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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 511-517, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003208

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Anatomical landmarks can provide vital information on the distribution of nerves in the gastrocnemius muscle. We aimed to provide an anatomical perspective on appropriate locations for botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injections in the medial and lateral parts of the gastrocnemius for calf shaping. @*Materials and Methods@#A modified Sihler’s method was applied to both the medial and lateral parts of the gastrocnemius muscles (16 specimens). Intramuscular neural distributions were revealed by dissecting along a transverse line crossing the fibular head and superior margin of the calcaneal tuberosity. @*Results@#The intramuscular neural distribution for the medial and lateral parts of the gastrocnemius had the greatest arborized patterns in the 7/10–8/10 section of the medial head and 7.5/10–8.5/10 section of the lateral part of the gastrocnemius. @*Conclusion@#We propose that BoNT injections should be directed to the 7/10–8/10 section of the medial head and the 7.5/10– 8.5/10 section of the lateral part of the gastrocnemius. Following our guidelines, clinicians can ensure satisfactory results with the use of minimal doses to limit adverse effects, such as gait disturbance, antibody production, and bruising, due to multiple injections. The results can also be altered and applied to electromyography.

2.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 392-400, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999581

ABSTRACT

Oblique lumbar interbody fusion is a minimally invasive procedure for treating degenerative lumbar disease. Its advantages include correcting coronal and sagittal spinal alignment and indirect neural decompression. However, achieving a successful outcome is limited in some patients who need direct decompression for central canal lesions including hard stenotic lesions (endplate or facet articular osteophytes and ossification of posterior longitudinal ligaments) and sequestration of the disk. Biportal endoscopic spinal surgery is a minimally invasive technique, which directly decompresses the lesion. By taking advantage of two procedures, in a longlevel lumbar lesion, alignment correction and direct decompression can be both achieved. Herein, the authors introduce multilevel lumbar fusion through oblique lumbar interbody fusion and selective direct decompression through biportal endoscopic spinal surgery and discuss the surgical indications, surgical pitfalls, and recommendations for application. Consequently, it is regarded as a minimally invasive interbody fusion method for patients with multilevel lumbar degenerative degeneration.

3.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 401-403, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999278

ABSTRACT

This case report describes a variation of the flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) with a separated muscle belly and tendon at the fifth toe. The narrow tendon and muscle belly for the fifth toe arose from the intermuscular septum between the FDB and abductor digiti minimi adjacent to the arising fibers of the FDB, separating from its other fibers. The tendon and muscle belly for the fifth toe became wider at the base of the metatarsal bones and narrower as it coursed toward the toes in a fusiform shape. The tendon and muscle belly for the fifth toe became thin at the midfoot and coursed just beneath the flexor digitorum longus tendon and entered the digital tendinous sheath. FDB variations including that described herein should be considered when performing various surgical procedures and evaluating the biomechanics of the foot.

4.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e10-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915539

ABSTRACT

Background@#Injury is a social problem that causes health and property losses, and it is important to identify the size and trend of injury for efficient prevention and management.Therefore, this study analyzed the trends in injury mortality and hospitalization rates from 2005 to 2019 in Korea. @*Methods@#Using mortality data by Statistics Korea and Korea National Hospital Discharge In-depth injury survey by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency (KDCA), age standardized rates were calculated for death and hospitalization to analyze trends and annual changes with the joinpoint regression model. In addition, annual changes in the hospitalization rate of the transport accident and fall injuries by age group were analyzed, which are the major causes of injuries. @*Results@#From 2005 to 2019, the injury mortality rate has been on the decline, but the injury hospitalization rate has been on the rise. The annual rate of change varied depending on the injury mechanism, but the mortality rate tended to decrease or remain similar level, while the rate of hospitalization has steadily increased. In addition, by age group, injury mortality and hospitalization rates were high in the elderly. In particular, the hospitalization rate of the elderly was higher when comparing the hospitalization rate of the children in transport accidents and falls. Pedestrian transport accidents tended to decrease under the age of 15, but remained similar for those aged 65 and older, and bicycle accidents tended to increase in both groups. In addition, hospitalization rates were higher in the fall, with both groups showing a statistically significant increase in hospitalization rates caused by falls. @*Conclusion@#This study analyzed the trend of injury mortality and hospitalization and found that transport accidents and falls may vary depending on the means or age of the accident.Since injury is a big social problem that is a burden of disease, safety education and legal sanctions for injury prevention should be further improved in the future, especially by prioritizing vulnerable groups by age and detailed mechanisms of injury.

