathy was admitted due to deterioration of renal function. Tunneled cuffed catheter for hemodialysis was inserted in the right external jugular vein, and we intended to insert central venous catheter because of poorly functioning peripheral vein. But, left internal jugular vein was not cannulated. The patients had a history of pulmonary tuberculosis and chest x-ray revealed extensive calcified lesions mainly in left upper lung. Venography and CT angiogram showed complete occlusion at the confluent point of the left subclavian vein and left internal jugular vein, and left brachiocephalic vein by calcified lesion. The anterior cervical vein and jugular venous arch forming an anastomosis between the neck vein were marked dilated. The patient did not show any clinical symptoms and signs associated with central venous stenosis, and the central venous catheter functioned well, correction of central vein stenosis was not necessary. After the supportive care including temporary hemodialysis, the patient improved from renal dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Aged , Brachiocephalic Veins , Catheters , Central Venous Catheters , Constriction, Pathologic , Female , Humans , Hypertension, Renal , Jugular Veins , Lung , Neck , Nephritis , Phlebography , Renal Dialysis , Subclavian Vein , Thorax , Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Veins
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-208964

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The internal jugular vein (IJV) is a preferred site for central cannulation for hemodialysis (HD) because of its low incidence of central vein stenosis. Although anatomically IJV is commonly located on the anterior-lateral side of the carotid artery, some patients have anatomical variation of IJV, which can lead to difficulty and complication of cannulation. This study was performed to evaMETHODS: We enrolled 358 patients receiving IJV catheter cannulation for HD using doppler ultrasonography between January 2007 and February 2009. We examined the anatomical positions of IJV in relation to the position of carotid artery (CA) and incidence of anatomical variation on both sides. We also investigated incidence of inadequate IJV for cannulation, RESULTS: The mean age of 358 enrolled patients was 57+/-15 years (14-88 years) (M:F=203:155). Anatomical variations of the left (Lt) and right (Rt) IJV position relative to the CA were found in 36.3% and 27.1%, respectively. Various anatomical variations of IJV position were discovered in the anterior side (Lt 23.7%, Rt 21.2%), anterior-medial side (Lt 7%, Rt 2.5%), and the lateral side (Lt 1.1%, Rt 1.7%) relative to CA. Inadequate Lt and Rt IJVs for cannulation, which can be too small sized or obstructed, were 6.4% and 2.8%, respectively. CONCLUSION: About one third of Korean HD patients had anatomical variations of IJV position relative to the CA. This study supports the use of doppler ultrasound guided technique for IJV cannulation in HD patients.


Subject(s)
Carotid Arteries , Catheterization , Catheters , Constriction, Pathologic , Humans , Incidence , Jugular Veins , Renal Dialysis , Ultrasonography, Doppler , Veins
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-199585

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has not been a comprehensive review to compare the international eligibility criteria for apheresis donation. This study assessed the international variations of the eligibility criteria for apheresis donors to help improve our national criteria for safer and more efficient screening of donors. METHODS: We reviewed the websites of the American Red Cross, Canadian Blood Service, Australian Red Cross Blood Service, New Zealand Blood Service, Japanese Red Cross Society, Hong Kong Red Cross (HKRC), Health Sciences Authority of Singapore and the National Blood Service of the UK (NBS) and the European Union (EU). Only those criteria that were different from ours were analyzed. RESULTS: A considerable number of differences were identified between the international criteria and our criteria. The lower age limit was 17~18 years and the upper limit were 50~69 years for plasma donation and 50~59 years for platelet donation. The regulations for donation frequency ranged from none to 12~57 times/year for plasma and none to 12~24 times/year for platelets. The donation interval for plasma and platelets was 1~4 weeks. A minimum hemoglobin level of 12.5 g/dL was used in most countries, excluding the HKRC (11.5 g/dL for women). The NBS and EU had criteria regarding the volume of donation. CONCLUSION: Different international eligibility criteria for apheresis donors are used according to the characteristics of each country. Thus, the compiled data from various countries will provide the basis to improve our national eligibility criteria for apheresis donors.


