Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 98
Filter
1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 499-510, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927149

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Globally, concerns have grown regarding the long-term effects of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection. Therefore, we evaluated the long-term course of persistent symptoms and patient quality of life. @*Materials and Methods@#This prospective cohort study was conducted at a single tertiary university hospital from August 31, 2020 to March 29, 2021 with adult patients followed at 6 and 12 months after acute COVID-19 symptom onset or diagnosis. Clinical characteristics, self-reported symptoms, EuroQol 5 dimension 5 level (EQ5D-5L) index scores, Korean version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Korean version of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-5 (PCL-5-K), and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) were investigated. Symptom persistent or non-persistent groups were defined according to persistency of COVID-19 related symptoms or signs after acute COVID-19 infection, respectively. @*Results@#Of all 235 patients, 170 (64.6%) patients were eligible for analysis. The median age was 51 (interquartile range, 37–61) years old, and 102 patients were female (60.0%). After 12 months from acute COVID-19 infection, in total, 83 (48.8%) patients still suffered from COVID-19-related symptoms. The most common symptoms included amnesia (24.1%), insomnia (14.7%), fatigue (13.5%), and anxiety (12.9%). Among the five EQ5D-5L categories, the average value of anxiety or depression was the most predominant. PHQ-9 and PCL-5-K scores were statistically higher in the COVID-19–related symptom persistent group than the non-persistent group (p=0.001). However, GAD-7 scores showed no statistical differences between the two groups (p=0.051). @*Conclusion@#Neuropsychiatric symptoms were the major COVID-19–related symptoms after 12 months from acute COVID-19 infection, reducing quality of life.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915500

ABSTRACT

Background@#As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is ongoing, heavy workload of healthcare workers (HCWs) is a concern. This study investigated the workload of HCWs responding to the COVID-19 outbreak in South Korea. @*Methods@#A nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted from September 16 to October 15, 2020, involving 16 healthcare facilities (4 public medical centers, 12 tertiary-care hospitals) that provide treatment for COVID-19 patients. @*Results@#Public medical centers provided the majority (69.4%) of total hospital beds for COVID-19 patients (n = 611), on the other hand, tertiary care hospitals provided the majority (78.9%) of critical care beds (n = 57). The number of beds per doctor (median [IQR]) in public medical centers was higher than in tertiary care hospitals (20.2 [13.0, 29.4] versus 3.0 [1.3, 6.6], P = 0.006). Infectious Diseases physicians are mostly (80%) involved among attending physicians. The number of nurses per patient (median [interquartile range, IQR]) in tertiarycare hospitals was higher than in public medical centers (4.6 [3.4–5] vs. 1.1 [0.8–2.1], P =0.089). The median number of nurses per patient for COVID-19 patients was higher than the highest national standard in South Korea (3.8 vs. 2 for critical care). All participating healthcare facilities were also operating screening centers, for which a median of 2 doctors, 5 nurses, and 2 administrating staff were necessary. @*Conclusion@#As the severity of COVID-19 patients increases, the number of HCWs required increases. Because the workload of HCWs responding to the COVID-19 outbreak is much greater than other situations, a workforce management plan regarding this perspective is required to prevent burnout of HCWs.

3.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 806-813, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904302

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to develop a novel mortality scoring system for inpatients with COVID-19 based on simple demographic factors and laboratory findings. @*Materials and Methods@#We reviewed and analyzed data from patients who were admitted and diagnosed with COVID-19 at 10 hospitals in Daegu, South Korea, between January and July 2020. We randomized and assigned patients to the development and validation groups at a 70% to 30% ratio. Each point scored for selected risk factors helped build a new mortality scoring system using Cox regression analysis. We evaluated the accuracy of the new scoring system in the development and validation groups using the area under the curve. @*Results@#The development group included 1232 patients, whereas the validation group included 528 patients. In the development group, predictors for the new scoring system as selected by Cox proportional hazards model were age ≥70 years, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, dementia, C-reactive protein levels >4 mg/dL, infiltration on chest X-rays at the initial diagnosis, and the need for oxygen support on admission. The areas under the curve for the development and validation groups were 0.914 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.891–0.937] and 0.898 (95% CI 0.854–0.941), respectively. According to our scoring system, COVID-19 mortality was 0.4% for the low-risk group (score 0–3) and 53.7% for the very high-risk group (score ≥11). @*Conclusion@#We developed a new scoring system for quickly and easily predicting COVID-19 mortality using simple predictors. This scoring system can help physicians provide the proper therapy and strategy for each patient.