5.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e22-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915535

ABSTRACT

Background@#To evaluate the health status of healthcare workers (doctors and nurses) compared to those in the general population based on the National Health Insurance Service database and the cause of death data from Statistics Korea. @*Methods@#The subjects of this study were 104,484 doctors and 220,310 nurses working in healthcare facilities from 2002 to 2017, and who had undergone at least one general medical examination. Based on the subject definition, the subject data were extracted from the National Health Insurance healthcare facility database and qualification database. We collected medical use details included in the research database, general medical examination results, medical history included in the health examination database, and additional data on the cause of death from the National Statistics database to analyze the main cause of death and mortality. @*Results@#In terms of the major causes of death and mortality among healthcare workers, the mortality rate associated with intentional self-harm, injury, transportation accident, heart disease, addiction, and falling was significantly higher than that in the general population. Further, the prevalence of respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases was high. When analyzing the proportional mortality ratio (PMR) by cause of death for healthcare workers, the PMR values for death related to malignant neoplasm was the highest. In terms of diseases, both doctors and nurses had higher rates of infectious diseases such as maternal sepsis, rubella, and measles. @*Conclusion@#The health status of healthcare workers differs from that of the general population. Thus, it is important to consider the occupational characteristics of healthcare personnel. This study is unique in that it was conducted based on medical use indicators rather than survey data.

6.
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine ; : 284-291, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966279

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To compare transverse and longitudinal safe zones using ultrasonography between healthy individuals and patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). @*Methods@#This was a prospective observational case-control study. Forty wrists from 20 healthy individuals and 40 wrists from 24 patients with CTS were examined. Patients with CTS were classified into three groups (mild, moderate, and severe CTS) based on electrodiagnostic findings. Using ultrasonography, we measured the distance between the median nerve and ulnar vessels to identify the transverse safe zone, and between the distal flexor retinaculum and superficial palmar artery arch to identify the longitudinal safe zone. @*Results@#The transverse and longitudinal safe zones were significantly different between participants with CTS and those without CTS. The transverse safe zone significantly differed between the mild and severe CTS groups, while the longitudinal safe zone was not significantly different between the groups. The cross-sectional area of the median nerve negatively correlated with the transverse and longitudinal safe zones. @*Conclusion@#Transverse and longitudinal safe zones were narrower in patients with CTS than in the healthy group. A significant difference was observed between patients with mild CTS and those with severe CTS. Furthermore, the cross-sectional area of the median nerve was directly proportional to the degree of narrowing of the transverse and longitudinal safe zones.

7.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2021016-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890623

ABSTRACT

With the introduction of life-course epidemiology, researchers realized the importance of identifying risk factors in early life to prevent chronic diseases. This led to the establishment of the Ewha Birth and Growth Study in 2001; the study is a prospective birth cohort designed to provide evidence of early life risk factors for a child’s growth and health. Participants were recruited from those who visited Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital (a tertiary hospital in southwest Seoul, Korea) for prenatal care at 24-28 weeks of gestation. In total, 891 mothers enrolled in this study between 2001 and 2006 and their offspring (n=940) were followed-up. Regular check-up examinations of offspring were conducted at 3 years, 5 years, and 7 years of age and every year thereafter. To consider age-related health issues, extensive data were collected using questionnaires and measurements. In 2021, the study subjects will reach 19 years of age, and we are planning a check-up examination for early adulthood. About 20 years have passed since the cohort data were collected, and we have published results on childhood health outcomes associated with prenatal and birth characteristics, genetic and epigenetic characteristics related to childhood metabolism, the effects of exposure to endocrine disruptors, and dietary patterns in childhood. Recently, we started reporting on topics related to adolescent health. The findings will facilitate identification of early life risk factors for chronic diseases and the development of interventions for diseases later in life.

8.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 59-64, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888969

ABSTRACT

Body donation trends in Korea have changed significantly over the last 3 decades. Establishing a body donation system will promote donations to universities for academic purposes. Yonsei University College of Medicine started its own body donation system in 1992, including documenting donors’ records. However, there has been no reported attempt to analyze the trend of these records, which could provide noteworthy information that can be interpreted for medical advances. This study performed a statistical analysis of the donors’ records between 1992 and 2019 to analyze the sociological and anthropological changes. Donor personal information such as sex, age, religion, and place and cause of death were extracted from the Yonsei University College of Medicine database. Our statistical analysis revealed significant correlations between donors’ records and the changes in the number of geriatric hospitals, religious beliefs, number of donations, and donor age.