Subject(s)
Asians , Blood Component Removal , Blood Platelets , European Union , Hemoglobins , Hong Kong , Humans , Mass Screening , New Zealand , Plasma , Red Cross , Singapore , Social Control, Formal , Tissue Donors
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-199582

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The donor selection criteria should ensure the safety of both the donors and the recipients of blood products. However, modifications may help promote more blood donors in keeping with the rapidly aging Korean population. Our goal was to gather opinions of the medical staff at blood centers on the current donor selection criteria. METHODS: A survey was sent out via email to 55 medical staff at hospital blood banks, the Korean Red Cross and Hanmaeum blood centers. The survey included 14~16 questions regarding age, weight, donation volume, donation interval and frequency, hemoglobin, blood pressure, pulse rate, and the level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT). RESULTS: Survey responses from 38 out of 55 (69.1%) medical staff were analyzed. The donor selection criteria that showed significantly higher acceptable rates included the upper age limit (71%, P=0.009) and whole blood donation frequency and intervals (68%, P=0.023). The ALT level showed the highest unacceptable rate (84%, P<0.0001) and other criteria with significantly higher unacceptable rates included donor weight (68%, P=0.023) and donation volume (76%, P=0.001). Responses from medical staff at supply blood banks and hospital blood banks showed a significant difference regarding the use of parent/guardian consent forms in blood donors that were 16 years or younger (75% versus 41%, respectively; P=0.0368). CONCLUSION: This study outlines the perspectives of medical staff at blood centers regarding the current donor selection criteria. According to the survey, the ALT level, donor weight, and donation volume should be considered for revision. These results can be referenced in the future when proposing modifications to the donor selection criteria.


Subject(s)
Aging , Alanine Transaminase , Blood Banks , Blood Donors , Blood Pressure , Consent Forms , Dietary Sucrose , Donor Selection , Electronic Mail , Heart Rate , Hemoglobins , Humans , Medical Staff , Red Cross , Tissue Donors
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-188575

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: For the safety of blood resources, the Blood Donor Health Questionnaire (DHQ) should be modified and improved allowing donors to answer questions with further accuracy. To accomplish this, it is essential to identify any part of this questionnaire that is donors find inconvenient. METHODS: The problems of the current DHQ were examined through a poll of donors at the Korean Red Cross and other hospital blood service centers from November 2008. We also compared the structure and contents of the Korean DHQ to similar document in eight other countries. RESULTS: Donors thought that the current DHQ was too complicated, took too much time (27.3%) and probed too much into a donors private life (51.2%), making it difficult to answer honestly. The Korean DHQ focuses on a deferral period and uses special medical terminology in order for an interviewer to make easy decisions regarding donor eligibility. In contrast, other questionnaires tend to focus on a donor's recall of memory, use simple vocabulary, and emphasize donor's duties, and therefore, these documents are easy for donors to understand and complete CONCLUSION: Donor-oriented DHQs using simply terminology, help donors with memory recall and emphasize a donor's duty. Also, such a document allows donors to answer frankly. Therefore donor-oriented DHQs provide a great degree of blood resource safety than interviewer-oriented DHQs.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , Humans , Memory , Red Cross , Tissue Donors , Vocabulary , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-158401

ABSTRACT

There has been an increase in the use of central venous catheters for temporary hemodialysis. Infected thrombus of right atrium is a rare but life-threatening complication of the central venous catheterization. A 35-year-old female hemodialysis patient was admitted with fever and dyspnea. She had been inserted tunneled hemodialysis catheter 2 months before. Blood cultures revealed methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Chest CT showed multi-focal pneumonia and 4 cm sized huge thrombus in the right atrium. Echocardiography demonstrated same thrombus attached to the catheter tip in the right atrium. The catheter could not be removed because of high risk of pulmonary thromboembolism. Despite intravenous vancomycin treatment, the patient died from esophageal varix bleeding.


