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1.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 76-82, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966526

ABSTRACT

While the guidelines for adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) for colon cancer are relatively standardized, those for early rectal cancer are still lacking. We therefore evaluated the role of AC in clinical stage II rectal cancer treatment after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Patients diagnosed with early rectal cancer (defined by clinical stage T3/4, N0) who completed CRT followed by surgery were enrolled in this retrospective study. To evaluate the role of AC, we analyzed the risk of recurrence and survival based on clinicopathologic parameters and adjuvant chemotherapy. Of the 112 patients, 11 patients (9.8%) experienced recurrence and five patients (4.8%) died. In a multivariate analysis, circumferential resection margin involvement (CRM+) on magnetic resonance imaging at diagnosis, CRM involvement following neoadjuvant therapy (ypCRM+), tumor regression grade (≤G1) and no-AC were considered poor prognostic factors for recurrence free survival (RFS). In addition, ypCRM+ and no-AC were associated with poor overall survival (OS) in the multivariate analysis. AC including 5-FU monotherapy demonstrated the benefits of reduced recurrence and prolonged survival in clinical stage II rectal cancer, even in pathologic stage following neoadjuvant therapy (ypStage) 0-I. Further prospective studies are needed to verify the benefit of each regimen of AC and the development of a method that can accurately predict CRM status before surgery, and a vigorous treatment that can induce CRM non-involvement (CRM−) should be considered even in early stages of rectal cancer.

2.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 29-36, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913901

ABSTRACT

Extra-pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinoma is a rare and aggressive cancer. Although several biological and histological markers have been suggested as prognostic factors for this cancer, the prognostic importance of systemic inflammatory markers, including the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-lymphocyte ratio, is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the association between systemic inflammatory markers and the prognosis of extra-pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinoma. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 85 patients with unresectable or metastatic extra-pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinoma who received platinum-based chemotherapy as first-line chemotherapy from August 2007 to November 2019. We used time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to determine the cut-off values. The cut-off values for the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-lymphocyte ratio were 3.0 and 158.5, respectively. There was no significant difference in the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score, Ki-67 index, or response to chemotherapy between groups. The high neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio group showed significantly worse overall survival (high vs. low, median 11.1 vs. 21.0 months, log-rank p=0.004) and shorter median progression-free survival, but the latter was not statistically significant. The high platelet-lymphocyte ratio group also showed significantly worse progression-free survival and overall survival than the low platelet-lymphocyte ratio group (high vs. low:median 5.6 vs. 9.8 months, log-rank p=0.047 and median 13.8 vs. 21.0 months, log-rank p=0.013, respectively). In multivariable analysis, a high neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio is a potent and readily available prognostic factor for extra-pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinoma.

3.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 660-672, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927020

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Despite the increasing need for geriatric assessment prior to chemotherapy, the method for this assessment remains inadequate for older cancer patients. We aimed to propose a simple assessment method to predict the performance of adjuvant chemotherapy in older patients after colon cancer surgery. @*Methods@#This prospective study included patients over 65 years of age who were scheduled for adjuvant chemotherapy after colon cancer surgery. Before initiating chemotherapy, their functional status was assessed on the basis of activities of daily living (ADL)/instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). These parameters were analyzed with clinical characteristics and the patterns of adjuvant chemotherapy. The focus was on the completion rate of adjuvant chemotherapy. @*Results@#A total of 89 patients with a median age of 72 years were analyzed. Among them, 54 (61%) were non-impaired and 35 (39%) were impaired regarding their ADL/IADL classification. Low body mass index and impairment of ADL/IADLs were significantly associated with chemotherapy interruption. Among toxicities, fatigue and hand-foot syndrome were independent prognostic factors for chemotherapy interruption. Impairments of ADL/IADL were significantly associated with fatigue regardless of age. Based on age and ADL/IADL stratification, younger patients (≤ 72 years) and/or those who were ADL/IADL non-impaired were significantly more likely to complete adjuvant chemotherapy than older patients (> 72 years) and ADL/IADL impaired patients (p = 0.038). This was regardless of the chemotherapy regimen. @*Conclusions@#Functional assessment using ADL/IADL is a convenient method to predict chemotherapy toxicity and performance. These results suggested that routine screening for ADL/IADLs could guide appropriate patient selection for the completion of adjuvant chemotherapy and predict expected outcomes.