9.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2021016-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898327

ABSTRACT

With the introduction of life-course epidemiology, researchers realized the importance of identifying risk factors in early life to prevent chronic diseases. This led to the establishment of the Ewha Birth and Growth Study in 2001; the study is a prospective birth cohort designed to provide evidence of early life risk factors for a child’s growth and health. Participants were recruited from those who visited Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital (a tertiary hospital in southwest Seoul, Korea) for prenatal care at 24-28 weeks of gestation. In total, 891 mothers enrolled in this study between 2001 and 2006 and their offspring (n=940) were followed-up. Regular check-up examinations of offspring were conducted at 3 years, 5 years, and 7 years of age and every year thereafter. To consider age-related health issues, extensive data were collected using questionnaires and measurements. In 2021, the study subjects will reach 19 years of age, and we are planning a check-up examination for early adulthood. About 20 years have passed since the cohort data were collected, and we have published results on childhood health outcomes associated with prenatal and birth characteristics, genetic and epigenetic characteristics related to childhood metabolism, the effects of exposure to endocrine disruptors, and dietary patterns in childhood. Recently, we started reporting on topics related to adolescent health. The findings will facilitate identification of early life risk factors for chronic diseases and the development of interventions for diseases later in life.

10.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 59-64, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896673

ABSTRACT

Body donation trends in Korea have changed significantly over the last 3 decades. Establishing a body donation system will promote donations to universities for academic purposes. Yonsei University College of Medicine started its own body donation system in 1992, including documenting donors’ records. However, there has been no reported attempt to analyze the trend of these records, which could provide noteworthy information that can be interpreted for medical advances. This study performed a statistical analysis of the donors’ records between 1992 and 2019 to analyze the sociological and anthropological changes. Donor personal information such as sex, age, religion, and place and cause of death were extracted from the Yonsei University College of Medicine database. Our statistical analysis revealed significant correlations between donors’ records and the changes in the number of geriatric hospitals, religious beliefs, number of donations, and donor age.

11.
Korean Journal of Pancreas and Biliary Tract ; : 118-122, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836742

ABSTRACT

Serous cystic neoplasm (SCN) represents 10–16% of cystic pancreatic lesions, first classified by Compagno and Oertel at 1978. In contrast to mucinous cystic neoplasm or intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of pancreas which have malignant potential, SCN is thought to be exclusively benign as solitary lesion in nearly all cases. There has been rare reported association between the SCN and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and few cases were documented their coexistence. In this report, we present the case of SCN of the pancreas with literature review in which synchronous pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasm coexist together.

12.
Brain Tumor Research and Treatment ; : 1-9, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739672

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has been no practical guidelines for the management of patients with central nervous system (CNS) tumors in Korea for many years. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, started to prepare guidelines for CNS tumors from February 2018. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. RESULTS: First, the maximal safe resection if feasible is recommended. After the diagnosis of a glioblastoma with neurosurgical intervention, patients aged ≤70 years with good performance should be treated by concurrent chemoradiotherapy with temozolomide followed by adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy (Stupp's protocol) or standard brain radiotherapy alone. However, those with poor performance should be treated by hypofractionated brain radiotherapy (preferred)±concurrent or adjuvant temozolomide, temozolomide alone (Level III), or supportive treatment. Alternatively, patients aged >70 years with good performance should be treated by hypofractionated brain radiotherapy+concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide or Stupp's protocol or hypofractionated brain radiotherapy alone, while those with poor performance should be treated by hypofractionated brain radiotherapy alone or temozolomide chemotherapy if the patient has methylated MGMT gene promoter (Level III), or supportive treatment. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that glioblastomas should be treated by maximal safe resection, if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to the individual comprehensive condition of the patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain , Central Nervous System , Chemoradiotherapy , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Glioblastoma , Korea , Radiotherapy
13.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 1281-1285, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916801

ABSTRACT

Most mediastinal cystic masses result from abnormal development of the embryo. Common developmental cysts in the posterior mediastinum are bronchogenic, neurenteric, and esophageal duplication cysts. These cystic masses appear identical on CT, but a cystic lesion adjacent to the esophagus is usually an esophageal duplication cyst, and a cyst associated with vertebral anomalies indicates a presumptive diagnosis of a neurenteric cyst. Herein, we present the case of a 27-year-old man with a bronchogenic cyst in the posterior mediastinum with a butterfly vertebra.