Subject(s)
Adult , Catheter-Related Infections , Catheterization, Central Venous , Catheters , Central Venous Catheters , Dyspnea , Echocardiography , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Female , Fever , Heart Atria , Hemorrhage , Humans , Pneumonia , Pulmonary Embolism , Renal Dialysis , Staphylococcus aureus , Thorax , Thrombosis , Vancomycin
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-52384

ABSTRACT

Rifampicin, a potent inducer of hepatic microsomal enzymes, increases metabolism of steroid hormone. Therefore, concurrent treatment of rifampicin and steroid may lead to decreased bioavailability and increased requirement of steroid hormone. Here we report a case of rifampicin-induced severe hyperkalemia requiring hemodialysis in a patient with Addison's disease. A 52-year-old woman was admitted due to general weakness. She had been diagnosed with adrenal tuberculosis and consequent Addison's disease and treated with rifampicin and physiologic dose of steroid. Blood chemistry showed 9.1 mEq/L of potassium and emergent hemodialysis was performed. With increment of dosage of steroid hormone and maintenance of the same dosage of rifampicin, potassium level was normalized


Subject(s)
Addison Disease , Biological Availability , Female , Humans , Hyperkalemia , Middle Aged , Potassium , Renal Dialysis , Rifampin , Tuberculosis
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-103780

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although acute renal failure (ARF) commonly develops in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), the impact of ARF on disease severity is rarely reported in Korea. This study was performed to compare the clinical findings, morbidity and mortality between SAP patients with and without ARF. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the medical records of 102 patients with SAP between january 2001 and June 2008 in 3 hospitals. We investigated the incidence and clinical course of ARF in SAP patients. Then, we compared morbidity and mortality between the patients with ARF and normal renal function (NRF). RESULTS: Of the total 102 SAP patients, ARF was observed in 39 patients (38.2%). The peak serum creatinine level in ARF patients was 4.5+/-2.3 mg/dL. Eight of the 39 ARF patients (20.5%) received hemodialysis and ten patients (25.6%) died. When compared to NRF patiens, ARF patients (n=39) had higher incidence of dyspnea (17.9% vs 3.2%, p=0.011), loss of consciousness (17.9% vs 1.6%, p=0.003), and APACHE II scores more than 8 (92.3% vs 0%, p<0.001). The ARF group had also higher incidences of sepsis (35.9% vs 7.9%, p<0.001), multiorgan failure (15.4% vs 0%, p=0.001), respiratory failure (28.2% vs 4.7%, p=0.001) and mortality (25.6% vs 3.2%, p=0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated thrombocytopenia, hemoconcentration, and high LDH as independent risk factors of ARF in SAP patients. CONCLUSION: The incidence of ARF was high (38.2%) and ARF patients showed higher morbidity and mortality, compared to NRF patients. We suggest that early management of ARF should be performed for reducing the mortality in SAP patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , APACHE , Creatinine , Dyspnea , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Pancreatitis , Renal Dialysis , Respiratory Insufficiency , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sepsis , Thrombocytopenia , Unconsciousness
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25465

ABSTRACT

Rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) is a rare condition that's caused by a sudden disruption of the deep epigastric vessels or direct damage to the rectus abdominis muscle. This condition is associated with old age, childbirth, abdominal surgery, severe cough, severe sneezing, anticoagulation therapy and/or coagulation disorders. RSH is characterized by abdominal pain and an abdominal mass, so that this is often misdiagnosed as a surgical condition such as appendicitis, intraabdominal abscess, torsion of the ovary and ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm; this can lead to unnecessary surgery. Thus, we have to be cautious not to miss RSH when a patient with predisposing factors is suffered from abdominal pain and an abdominal mass. We report here on a case of rectus sheath hematoma that was induced by severe cough in a patient who was taking warfarin.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Abscess , Appendicitis , Cough , Female , Hematoma , Humans , Muscles , Ovary , Parturition , Rectus Abdominis , Sneezing , Unnecessary Procedures , Warfarin
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