4.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e401-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899715

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although international guidelines recommend palliative care approaches for many serious illnesses, the palliative needs of patients with serious illnesses other than cancer are often unmet, mainly due to insufficient prognosis-related discussion. We investigated physicians' and the general public's respective attitudes toward prognostic disclosure for several serious illnesses. @*Methods@#We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 928 physicians, sourced from 12 hospitals and the Korean Medical Association, and 1,005 members of the general public, sourced from all 17 administrative divisions in Korea. @*Results@#For most illnesses, most physicians (adjusted proportions – end-organ failure, 99.0%; incurable genetic or neurologic disease, 98.5%; acquired immune deficiency syndrome [AIDS], 98.4%; stroke or Parkinson's disease, 96.0%; and dementia, 89.6%) and members of the general public (end-organ failure, 92.0%; incurable genetic or neurologic disease, 92.5%; AIDS, 91.5%; stroke or Parkinson's disease, 92.1%; and dementia, 86.9%) wanted to be informed if they had a terminal prognosis. For physicians and the general public, the primary factor to consider when disclosing terminal status was “the patient's right to know his/her condition” (31.0%). Yet, the general public was less likely to prefer prognostic disclosure than physicians. Particularly, when their family members were patients, more than 10% of the general public did not want patients to be informed of their terminal prognosis. For the general public, the main reason for not disclosing prognosis was “psychological burden such as anxiety and depression” (35.8%), while for the physicians it was “disclosure would have no beneficial effect” (42.4%). @*Conclusion@#Most Physicians and the general public agreed that disclosure of a terminal prognosis respects patient autonomy for several serious illnesses. The low response rate of physicians might limit the generalizability of the results.

5.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e401-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892011

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although international guidelines recommend palliative care approaches for many serious illnesses, the palliative needs of patients with serious illnesses other than cancer are often unmet, mainly due to insufficient prognosis-related discussion. We investigated physicians' and the general public's respective attitudes toward prognostic disclosure for several serious illnesses. @*Methods@#We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 928 physicians, sourced from 12 hospitals and the Korean Medical Association, and 1,005 members of the general public, sourced from all 17 administrative divisions in Korea. @*Results@#For most illnesses, most physicians (adjusted proportions – end-organ failure, 99.0%; incurable genetic or neurologic disease, 98.5%; acquired immune deficiency syndrome [AIDS], 98.4%; stroke or Parkinson's disease, 96.0%; and dementia, 89.6%) and members of the general public (end-organ failure, 92.0%; incurable genetic or neurologic disease, 92.5%; AIDS, 91.5%; stroke or Parkinson's disease, 92.1%; and dementia, 86.9%) wanted to be informed if they had a terminal prognosis. For physicians and the general public, the primary factor to consider when disclosing terminal status was “the patient's right to know his/her condition” (31.0%). Yet, the general public was less likely to prefer prognostic disclosure than physicians. Particularly, when their family members were patients, more than 10% of the general public did not want patients to be informed of their terminal prognosis. For the general public, the main reason for not disclosing prognosis was “psychological burden such as anxiety and depression” (35.8%), while for the physicians it was “disclosure would have no beneficial effect” (42.4%). @*Conclusion@#Most Physicians and the general public agreed that disclosure of a terminal prognosis respects patient autonomy for several serious illnesses. The low response rate of physicians might limit the generalizability of the results.

6.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 766-777, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129233

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) plays an important role in cancer progression during tumor proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. This study evaluated the prognostic role of FGFR4 polymorphism in patients with resected colon cancer, including the underlying mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: FGFR4 polymorphism was characterized in patientswho received curative resection for stage III colon cancer. FGFR4-dependent signal pathways involving cell proliferation, invasion, and migration according to genotypes were also evaluated in transfected colon cancer cell lines. RESULTS: Among a total of 273 patients, the GG of FGFR4 showed significantly better overall survival than the AG or AA, regardless of adjuvant treatment. In the group of AG or AA, combination of folinic acid, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) resulted in better survival than fluorouracil/leucovorin or no adjuvant chemotherapy. However, in GG, there was no difference among treatment regimens. Using multivariate analyses, the Arg388 carriers, together with age, N stage, poor differentiation, absence of a lymphocyte response, and no adjuvant chemotherapy, had a significantly worse OS than patients with the Gly388 allele. In transfected colon cancer cells, overexpression of Arg388 significantly increased cell proliferation and changes in epithelial to mesenchymal transition markers compared with cells overexpressing the Gly388 allele. CONCLUSION: The Arg388 allele of FGFR4 may be a biomarker and a candidate target for adjuvant treatment of patients with resected colon cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alleles , Biomarkers , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Fluorouracil , Genotype , Leucovorin , Lymphocytes , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 4 , Signal Transduction
7.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 766-777, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129219