14.
Brain Tumor Research and Treatment ; : 63-73, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763112

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There was no practical guideline for the management of patients with central nervous system tumor in Korea in the past. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, developed the guideline for glioblastoma successfully and published it in Brain Tumor Research and Treatment, the official journal of KSNO, in April 2019. Recently, the KSNO guideline for World Health Organization (WHO) grade III cerebral glioma in adults has been established. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified by searches in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. Scope of the disease was confined to cerebral anaplastic astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma in adults. RESULTS: Whenever radiological feature suggests high grade glioma, maximal safe resection if feasible is globally recommended. After molecular and histological examinations, patients with anaplastic astrocytoma, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant should be primary treated by standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy whereas those with anaplastic astrocytoma, NOS, and anaplastic astrocytoma, IDH-wildtype should be treated following the protocol for glioblastomas. In terms of anaplastic oligodendroglioma, IDH-mutant and 1p19q-codeletion, and anaplastic oligodendroglioma, NOS should be primary treated by standard brain radiotherapy and neoadjuvant or adjuvant PCV (procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine) combination chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that WHO grade III cerebral glioma of adults should be treated by maximal safe resection if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to molecular and histological features of tumors.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Astrocytoma , Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Central Nervous System , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Korea , Lomustine , Oligodendroglioma , Radiotherapy , World Health Organization
15.
Brain Tumor Research and Treatment ; : 74-84, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763111

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There was no practical guideline for the management of patients with central nervous system tumor in Korea for many years. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, has developed the guideline for glioblastoma. Subsequently, the KSNO guideline for World Health Organization (WHO) grade II cerebral glioma in adults is established. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified by searching PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords regarding diffuse astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma of brain in adults. RESULTS: Whenever radiological feature suggests lower grade glioma, the maximal safe resection if feasible is recommended globally. After molecular and histological examinations, patients with diffuse astrocytoma, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-wildtype without molecular feature of glioblastoma should be primarily treated by standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy (Level III) while those with molecular feature of glioblastoma should be treated following the protocol for glioblastomas. In terms of patients with diffuse astrocytoma, IDH-mutant and oligodendroglioma (IDH-mutant and 1p19q codeletion), standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant PCV (procarbazine+lomustine+vincristine) combination chemotherapy should be considered primarily for the high-risk group while observation with regular follow up should be considered for the low-risk group. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that WHO grade II gliomas should be treated by maximal safe resection, if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to molecular and histological features of tumors and clinical characteristics of patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Astrocytoma , Brain , Central Nervous System , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Follow-Up Studies , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Korea , Oligodendroglioma , Radiotherapy , World Health Organization
16.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 118-128, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713273

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Posthepatectomy liver failure is a serious complication and considered to be caused by increased portal pressure and flow. Splanchnic vasoactive agents and propranolol are known to decrease portal pressure. The aim of this study was to identify optimal candidates with potential for clinical use among somatostatin, terlipressin, and propranolol using rats with 90% hepatectomy. METHODS: Rats were divided into 5 groups: sham operation (n = 6), control (n = 20), propranolol (n = 20), somatostatin (n = 20), and terlipressin group (n = 20). Seven-day survival rates and portal pressure change were measured, and biochemical, histologic, and molecular analyses were performed. RESULTS: Portal pressure was significantly decreased in all 3 treatment groups compared to control. All treatment groups showed a tendency of decreased liver injury markers, and somatostatin showed the most prominent effect at 24 hours postoperatively. Histologic liver injury at 24 hours was significantly decreased in propranolol and terlipressin groups (P = 0.016, respectively) and somatostatin group showed borderline significance (P = 0.056). Hepatocyte proliferation was significantly increased after 24 hours in all treatment groups. Median survival was significantly increased in terlipressin group compared to control group (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Terlipressin is considered as the best candidate, while somatostatin has good potential for clinical use, considering their effects on portal pressure and subsequent decrease in liver injury and increase in liver regeneration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Hepatectomy , Hepatocytes , Liver Failure , Liver Regeneration , Liver , Portal Pressure , Propranolol , Somatostatin , Survival Rate , Vasoconstrictor Agents
17.
Restorative Dentistry & Endodontics ; : e3-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741976