4.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 584-592, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904243

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) have been considered effective in preventing and treating viral infections. However, until now, the duration and clinical implications of antibody-mediated nature immunity in Koreans have remained unknown.Therefore, we examined NAbs levels and clinical characteristics in recovered coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. @*Materials and Methods@#Blood samples were collected from 143 adult patients who had been diagnosed with and had recovered from COVID-19 from February to March in 2020 at a tertiary-care university-affiliated hospital in Daegu, Korea. A plaque reduction neutralization test was conducted to analyze NAb titers. Individualized questionnaires were used to identify patient clinical information. @*Results@#The median number of days from symptom onset to the blood collection date was 109.0 (104.0; 115.0). The NAb titers ranged from 10 to 2560. The median NAb titer value was 40. Of the 143 patients, 68 (47.6%) patients had NAb titers ≥80, and 31 (21.7%) patients had NAb titers ≥160. The higher the age or disease severity, the higher the NAb titer. In univariate logistic regression, statistically significant predictors of high NAb titers (≥80) were age, myalgia, nausea or vomiting, dyspnea, and disease severity (p<0.05). Multivariable logistic regression showed that age ≥50 years (p=0.013) and moderate or higher disease severity (p<0.001) were factors associated with high NAb titers (≥80). None of the patients had reinfection of COVID-19. @*Conclusion@#All recovered patients were found to have NAbs regardless of the NAb titers maintained by natural immunity. Age and disease severity during COVID-19 infection were associated with high NAb titers.

5.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 463-476, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898662

ABSTRACT

Background@#As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has progressed, there has been a growing awareness of the long-term impacts of the COVID-19 infection. However, until recently, there was no published study that investigated COVID-19-related sequelae and related factors for greater than six months from the onset of COVID-19 symptoms or the time of COVID-19 diagnosis in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#Online survey and statistical analysis were conducted by Kyungpook National University Hospital on 5,252 patients diagnosed as COVID-19 between February 18, 2020 and March 14, 2020. Responders aged between 16 and 70 years were included. Longterm sequelae were defined as persistent symptoms or signs ≥ 6 months after acute COVID-19 infection. The survey was conducted from September 8, 2020 to September 10, 2020.Clinical characteristics and self-reported clinical sequelae of the responders were analyzed to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with sequelae using descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analysis. @*Results@#The median period from the date of the first symptom onset or COVID-19 diagnosis to the time of the survey was 195 (interquartile range [IQR] 191 - 200) days. The response rate was 17.1% (900 out of 5,252). The median age was 31 (IQR 24.0 - 47.0) years old, and 627 responders were female (69.7%). Regarding the disease severity, 29 (3.2%) were asymptomatic, 763 (84.8%) mild, 86 (9.6%) moderate, 17 (1.9%) severe, and 5 (0.6%) critical. In total, 591 (65.7%) responders suffered from COVID-19-related long-term sequelae and 78 (8.6%) responders were receiving outpatient treatment for COVID-19-related long-term sequelae. The most common symptoms identified during the isolation period were anosmia and ageusia at 44.5% and 43.5%, respectively. Fatigue was the most common long-term sequelae, accounting for 253 (26.2%) responders, followed by concentration difficulty, amnesia, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety, and depression, which accounted for over 20%. Female gender was identified as the factor associated with mental and psychological long-term sequelae (P <0.05). @*Conclusion@#The results showed that the rate of COVID-19-related long-term sequelae was 65.7%. The most common long-term sequela was fatigue. The risk factor identified was female gender. It was found that the long-term sequelae had various manifestations, including mental and psychological aspects. To improve the care of COVID-19 recovered patients with COVID-19-related long-term sequelae, the participation of a comprehensive and an interdisciplinary group of researchers is required.