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) plays an important role in cancer progression during tumor proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. This study evaluated the prognostic role of FGFR4 polymorphism in patients with resected colon cancer, including the underlying mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: FGFR4 polymorphism was characterized in patientswho received curative resection for stage III colon cancer. FGFR4-dependent signal pathways involving cell proliferation, invasion, and migration according to genotypes were also evaluated in transfected colon cancer cell lines. RESULTS: Among a total of 273 patients, the GG of FGFR4 showed significantly better overall survival than the AG or AA, regardless of adjuvant treatment. In the group of AG or AA, combination of folinic acid, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) resulted in better survival than fluorouracil/leucovorin or no adjuvant chemotherapy. However, in GG, there was no difference among treatment regimens. Using multivariate analyses, the Arg388 carriers, together with age, N stage, poor differentiation, absence of a lymphocyte response, and no adjuvant chemotherapy, had a significantly worse OS than patients with the Gly388 allele. In transfected colon cancer cells, overexpression of Arg388 significantly increased cell proliferation and changes in epithelial to mesenchymal transition markers compared with cells overexpressing the Gly388 allele. CONCLUSION: The Arg388 allele of FGFR4 may be a biomarker and a candidate target for adjuvant treatment of patients with resected colon cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alleles , Biomarkers , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Fluorouracil , Genotype , Leucovorin , Lymphocytes , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 4 , Signal Transduction
8.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 71-79, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-170079

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) polymorphism in esophageal cancer after chemoradiotherapy (CRT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Peripheral blood samples from 244 patients treated with CRT for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were assessed for the role of FGFR4 genotype on treatment response and survival. RESULTS: A total of 94 patients were homozygous for the Gly388 allele, and 110 were heterozygous and 40 homozygous for the Arg388 allele. No significant association was found between the FGFR4 genotype and clinicopathological parameters. However, patients carrying the Gly388 allele showed a better overall response rate than Arg388 carriers (p=0.038). In addition, Gly388 allele patients at an earlier stage showed better overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival than Arg388 carriers. Among these, the Gly388 allele showed significantly improved OS compared to Arg388 carriers in the lymph node (LN) metastasis group (p=0.042) compared to the no LN metastasis group (p=0.125). However, similar survival outcomes were observed for advanced-stage disease regardless of genotype. CONCLUSION: This result suggests that the role of FGFR4 Gly388 in treatment outcomes differs according to esophageal cancer stage. It showed a predictive role in the response of esophageal cancer patients to CRT with a better trend for OS in Gly388 than Arg388 carriers in the early stages. In particular, LN-positive early-stage patients carrying the Gly388 allele showed improved OS compared to those carrying Arg388.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alleles , Biomarkers , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Chemoradiotherapy , Disease-Free Survival , Esophageal Neoplasms , Genotype , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 4
9.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 12-20, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-80674

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate treatment outcomes and determine prognostic factors in patients with esophageal cancer treated with esophagectomy after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 39 patients with esophageal cancer who underwent concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by esophagectomy between 2002 and 2012. Initial clinical stages of patients were stage IB in 1 patient (2.6%), stage II in 5 patients (12.9%), and stage III in 33 patients (84.6%). RESULTS: The median age of all the patients was 62 years, and the median follow-up period was 17 months. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rate was 33.6% in all the patients. The 3-year locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS) rate was 33.7%. In multivariate analysis with covariates of age, the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, tumor length, clinical response, clinical stage, pathological response, pathological stage, lymphovascular invasion, surgical type, and radiotherapy to surgery interval, only pathological stage was an independent significant prognostic factor affecting both OS and LRFS. The complications in postoperative day 90 were pneumonia in 9 patients, anastomotic site leakage in 3 patients, and anastomotic site stricture in 2 patients. Postoperative 30-day mortality rate was 10.3% (4/39); the cause of death among these 4 patients was respiratory failure in 3 patients and myocardial infarction in one patient. CONCLUSION: Only pathological stage was an independent prognostic factor for both OS and LRFS in patients with esophageal cancer treated with esophagectomy after NCRT. We could confirm the significant role of NCRT in downstaging the initial tumor bulk and thus resulting in better survival of patients who gained earlier pathological stage after NCRT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cause of Death , Chemoradiotherapy , Constriction, Pathologic , Diabetes Mellitus , Esophageal Neoplasms , Esophagectomy , Follow-Up Studies , Hypertension , Mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Myocardial Infarction , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Pneumonia , Radiotherapy , Respiratory Insufficiency , Retrospective Studies
11.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 374-380, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-89573