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare root canal volume change and canal transportation by Vortex Blue (VB; Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties), ProTaper Next (PTN; Dentsply Maillefer), and ProTaper Universal (PTU; Dentsply Maillefer) nickel-titanium rotary files in curved root canals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty canals with 20°–45° of curvature from extracted human molars were used. Root canal instrumentation was performed with VB, PTN, and PTU files up to #30.06, X3, and F3, respectively. Changes in root canal volume before and after the instrumentation, and the amount and direction of canal transportation at 1, 3, and 5 mm from the root apex were measured by using micro-computed tomography. Data of canal volume change were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey test, while data of amount and direction of transportation were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: There were no significant differences among 3 groups in terms of canal volume change (p > 0.05). For the amount of transportation, PTN showed significantly less transportation than PTU at 3 mm level (p = 0.005). VB files showed no significant difference in canal transportation at all 3 levels with either PTN or PTU files. Also, VB files showed unique inward transportation tendency in the apical area. CONCLUSIONS: Other than PTN produced less amount of transportation than PTU at 3 mm level, all 3 file systems showed similar level of canal volume change and transportation, and VB file system could prepare the curved canals without significant shaping errors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Pulp Cavity , Molar , Transportation , X-Ray Microtomography
18.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 99-102, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741610

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effects of ombuoside, a flavonol glycoside, on dopamine biosynthesis in PC12 cells. Ombuoside at concentrations of 1, 5, and 10 µM increased intracellular dopamine levels at 1 – 24 h. Ombuoside (1, 5, and 10 µM) also significantly increased the phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) (Ser40) and cyclic AMP-response element binding protein (CREB) (Ser133) at 0.5 – 6 h. In addition, ombuoside (1, 5, and 10 µM) combined with L-DOPA (20, 100, and 200 µM) further increased intracellular dopamine levels for 24 h compared to L-DOPA alone. These results suggest that ombuoside regulates dopamine biosynthesis by modulating TH and CREB activation in PC12 cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carrier Proteins , Dopamine , Levodopa , PC12 Cells , Phosphorylation , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
19.
Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy ; : 333-341, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718925

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) inhibitors are used as a treatment in various immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs). Tuberculosis (TB) risk is reported in several meta-analyses in patients treated with TNF-alpha inhibitors. The purpose of this study is to collect, review, and evaluate the TB risk in TNF-alpha inhibitors according to IMIDs indications and between soluble-receptor TNF-alpha inhibitor and monoclonal-antibody TNF-alpha inhibitors. METHODS: A systematic literature search on systematic reviews and meta-analyses was performed in PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane library, and EMBASE. We identified meta-analyses that evaluated TB infection risk of TNF-alpha inhibitors in IMIDs patients. RESULTS: Thirteen meta-analyses including 41 study results were included in this umbrella review. IMIDs patients treated with TNF-alpha inhibitors had an increased risk of TB than control group (placebo with or without standard therapy patients) (relative risk ratio (RR) 2.057, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.697 to 2.495). Among them, RA patients with TNF-alpha inhibitors had a higher risk of TB than control group (RR 1.847, 95% CI 1.385 to 2.464), and non-RA patients with TNF-alpha inhibitors had an increased risk of TB (RR 2.236, 95% CI 1.284 to 3.894). In subgroup analysis on TB risk between soluble-receptor TNF-alpha inhibitor and monoclonal-antibody TNF-alpha inhibitors in RA patients, the analysis indicated that monoclonal-antibody TNF-alpha inhibitors had higher risk of TB than solublereceptor TNF-alpha inhibitor (RR 2.880, 95% CI 1.730 to 4.792). CONCLUSION: This umbrella review confirms that the risk of TB is significantly increased in TNF-alpha inhibitor treated patients compared to control group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Incidence , Odds Ratio , Tuberculosis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
20.
Journal of Agricultural Medicine & Community Health ; : 234-243, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719789

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the diabetes education program implemented in a community hypertension and diabetes education center. METHODS: Participants were thirty nine diabetic patients who received the education program in the center from May 2014 through May 2015. The education program consisted of two sessions for 2 days (45 minutes per session) regarding clinical information, nutrition and exercise for type 2 diabetes patients. Initially, they were assessed for general characteristics, knowledge on diabetes, self-efficacy and self-care behaviors. Reassessment was performed on their knowledge and self-efficacy directly after the program, and on self-care behaviors at 12 weeks after the program. RESULTS: The mean score of diabetes knowledge was significantly increased from 5.27±2.10 to 8.21±1.20 (p < 0.001) between before and after the program. The self-efficacy score was also significantly increased from 6.88±1.72 to 8.16±1.47 (p < 0.001). The self-care behavior score was significantly increased from 3.59±1.89 before the program to 4.35±1.29 (p < 0.001) at 12 weeks after the program. CONCLUSION: The diabetes education program may be effective on the improvement of knowledge, self-efficacy and self-care behaviors in type 2 diabetic patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus , Education , Health Education , Hypertension , Self Care , Self Efficacy
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