6.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 405-420, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898647

ABSTRACT

During the 2019 domestic measles outbreak in Korea, measles occurred in healthcare workers with two doses of the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine, and the strict application of the Occupational Safety and Health Act required medical institutions to identify healthcare workers' immunity to measles and vaccinate the susceptible pockets. In response to the frontline medical institutions' request to review the measles recommendations and guidelines, the Korean Society of Infectious Diseases held a roundtable discussion on the causes of measles outbreak, timing of vaccinations, antibody tests, and booster vaccinations for healthcare workers, and financial support from the government and municipality as well as response strategies against the outbreak in healthcare settings. In Korea, the seroprevalence of measles is decreasing in the vaccine-induced immunity group during the maintenance of measles elimination over several years. The susceptible group against measles is in their 20s and 30s, and this may be because of waning immunity rather than nonresponse considering Korea's vaccine policy. The risk of measles nosocomial infection from community increases as these susceptible pockets actively engage in medical institutions.Thus, data on the immunity of low seroprevalence group in Korea are needed, further discussion is needed on the booster vaccination based on the data. Especially, antibody testing and vaccination in healthcare workers may be necessary to prevent the spread of measles in medical insutitutions, and further discussion is needed regarding specific testing methods, and the timing and frequency of test and vaccination.

7.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 384-390, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898620

ABSTRACT

Vibrio cholerae is a pathogen known to cause the waterborne epidemic disease cholera. Overall, V. cholerae O1 or O139 strains produce the cholera toxin that cause gastroenteritis, resulting in watery diarrhea. Most of the enterocolitis caused by V. cholerae can be easily treated with fluid therapy and conservative care. However, V. cholerae non-O1/O139 strains can cause extraintestinal infections, such as wound infection or sepsis, in immunocompromised patients. The clinical course of these infections is very similar to that of V. vulnificus infection. We report about a 52-year-old man without previous underlying disease who was diagnosed with V. cholerae non-O1/O139 infection and died within 72 hours after admission to the intensive care unit.

8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 806-813, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896598

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to develop a novel mortality scoring system for inpatients with COVID-19 based on simple demographic factors and laboratory findings. @*Materials and Methods@#We reviewed and analyzed data from patients who were admitted and diagnosed with COVID-19 at 10 hospitals in Daegu, South Korea, between January and July 2020. We randomized and assigned patients to the development and validation groups at a 70% to 30% ratio. Each point scored for selected risk factors helped build a new mortality scoring system using Cox regression analysis. We evaluated the accuracy of the new scoring system in the development and validation groups using the area under the curve. @*Results@#The development group included 1232 patients, whereas the validation group included 528 patients. In the development group, predictors for the new scoring system as selected by Cox proportional hazards model were age ≥70 years, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, dementia, C-reactive protein levels >4 mg/dL, infiltration on chest X-rays at the initial diagnosis, and the need for oxygen support on admission. The areas under the curve for the development and validation groups were 0.914 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.891–0.937] and 0.898 (95% CI 0.854–0.941), respectively. According to our scoring system, COVID-19 mortality was 0.4% for the low-risk group (score 0–3) and 53.7% for the very high-risk group (score ≥11). @*Conclusion@#We developed a new scoring system for quickly and easily predicting COVID-19 mortality using simple predictors. This scoring system can help physicians provide the proper therapy and strategy for each patient.

9.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 584-592, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896539