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) increases transcription of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene. Inhibition of VEGF abolishes VEGF mediated induction of HIF-1alpha. Recent reports suggested that HIF-1alpha also mediated the induction of class III beta-tubulin (TUBB3) in hypoxia. TUBB3 confers resistance to taxanes. Inhibition of VEGF may decrease the expression of HIF-1alpha and TUBB3. This study was undertaken to investigate the roles of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) in gastric cancer cell behavior and to identify methods to overcome paclitaxel resistance in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The protein expression levels of HIF-1alpha and TUBB3 were measured in human gastric cancer cell lines (AGS) under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The relationship between TUBB3 and paclitaxel resistance was assessed with small interfering TUBB3 RNA. AGS cells were treated with anti-VEGFR-1, anti-VEGFR-2, placental growth factor (PlGF), bevacizuamb, and paclitaxel. RESULTS: Hypoxia induced paclitaxel resistance was decreased by knockdown of TUBB3. Induction of HIF-1alpha and TUBB3 in AGS is VEGFR-1 mediated and PlGF dependent. Hypoxia-dependent upregulation of HIF-1alpha and TUBB3 was reduced in response to paclitaxel treatment. Expressions of HIF-1alpha and TUBB3 were most decreased when AGS cells were treated with a combination of paclitaxel and anti-VEGFR-1. AGS cell cytotoxicity was most increased in response to paclitaxel, anti-VEGFR-1, and anti-VEGFR-2. CONCLUSION: We suggest that blockade of VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 enhances paclitaxel sensitivity in TUBB3-expressing gastric cancer cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Cell Hypoxia , Cell Line, Tumor , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism , Paclitaxel/pharmacology , Pregnancy Proteins/pharmacology , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , Tubulin/genetics , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2/antagonists & inhibitors
12.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 276-284, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-78974

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Locally advanced esophageal cancers are generally treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, followed by surgery in operable candidates. However, even if the patients were diagnosed as operable disease, surgery could not be performed on patients with poor condition or other comorbidity. In this case, definitive chemoradiotherapy (dCRT) is the other option for localized esophageal cancer. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and clinical prognostic factors for dCRT in locally advanced esophageal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a review of patients who received dCRT for locally advanced squamous esophageal cancer from 2004 to 2010, focusing on stages III and IVa. All patients received at least two cycles of platinum-based chemotherapy during radiation, and all tumor burdens were included in the radiation field. The treatment results were analyzed for patterns of failure and prognostic factors associated with survival. RESULTS: In total, 63 patients were enrolled in this study. The overall response rate was 84.1%. Relief from dysphagia after dCRT was achieved in 48 patients. The most frequent failure was local recurrence. The median overall survival (OS) was 23.0 months, and the 2-year survival rate was 45.4%. Similar results were observed for elderly study patients. Significant prognostic factors for OS were duration of smoking, high grade of dysphagia (score of 3 or 4), and shorter duration of progression-free and dysphagia-free survival. Maintenance chemotherapy after dCRT did not influence OS. However, "good risk" patients receiving maintenance chemotherapy showed better OS than those who did not receive maintenance chemotherapy (30.4 months vs. 12.0 months, p=0.002). CONCLUSION: dCRT has a major role in improving survival and palliation of dysphagia in inoperable advanced esophageal cancer, even in elderly patients. Maintenance chemotherapy after dCRT may be effective in prolonging survival in "good risk" patients.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Chemoradiotherapy , Comorbidity , Deglutition Disorders , Drug Therapy , Esophageal Neoplasms , Maintenance Chemotherapy , Prognosis , Recurrence , Smoke , Smoking , Survival Rate , Tumor Burden
13.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 1037-1043, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-154187

ABSTRACT

The active metabolite of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol), inhibits the growth of several types of human cancer cells in vitro, but its therapeutic use is limited because it causes hypercalcemia. Among its analogs, 19-nor-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2 (paricalcitol), has fewer calcemic effects and exhibits an activity equipotent to that of calcitriol. We assessed the antitumor and anti-inflammatory effects of paricalcitol in gastric cancer cells, and evaluated the potential role of vitamin D in the treatment of peritoneal metastatic gastric cancer. In this study, treatment with paricalcitol inhibited gastric cancer cell growth and induced cell cycle arrest. Paricalcitol also induced apoptosis and showed anti-inflammatory activity. Moreover, the growth of intraperitoneal metastases in vivo was reduced in mice treated with paricalcitol. 18F-FDG uptake was significantly lower in the paricalcitol group compared to control group (SUV; control group 13.2 +/- 5.3 vs paricalcitol group 4.5 +/- 3.0). Intraperitoneal tumor volume was significantly lower in paricalcitol treated mice (control group 353.2 +/- 22.9 mm3 vs paricalcitol group 252.0 +/- 8.4 mm3). These results suggest that the vitamin D analog, paricalcitol, has anticancer activity on gastric cancer cells by regulation of the cell cycle, apoptosis, and inflammation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Cycle Checkpoints/drug effects , Cell Cycle Proteins/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Ergocalciferols/chemistry , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18/chemistry , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Peritoneal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Positron-Emission Tomography , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , Transplantation, Heterologous
14.
Journal of Gynecologic Oncology ; : 65-68, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-202622

ABSTRACT

Cancers of an unknown primary site are heterogenous with respect to their clinical and pathologic features. They are generally very aggressive, but specific favorable subsets have a better prognosis. For these favorable subsets, taxane based chemotherapy is very effective for a subset of woman with papillary serous peritoneal adenocarcinoma. A 52 year-old woman underwent [18F]-FDG PET/CT for routine health screening. On PET/CT, multiple hypermetabolic lymph nodes were detected in the paraaortic spaces, and there were no other hypermetabolic abnormalities. The patient was diagnosed with an unknown primary cancer that probably originated from the ovary or peritoneum, according to clinical studies and biopsy results. This was not a typical case of a favorable subset of cancer of an unknown primary site, but the tumor showed complete biologic response to taxane based chemotherapy as revealed by PET/CT, and necrotic tumor cells were confirmed by surgery.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Adenocarcinoma , Biopsy , Bridged-Ring Compounds , Lymph Nodes , Mass Screening , Neoplasms, Unknown Primary , Ovary , Peritoneum , Positron-Emission Tomography , Prognosis , Taxoids
15.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 883-886, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-197762

ABSTRACT

A 49-year-old man presented with an incidentally detected right renal mass on a health examination. The abdominal computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a 3-cm right renal mass suspected of being a hypovascular tumor, such as papillary renal cell carcinoma, and an osteoblastic metastatic lesion on the right iliac bone. However, we missed a bone lesion at the time of diagnosis. A laparoscopic radical nephrectomy was performed and the final pathology confirmed unclassified renal cell carcinoma. The follow-up imaging studies showed several neck lymph nodes and multiple bone metastases at the lumbar spine, right iliac bone, and left femur. Thirteen cycles of temsirolimus were administered to the patient, but follow-up positron emission tomography showed newly developed liver and left adrenal metastasis and increased bone metastasis. It is important to note that T1a renal cell carcinoma can present with distant metastasis and thus demands scrupulous examination even though the tumor size may be small.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Femur , Follow-Up Studies , Liver , Lymph Nodes , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neck , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasms by Histologic Type , Nephrectomy , Osteoblasts , Positron-Emission Tomography , Sirolimus , Spine
16.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 317-322, 2011.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23779

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: OROS hydromorphone is a synthetic opioid agent. While clinical studies have tested its effectiveness at controlling cancer-associated pain in patients who have received other strong opioids, no clinical studies have tested its effectiveness at managing cancer pain in strong opioid-naive patients. We performed the present study to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of OROS hydromorphone in strong opioid-naive cancer patients. METHODS: We administered OROS hydromorphone to patients who had not received strong opioids during the previous month. The starting dose was 8 mg/day. The dose was increased every 2 days in patients who experienced more than four episodes of breakthrough pain per day (more than four times in patients being treated with short-acting opioids). We evaluated the efficacy, safety and tolerability of ORS hydromorphone. We also evaluated patient satisfaction and investigators' global assessments. RESULTS: We enrolled 23 patients to the study. The decrease in the numeric rating scale (NRS) was 59%. NRS variation had decreased markedly during the previous 24 h. All patients achieved stable pain control. The side effects were similar to those of other strong opioids. In total, 26% of patients were very satisfied with the treatment and 47% satisfied, and 74% of the investigators deemed OROS hydromorphone to be very effective or effective at controlling cancer pain. CONCLUSIONS: OROS hydromorphone is an osmotically driven, controlled-release preparation that is very effective and safe when administered once daily to strong opioid-naive cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Analgesics, Opioid , Breakthrough Pain , Delayed-Action Preparations , Electrolytes , Hydromorphone , Patient Satisfaction , Prospective Studies , Research Personnel
17.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 359-365, 2011.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-78410