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) have been considered effective in preventing and treating viral infections. However, until now, the duration and clinical implications of antibody-mediated nature immunity in Koreans have remained unknown.Therefore, we examined NAbs levels and clinical characteristics in recovered coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. @*Materials and Methods@#Blood samples were collected from 143 adult patients who had been diagnosed with and had recovered from COVID-19 from February to March in 2020 at a tertiary-care university-affiliated hospital in Daegu, Korea. A plaque reduction neutralization test was conducted to analyze NAb titers. Individualized questionnaires were used to identify patient clinical information. @*Results@#The median number of days from symptom onset to the blood collection date was 109.0 (104.0; 115.0). The NAb titers ranged from 10 to 2560. The median NAb titer value was 40. Of the 143 patients, 68 (47.6%) patients had NAb titers ≥80, and 31 (21.7%) patients had NAb titers ≥160. The higher the age or disease severity, the higher the NAb titer. In univariate logistic regression, statistically significant predictors of high NAb titers (≥80) were age, myalgia, nausea or vomiting, dyspnea, and disease severity (p<0.05). Multivariable logistic regression showed that age ≥50 years (p=0.013) and moderate or higher disease severity (p<0.001) were factors associated with high NAb titers (≥80). None of the patients had reinfection of COVID-19. @*Conclusion@#All recovered patients were found to have NAbs regardless of the NAb titers maintained by natural immunity. Age and disease severity during COVID-19 infection were associated with high NAb titers.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892260

ABSTRACT

Background@#Remdesivir is widely used for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but controversies regarding its efficacy still remain. @*Methods@#A retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the effect of remdesivir on clinical and virologic outcomes of severe COVID-19 patients from June to July 2020. Primary clinical endpoints included clinical recovery, additional mechanical ventilator (MV) support, and duration of oxygen or MV support. Viral load reduction by hospital day (HD) 15 was evaluated by calculating changes in cycle threshold (Ct) values. @*Results@#A total of 86 severe COVID-19 patients were evaluated including 48 remdesivirtreated patients. Baseline characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups. Remdesivir was administered an average of 7.42 days from symptom onset. The proportions of clinical recovery of the remdesivir and supportive care group at HD 14 (56.3% and 39.5%) and HD 28 (87.5% and 78.9%) were not statistically different. The proportion of patients requiring MV support by HD 28 was significantly lower in the remdesivir group than in the supportive care group (22.9% vs. 44.7%, P = 0.032), and MV duration was significantly shorter in the remdesivir group (average, 1.97 vs. 5.37 days; P = 0.017). Analysis of upper respiratory tract specimens demonstrated that increases of Ct value from HD 1–5 to 11–15 were significantly greater in the remdesivir group than the supportive care group (average, 10.19 vs. 5.36; P = 0.007), and the slope of the Ct value increase was also significantly steeper in the remdesivir group (average, 5.10 vs. 2.68; P = 0.007). @*Conclusion@#The remdesivir group showed clinical and virologic benefit in terms of MV requirement and viral load reduction, supporting remdesivir treatment for severe COVID-19.

11.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 463-476, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890958

ABSTRACT

Background@#As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has progressed, there has been a growing awareness of the long-term impacts of the COVID-19 infection. However, until recently, there was no published study that investigated COVID-19-related sequelae and related factors for greater than six months from the onset of COVID-19 symptoms or the time of COVID-19 diagnosis in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#Online survey and statistical analysis were conducted by Kyungpook National University Hospital on 5,252 patients diagnosed as COVID-19 between February 18, 2020 and March 14, 2020. Responders aged between 16 and 70 years were included. Longterm sequelae were defined as persistent symptoms or signs ≥ 6 months after acute COVID-19 infection. The survey was conducted from September 8, 2020 to September 10, 2020.Clinical characteristics and self-reported clinical sequelae of the responders were analyzed to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with sequelae using descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analysis. @*Results@#The median period from the date of the first symptom onset or COVID-19 diagnosis to the time of the survey was 195 (interquartile range [IQR] 191 - 200) days. The response rate was 17.1% (900 out of 5,252). The median age was 31 (IQR 24.0 - 47.0) years old, and 627 responders were female (69.7%). Regarding the disease severity, 29 (3.2%) were asymptomatic, 763 (84.8%) mild, 86 (9.6%) moderate, 17 (1.9%) severe, and 5 (0.6%) critical. In total, 591 (65.7%) responders suffered from COVID-19-related long-term sequelae and 78 (8.6%) responders were receiving outpatient treatment for COVID-19-related long-term sequelae. The most common symptoms identified during the isolation period were anosmia and ageusia at 44.5% and 43.5%, respectively. Fatigue was the most common long-term sequelae, accounting for 253 (26.2%) responders, followed by concentration difficulty, amnesia, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety, and depression, which accounted for over 20%. Female gender was identified as the factor associated with mental and psychological long-term sequelae (P <0.05). @*Conclusion@#The results showed that the rate of COVID-19-related long-term sequelae was 65.7%. The most common long-term sequela was fatigue. The risk factor identified was female gender. It was found that the long-term sequelae had various manifestations, including mental and psychological aspects. To improve the care of COVID-19 recovered patients with COVID-19-related long-term sequelae, the participation of a comprehensive and an interdisciplinary group of researchers is required.

12.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 405-420, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890943

ABSTRACT

During the 2019 domestic measles outbreak in Korea, measles occurred in healthcare workers with two doses of the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine, and the strict application of the Occupational Safety and Health Act required medical institutions to identify healthcare workers' immunity to measles and vaccinate the susceptible pockets. In response to the frontline medical institutions' request to review the measles recommendations and guidelines, the Korean Society of Infectious Diseases held a roundtable discussion on the causes of measles outbreak, timing of vaccinations, antibody tests, and booster vaccinations for healthcare workers, and financial support from the government and municipality as well as response strategies against the outbreak in healthcare settings. In Korea, the seroprevalence of measles is decreasing in the vaccine-induced immunity group during the maintenance of measles elimination over several years. The susceptible group against measles is in their 20s and 30s, and this may be because of waning immunity rather than nonresponse considering Korea's vaccine policy. The risk of measles nosocomial infection from community increases as these susceptible pockets actively engage in medical institutions.Thus, data on the immunity of low seroprevalence group in Korea are needed, further discussion is needed on the booster vaccination based on the data. Especially, antibody testing and vaccination in healthcare workers may be necessary to prevent the spread of measles in medical insutitutions, and further discussion is needed regarding specific testing methods, and the timing and frequency of test and vaccination.

13.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 384-390, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890916

ABSTRACT

Vibrio cholerae is a pathogen known to cause the waterborne epidemic disease cholera. Overall, V. cholerae O1 or O139 strains produce the cholera toxin that cause gastroenteritis, resulting in watery diarrhea. Most of the enterocolitis caused by V. cholerae can be easily treated with fluid therapy and conservative care. However, V. cholerae non-O1/O139 strains can cause extraintestinal infections, such as wound infection or sepsis, in immunocompromised patients. The clinical course of these infections is very similar to that of V. vulnificus infection. We report about a 52-year-old man without previous underlying disease who was diagnosed with V. cholerae non-O1/O139 infection and died within 72 hours after admission to the intensive care unit.

14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919799

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to identify factors affecting physicians and nurses’ intention to comply with healthcare-associated infection control guidelines, based on the theory of planned behavior. @*Methods@#This study was a cross-sectional, descriptive survey. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires from 169 doctors and nurses at a tertiary hospital. Pearson correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the factors influencing intention to comply with healthcare-associated infection control guidelines. @*Results@#The mean score of intention to comply with infection control guidelines was 17.17±2.60 points (possible range 3-21 points). The intention to comply with infection control guidelines was positively associated with subjective norms and perceived behavioral control over compliance with healthcare-associated infection control guidelines. In the multiple regression analysis, perceived behavioral control was the only significant predictor of intention to comply with healthcare-associated infection control guidelines. @*Conclusion@#In order to encourage doctors and nurses to comply with infection control guidelines, it is necessary to provide resources, enhance the work environment, and utilize strategies to increase perceived behavioral control over compliance with infection control guidelines.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899964