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The palliative prognostic index (PPI) was designed to predict life expectancy based on clinical symptoms. In this study, a PPI was constructed and used with other biological parameters to predict 3-week survival in patients with advanced cancer. METHODS: The study included 222 patients. The PPI was constructed with five variables (performance status, oral intake, edema, dyspnea at rest, and delirium). PPI scores were grouped as follows: 4 (group 1); > 4 and 6 (group 3). At admission, seven biological variables (white blood cell count, lymphocyte, C-reactive protein [CRP], bilirubin, albumin, creatinine, and lactate dehydrogenase) were measured. RESULTS: The overall survival duration was 50 days in group 1, 22 days in group 2, and 14 days in groups 3. Using the PPI, a survival of 6 and increases in serum bilirubin and CRP levels. Furthermore, the 3-week survival rate in patients with hepatopancreatobiliary cancer was more accurately predicted using a combination of the PPI, CRP, and serum bilirubin levels. CONCLUSIONS: Although a PPI has limitations, it can be quickly applied to determine survival duration in patients admitted to hospice and accurately predicts 3-week survival. Furthermore, bilirubin and CRP are useful factors for predicting 3-week survival in patients with gastrointestinal cancer, including hepatopancreatobiliary cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bilirubin , Blood Cell Count , C-Reactive Protein , Creatinine , Dyspnea , Edema , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms , Hospice Care , Hospices , Lactic Acid , Life Expectancy , Lymphocytes , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Survival Analysis , Survival Rate , Terminally Ill
18.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 1439-1445, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-197811

ABSTRACT

KITENIN (KAI1 C-terminal interacting tetraspanin) promotes invasion and metastasis in mouse colon cancer models. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of KITENIN knockdown by intravenous administration of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) in an orthotopic mouse colon cancer model, simulating a primary or adjuvant treatment setting. We established orthotopic models for colon cancer using BALB/c mice and firefly luciferase-expressing CT-26 (CT26/Fluc) cells. Tumor progression and response to therapy were monitored by bioluminescence imaging (BLI). In the primary therapy model, treatment with KITENIN shRNA substantially delayed tumor growth (P = 0.028) and reduced the incidence of hepatic metastasis (P = 0.046). In the adjuvant therapy model, KITENIN shRNA significantly reduced the extent of tumor recurrence (P = 0.044). Mice treated with KITENIN shRNA showed a better survival tendency than the control mice (P = 0.074). Our results suggest that shRNA targeting KITENIN has the potential to be an effective tool for the treatment of colon cancer in both adjuvant and metastatic setting.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Carrier Proteins/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Colonic Neoplasms/genetics , Disease Progression , Liver Neoplasms/prevention & control , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Neoplasm Metastasis/prevention & control , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/genetics , RNA Interference , RNA, Small Interfering/therapeutic use , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics
19.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 786-791, 2011.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143826

ABSTRACT

Patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) are at increased risk of developing tumors throughout the gastrointestinal tract, including neuromas, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), and periampullary somatostatin-rich carcinoids. The simultaneous occurrence of a GIST and a well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma in a patient with NF1 is very rare. Here, we report two cases of the coexistence of a low-risk GIST in the jejunum with a well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma in the duodenum in patients with NF1. These cases strengthen the known association of GIST with neuroendocrine carcinoma in patients with NF1.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoid Tumor , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine , Duodenum , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors , Gastrointestinal Tract , Jejunum , Neurofibromatoses , Neurofibromatosis 1 , Neuroma
20.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 786-791, 2011.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143819

ABSTRACT

Patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) are at increased risk of developing tumors throughout the gastrointestinal tract, including neuromas, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), and periampullary somatostatin-rich carcinoids. The simultaneous occurrence of a GIST and a well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma in a patient with NF1 is very rare. Here, we report two cases of the coexistence of a low-risk GIST in the jejunum with a well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma in the duodenum in patients with NF1. These cases strengthen the known association of GIST with neuroendocrine carcinoma in patients with NF1.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoid Tumor , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine , Duodenum , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors , Gastrointestinal Tract , Jejunum , Neurofibromatoses , Neurofibromatosis 1 , Neuroma
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