ABSTRACT

Background@#Remdesivir is widely used for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but controversies regarding its efficacy still remain. @*Methods@#A retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the effect of remdesivir on clinical and virologic outcomes of severe COVID-19 patients from June to July 2020. Primary clinical endpoints included clinical recovery, additional mechanical ventilator (MV) support, and duration of oxygen or MV support. Viral load reduction by hospital day (HD) 15 was evaluated by calculating changes in cycle threshold (Ct) values. @*Results@#A total of 86 severe COVID-19 patients were evaluated including 48 remdesivirtreated patients. Baseline characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups. Remdesivir was administered an average of 7.42 days from symptom onset. The proportions of clinical recovery of the remdesivir and supportive care group at HD 14 (56.3% and 39.5%) and HD 28 (87.5% and 78.9%) were not statistically different. The proportion of patients requiring MV support by HD 28 was significantly lower in the remdesivir group than in the supportive care group (22.9% vs. 44.7%, P = 0.032), and MV duration was significantly shorter in the remdesivir group (average, 1.97 vs. 5.37 days; P = 0.017). Analysis of upper respiratory tract specimens demonstrated that increases of Ct value from HD 1–5 to 11–15 were significantly greater in the remdesivir group than the supportive care group (average, 10.19 vs. 5.36; P = 0.007), and the slope of the Ct value increase was also significantly steeper in the remdesivir group (average, 5.10 vs. 2.68; P = 0.007). @*Conclusion@#The remdesivir group showed clinical and virologic benefit in terms of MV requirement and viral load reduction, supporting remdesivir treatment for severe COVID-19.

16.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835359

ABSTRACT

Background@#Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) has become more common in nosocomial infections, especially in urine samples. However, until now, no treatment regimen has been proven to effectively eradicate urine VRE colonization. Therefore, to evaluate the efficacy of doxycycline in eradicating urine VRE and shortening VRE isolation period, we compared VRE colony detection period between doxycycline-treated and untreated patients. @*Methods@#A retrospective cohort study of 83 patients with VRE colonization in urine cultures was conducted at a tertiary academic hospital from January 2011 to February 2018. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to evaluate eradication rates in the treatment and non-treatment groups. Factors affecting urine VRE colonization persistence were analyzed by multiple logistic regression analysis. @*Results@#The overall rate of VRE eradication during the entire hospital stay was higher in the doxycycline treatment group (90.5%) than in the non-treatment group (58.1%, p=0.014). Survival analysis showed that the 5-, 10-, and 20-day cumulative eradication rates were 78.3%, 100%, and 100% in the doxycycline treatment group, and 18.5%, 45.7%, and 67.8% in the non-treatment group, respectively, thereby indicating that eradication rates were higher in the doxycycline treatment group than in the non-treatment group (p<0.001). Only doxycycline treatment was shown to affect urine VRE colonization persistence in multivariate logistic regression analysis @*Conclusion@#Doxycycline treatment enhanced the eradication rate of urine VRE colonization and appeared to be useful in shortening VRE isolation period.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892096

ABSTRACT

From December 2006 to December 2016, 1093 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) individuals < 70 years enrolled in Korea human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) cohort were analyzed to investigate the prevalence of HIV/HBV co-infection rate and hepatitis B virus surface antibody (HBsAb) positive rate based on birth year. The HBV co-infection prevalence rate was the highest (8.8%) in patients born between 1960 and 1964 and the lowest (0%) among those born between 1995 and 1999. A decreasing linear trend of HBV co-infection rate was observed according to the 5-year interval changes. HBsAb-positive rate was only 58.1% in our study. The national HBV vaccination programs have effectively lowered the HBV co-infection rate in HIV population. However, it is identified that the HIV population has low HBsAb positive rate. Further evidences supporting efficacy of booster immunization for HBsAb negative HIV patients are required and efforts should be made to increase HBsAb positive rates among HIV patients to prevent horizontal transmission.

18.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831878

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study aimed to collect information on the opinions of Korean infectious disease (ID) experts on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and related issues in preparation for a future outbreak. @*Methods@#A survey was conducted over the course of 5 days (from April 21 to 25, 2020), targeting all adult ID specialists currently in the medical field in South Korea (n = 265). An online-based survey was forwarded via text message and e-mail. Only one response was accepted from each participant. @*Results@#Of these 265 ID specialists gotten to, 132 (49.8%) responded. The highest proportion of the respondents envisaged the current COVID-19 outbreak to end after December 2020 (47.7% for the domestic Korean outbreak and 70.5% for the global pandemic); moreover, 60.7% of them stated that a second nationwide wave is likely to occur between September and December 2020 in South Korea. N95 respirators were considered to be the most important item in hospitals in preparation for a second wave. The most important policy to be implemented at the national level was securing national hospitals designated for the treatment of ID (67.4%). @*Conclusions@#ID experts in South Korea believe that the COVID-19 pandemic may not be easily controlled and that a second nationwide wave is likely to occur in South Korea. Our results indicate that Korean ID specialists believe that a high level of preparation is needed in various aspects, including the procurement of personal protective equipment, to respond efficiently to a second outbreak.

19.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831713

ABSTRACT

Background@#Monitoring the full spectrum of causes of death among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients has become increasingly important as survival improves because of highly active antiretroviral therapy. However, there are no recently published data regarding the changes in the causes of death among HIV patients based on year of HIV diagnosis, and the impact of low CD4 count at the time of HIV diagnosis on the clinical outcome is still unclear in Korea. @*Methods@#A retrospective cohort study was conducted with 801 patients with HIV infection who were followed up at a tertiary university hospital and diagnosed with HIV between July 1984 and October 2019. The causes of death were analyzed by descriptive analysis based on CD4 count and the year of HIV diagnosis. Kaplan–Meier and log rank tests were performed to compare the prognosis between the CD4 < 200 cells/mm 3 and CD4 ≥ 200 cells/mm 3 groups. @*Results@#Among 801 patients, 67 patients were eligible for the death cause analysis.Infection-related death accounted for 44 patients (65.7%) and non-infection related death accounted for 23 patients (32.4%). Pneumocystis pneumonia (29.9%) was the single most common cause of death in both past and present cases, and tuberculosis (19.4%) was the second leading cause of death from infections, but the frequency has declined in recent years. Causes of infection-related death have decreased, whereas non-infection related causes of death have increased remarkably. Malignancy-related death was the most common cause of non-infection related death. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) non-related malignancy accounted for 11.9%, whereas AIDS-related malignancy accounted for 6.0% of the total death among HIV patients. No significant statistical differences were found in mortality rate (P = 0.228), causes of death (P = 0.771), or survival analysis (P = 0.089) between the CD4 < 200 cells/mm3 and CD4 ≥ 200 cells/mm3 groups. @*Conclusion@#Being diagnosed with CD4 < 200 cells/mm3 at the time of HIV diagnosis was not an indicator of greater risk of death compared with the CD4 ≥ 200 cells/mm3 group. Malignant tumors have become an important cause of death in recent years, and an increasing tendency of AIDS-non-related malignancy causes has been observed.

20.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831627

ABSTRACT

Background@#The mortality risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is higher in patients with older age, and many elderly patients are reported to require advanced respiratory support. @*Methods@#We reviewed medical records of 98 patients aged ≥ 65 years who were hospitalized with COVID-19 during a regional outbreak in Daegu/Gyeongsangbuk-do province of Korea. The outcome measures were in-hospital mortality and the treatment with mechanical ventilation (MV) or high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC). @*Results@#The median age of the patients was 72 years; 55.1% were female. Most (74.5%) had at least one underlying condition. Overall case fatality rate (CFR) was 20.4%, and median time to death after admission was 8 days. The CFR was 6.1% among patients aged 65–69 years, 22.7% among those aged 70–79 years, and 38.1% among those aged ≥ 80 years. The CFR among patients who required MV was 43.8%, and the proportion of patients received MV/HFNC was 28.6%. Nosocomial acquisition, diabetes, chronic lung diseases, and chronic neurologic diseases were significant risk factors for both death and MV/HFNC. Hypotension, hypoxia, and altered mental status on admission were also associated with poor outcome. CRP > 8.0 mg/dL was strongly associated with MV/HFNC (odds ratio, 26.31; 95% confidence interval, 7.78–88.92; P < 0.001), and showed better diagnostic characteristics compared to commonly used clinical scores. @*Conclusion@#Patients aged ≥ 80 years had a high risk of requiring MV/HFNC, and mortality among those severe patients was very high. Severe initial presentation and laboratory abnormalities, especially high CRP, were identified as risk factors for mortality and severe hospital course.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL