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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 580-591, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976691

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and prognosis of second non-breast primary cancer (SNBPC) among Korean survivors of breast cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#Data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service were searched to identify women who received curative surgery for initial breast cancer (IBC) between 2003 and 2008 (n=64,340). Among them, patients with the following characteristics were excluded: other cancer diagnosis before IBC (n=10,866), radiotherapy before IBC (n=349), absence of data on sex or age (n=371), or male (n=248). Accordingly, data of 52,506 women until December 2017 were analyzed. SNBPC was defined as a newly diagnosed SNBPC that occurred 5 years or more after IBC diagnosis. @*Results@#The median follow-up time of all patients was 12.13 years. SNBPC was developed in 3,084 (5.87%) women after a median of 7.61 years following IBC diagnosis. The 10-year incidence of SNBPC was 5.78% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.56 to 6.00). Higher SNBPC incidence was found in survivors with the following factors: old age at IBC diagnosis, low household income, and receiving combined chemotherapy with endocrine therapy, whereas receiving radiotherapy was related to a lower incidence of SNBPC (hazard ratio, 0.89; p < 0.01). Among the patients with SNBPC, the 5-year survival rate was 62.28% (95% CI, 65.53 to 69.02). @*Conclusion@#Approximately 5% of breast cancer survivors developed SNBPC within 10 years after IBC diagnosis. The risk of SNBPC was associated with patient’s age at IBC diagnosis, income level, and a receipt of systemic treatments.

2.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 306-312, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925509

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Microinvasive breast cancer (MIBC) is an invasive carcinoma with a tumor dimension not exceeding 1 mm. Owing to its low incidence, the rate of axillary node metastasis and its management are not well established. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of lymph node metastasis (LNM) and identify variables associated with LNM, as well as to evaluate the need for axillary staging in MIBC patients by analyzing nationwide data. @*Methods@#The Korean Breast Cancer Society registry was searched to identify MIBC patients diagnosed between January 1996 and April 2020. Patients without neoadjuvant chemotherapy experiences, systemic metastasis, and missing or discordant data were eligible for the analysis. The incidence rate of LNM was determined, and variables associated with LNM were identified by multivariable regression analysis. @*Results@#Of 2,427 MIBC patients identified, 98 (4.0%) had LNM and 12 (0.5%) had N2/3 disease. Type of breast operation (odds ratio [OR], 2.093; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.332–3.290; P = 0.001), age (OR, 2.091; 95% CI, 1.326–3.298; P = 0.002), hormone receptor status (OR, 2.220; 95% CI, 1.372–3.594; P = 0.001), and lymphovascular invasion (OR, 11.143; 95% CI, 6.354–19.540; P < 0.001) were significantly related to LNM. @*Conclusion@#The incidence of LNM in MIBC patients was only 4.0% in our study, suggesting that de-escalation of axillary surgical interventions could be carefully considered. The indications for axillary staging should be individualized considering tumor volume, age, hormone receptor status, and lymphovascular invasion to improve the quality of life of MIBC survivors.

3.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 85-96, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891297

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Physicians' awareness of their cancer patients' unmet needs is an essential element for providing effective treatment. This study investigated the accuracy of physicians' awareness of breast cancer survivors' unmet needs in Korea. @*Methods@#A cross-sectional interview survey was performed among 106 physicians and 320 Korean breast cancer survivors. The Comprehensive Needs Assessment Tool was administered to physicians and cancer survivors after obtaining their written informed consent to participate. Data were analyzed using t-test, analysis of variance, and multiple regression analysis. @*Results@#The level of unmet needs was highest in the hospital service domain (mean ± standard deviation: 2.19 ± 0.82), and the top-ranked unmet need item was “wished my doctor to be easy, specific, and honest in his/her explanation” (2.44 ± 0.93). Higher unmet needs were correlated with the presence of a genetic counseling clinic. They were not associated with age, sex, marital status, religion, department, working period, type of institution, number of staff, and number of operations. In multiple regression analysis, the presence of a genetic counseling clinic was associated with a higher level of recognition for psychological problems, social support, hospital service, and information and education needs. Physicians overestimated breast cancer survivors' unmet needs in all domains, compared to their selfreported unmet needs. The discordance in the perceived unmet needs was highest in the ‘family/personal relationship problems’ domain. @*Conclusions@#Physicians who treat Korean breast cancer survivors rated the level of unmet needs of breast cancer survivors as highest in the hospital service domain. The presence of a genetic counseling clinic in physicians' institutions was associated with a higher perception of survivors' unmet needs. Physicians overestimated the level of unmet needs in Korean breast cancer survivors. Efforts to reduce these discordances are needed to implement optimal survivorship care.

4.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 164-174, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891277

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In this trial, we investigated the efficacy and safety of adjuvant letrozole for hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer. Here, we report the clinical outcome in postmenopausal women with HR-positive breast cancer treated with adjuvant letrozole according to estrogen receptor (ER) expression levels. @*Methods@#In this multi-institutional, open-label, observational study, postmenopausal patients with HR-positive breast cancer received adjuvant letrozole (2.5 mg/daily) for 5 years unless they experienced disease progression or unacceptable toxicity or withdrew their consent. The patients were stratified into the following 3 groups according to ER expression levels using a modified Allred score (AS): low, intermediate, and high (AS 3–4, 5–6, and 7–8, respectively). ER expression was centrally reviewed. The primary objective was the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate. @*Results@#Between April 25, 2010, and February 5, 2014, 440 patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 62.0 months, the 5-year DFS rate in all patients was 94.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.8–96.6). The 5-year DFS and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates did not differ according to ER expression; the 5-year DFS rates were 94.3% and 94.1%in the low-to-intermediate and high expression groups, respectively (p = 0.6), and the corresponding 5-year RFS rates were 95.7% and 95.4%, respectively (p = 0.7). Furthermore, 25 patients discontinued letrozole because of drug toxicity. @*Conclusion@#Treatment with adjuvant letrozole showed very favorable treatment outcomes and good tolerability among Korean postmenopausal women with ER-positive breast cancer, independent of ER expression.

5.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 123-137, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891273

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in Korean women, and its incidence continues to increase. The Korean Breast Cancer Society (KBCS) established a nationwide breast cancer database through its online enrollment program in 1996. This study aimed to analyze the clinical characteristics of breast cancer in Korea, and to assess the pattern of changes in breast cancer management in 2018. We analyzed the KBCS and Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR) databases in 2018. In 2018, 28,157 patients were newly diagnosed with breast cancer, of whom 4,510 had noninvasive breast cancer and 23,647 had invasive breast cancer. The age-standardized rate of breast cancer in 2018 was 79.0 per 100,000 women (65.6 invasive, 13.4 noninvasive). The median age of female patients diagnosed with breast cancer in 2018 was 52 years, and the incidence of breast cancer was the highest in the 40–49-years age group (9,432 patients, 33.6%). The proportion of patients with stage 0 and stage I breast cancer continued to increase, accounting for 63.8% of cases, and breast-conserving surgery was performed more often than mastectomy (66.2% vs. 33.0%). The most common subtypes of breast cancer were hormone receptor [HR]-positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-negative types (65.9% of cases), while the HR-negative and HER2-positive types accounted for 9.2% of cases. According to the KCCR data, from 2014 to 2018, the 5-year relative survival rate of patients with breast cancer was 93.3%, which was 14.0% higher than that from 1993 to 1995 (79.3%). The clinical characteristics of breast cancer in Korea have been changing, and national databases can improve our understanding of the disease characteristics of Korean women. Therefore, updating the KBCS registry is important for the effective management of breast cancer in Korea.

6.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 69-78, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889289

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#As the survival rates of cancer patients have been increasing due to early diagnosis and technological advances in treatment, their caregiver burden has also emerged as an important issue. In view of this situation, this study aims to investigate the unmet needs and quality of life of caregivers of Korean breast cancer survivors. @*Methods@#A multicenter cross-sectional interview survey was performed among 160 caregivers of Korean breast cancer survivors. Caregivers who gave written informed consent to participate completed the Comprehensive Needs Assessment Tool for Cancer Caregivers and EuroQol-5 Dimensions. @*Results@#The mean age of the caregivers was 46.4 years, 44.4% (71 of 160) were spouses of patients, and 52.5% (84 of 160) were personally taking care of cancer survivors. Unmet needs were highest in the ‘healthcare staff’ domain and the item with the highest level of unmet needs was ‘needed information about the current status of the patient’s illness and its future courses.’ Poorer quality of life was closely related to higher levels of unmet needs. In multiple regression analysis, older age, employment, the presence of religion, and higher levels of stress and despair in daily life were associated with higher levels of unmet needs. @*Conclusion@#The most prevalent unmet need in Korean breast cancer caregivers was found in the ‘healthcare staff’ domain, and their quality of life was closely related to unmet needs. Therefore, healthcare staff is required to make efforts to accurately identify breast cancer caregivers vulnerable in terms of unmet needs and address their unmet needs.

7.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 85-96, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899001

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Physicians' awareness of their cancer patients' unmet needs is an essential element for providing effective treatment. This study investigated the accuracy of physicians' awareness of breast cancer survivors' unmet needs in Korea. @*Methods@#A cross-sectional interview survey was performed among 106 physicians and 320 Korean breast cancer survivors. The Comprehensive Needs Assessment Tool was administered to physicians and cancer survivors after obtaining their written informed consent to participate. Data were analyzed using t-test, analysis of variance, and multiple regression analysis. @*Results@#The level of unmet needs was highest in the hospital service domain (mean ± standard deviation: 2.19 ± 0.82), and the top-ranked unmet need item was “wished my doctor to be easy, specific, and honest in his/her explanation” (2.44 ± 0.93). Higher unmet needs were correlated with the presence of a genetic counseling clinic. They were not associated with age, sex, marital status, religion, department, working period, type of institution, number of staff, and number of operations. In multiple regression analysis, the presence of a genetic counseling clinic was associated with a higher level of recognition for psychological problems, social support, hospital service, and information and education needs. Physicians overestimated breast cancer survivors' unmet needs in all domains, compared to their selfreported unmet needs. The discordance in the perceived unmet needs was highest in the ‘family/personal relationship problems’ domain. @*Conclusions@#Physicians who treat Korean breast cancer survivors rated the level of unmet needs of breast cancer survivors as highest in the hospital service domain. The presence of a genetic counseling clinic in physicians' institutions was associated with a higher perception of survivors' unmet needs. Physicians overestimated the level of unmet needs in Korean breast cancer survivors. Efforts to reduce these discordances are needed to implement optimal survivorship care.

8.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 164-174, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898981

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In this trial, we investigated the efficacy and safety of adjuvant letrozole for hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer. Here, we report the clinical outcome in postmenopausal women with HR-positive breast cancer treated with adjuvant letrozole according to estrogen receptor (ER) expression levels. @*Methods@#In this multi-institutional, open-label, observational study, postmenopausal patients with HR-positive breast cancer received adjuvant letrozole (2.5 mg/daily) for 5 years unless they experienced disease progression or unacceptable toxicity or withdrew their consent. The patients were stratified into the following 3 groups according to ER expression levels using a modified Allred score (AS): low, intermediate, and high (AS 3–4, 5–6, and 7–8, respectively). ER expression was centrally reviewed. The primary objective was the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate. @*Results@#Between April 25, 2010, and February 5, 2014, 440 patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 62.0 months, the 5-year DFS rate in all patients was 94.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.8–96.6). The 5-year DFS and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates did not differ according to ER expression; the 5-year DFS rates were 94.3% and 94.1%in the low-to-intermediate and high expression groups, respectively (p = 0.6), and the corresponding 5-year RFS rates were 95.7% and 95.4%, respectively (p = 0.7). Furthermore, 25 patients discontinued letrozole because of drug toxicity. @*Conclusion@#Treatment with adjuvant letrozole showed very favorable treatment outcomes and good tolerability among Korean postmenopausal women with ER-positive breast cancer, independent of ER expression.

9.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 123-137, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898977

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in Korean women, and its incidence continues to increase. The Korean Breast Cancer Society (KBCS) established a nationwide breast cancer database through its online enrollment program in 1996. This study aimed to analyze the clinical characteristics of breast cancer in Korea, and to assess the pattern of changes in breast cancer management in 2018. We analyzed the KBCS and Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR) databases in 2018. In 2018, 28,157 patients were newly diagnosed with breast cancer, of whom 4,510 had noninvasive breast cancer and 23,647 had invasive breast cancer. The age-standardized rate of breast cancer in 2018 was 79.0 per 100,000 women (65.6 invasive, 13.4 noninvasive). The median age of female patients diagnosed with breast cancer in 2018 was 52 years, and the incidence of breast cancer was the highest in the 40–49-years age group (9,432 patients, 33.6%). The proportion of patients with stage 0 and stage I breast cancer continued to increase, accounting for 63.8% of cases, and breast-conserving surgery was performed more often than mastectomy (66.2% vs. 33.0%). The most common subtypes of breast cancer were hormone receptor [HR]-positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-negative types (65.9% of cases), while the HR-negative and HER2-positive types accounted for 9.2% of cases. According to the KCCR data, from 2014 to 2018, the 5-year relative survival rate of patients with breast cancer was 93.3%, which was 14.0% higher than that from 1993 to 1995 (79.3%). The clinical characteristics of breast cancer in Korea have been changing, and national databases can improve our understanding of the disease characteristics of Korean women. Therefore, updating the KBCS registry is important for the effective management of breast cancer in Korea.

10.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 69-78, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896993

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#As the survival rates of cancer patients have been increasing due to early diagnosis and technological advances in treatment, their caregiver burden has also emerged as an important issue. In view of this situation, this study aims to investigate the unmet needs and quality of life of caregivers of Korean breast cancer survivors. @*Methods@#A multicenter cross-sectional interview survey was performed among 160 caregivers of Korean breast cancer survivors. Caregivers who gave written informed consent to participate completed the Comprehensive Needs Assessment Tool for Cancer Caregivers and EuroQol-5 Dimensions. @*Results@#The mean age of the caregivers was 46.4 years, 44.4% (71 of 160) were spouses of patients, and 52.5% (84 of 160) were personally taking care of cancer survivors. Unmet needs were highest in the ‘healthcare staff’ domain and the item with the highest level of unmet needs was ‘needed information about the current status of the patient’s illness and its future courses.’ Poorer quality of life was closely related to higher levels of unmet needs. In multiple regression analysis, older age, employment, the presence of religion, and higher levels of stress and despair in daily life were associated with higher levels of unmet needs. @*Conclusion@#The most prevalent unmet need in Korean breast cancer caregivers was found in the ‘healthcare staff’ domain, and their quality of life was closely related to unmet needs. Therefore, healthcare staff is required to make efforts to accurately identify breast cancer caregivers vulnerable in terms of unmet needs and address their unmet needs.

11.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 561-568, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914821

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the incidence, the survival outcomes and its prognostic factors for male breast cancer (MBC) in Korea. Using the National Health Insurance Service database of Korea, we identified MBC patients who had the new claim code of C50. Medical records including type of surgeries and radiotherapy within one year of the first claim and death records were reviewed. Between 2005 and 2016, 838 newly diagnosed MBC patients were included (median follow-up, 1,769 days). The 70–74-year age group had the highest incidence of MBC. The 5-year survival rate was 73.7%. Age > 65 years, low income, no surgical intervention, no tamoxifen use, and > 2 comorbidities correlated with a worse outcome. MBC incidence has increased over time, and its peak is noted at age > 70 years. Age > 65 years, > 2 comorbidities, no surgical intervention, and no tamoxifen use correlate to poor prognosis.

12.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 315-321, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913509

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study was performed to identify the risk of mortality in patients diagnosed with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). @*Methods@#We selected 2,592 patients with HER2-positive DCIS from Korean Breast Cancer Society (KBCS) database between January 1997 and December 2019. Patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy were excluded. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between clinical factors and overall death after adjusting for tumor and clinical characteristics. Mortality data were modified using the Statistics Korea data. @*Results@#Thirty deaths (1.2%) were identified out of 2,592 patients in the KBCS database. In the univariate logistic regression analysis, older age, higher body mass index (BMI), type of breast surgery (mastectomy), estrogen receptornegative, progesterone receptor-negative, and exposure to endocrine therapy were significant clinical factors associated with death. In the multivariate analysis, age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.062; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.015–1.111; P = 0.006), BMI (HR, 1.179; 95% CI, 1.032–1.347, P = 0.016), breast surgery type (mastectomy vs. lumpectomy; HR, 0.285; 95% CI, 0.096–0.844; P = 0.024), and endocrine therapy (HR, 0.314; 95% CI, 0.099–0.995; P = 0.049) were significant risk factors for mortality. @*Conclusion@#Advanced age, higher BMI, mastectomy, and the absence of endocrine therapy were factors associated with poor survival of patients with HER2-positive DCIS. This finding requires further validation combined with additional analysis of large databases.

13.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 37-44, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937782

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of preoperative breast tumor size measured by ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). @*Methods@#Medical records of 74 patients postoperatively diagnosed with DCIS were retrospectively analyzed. Tumor size measurements obtained using the two imaging modalities were compared for accuracy with those obtained during the final pathologic examination. Patients with only microcalcification on imaging were excluded. @*Results@#For all patients, Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) of MRI was 0.725, which was more accurate than 0.670 of US. In subgroup analysis, CCC of US was 0.757, more accurate than 0.697 of MRI in premenopausal DCIS patients. Background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) was the only risk factor deteriorating the accuracy of US and MRI examinations. Moderate and marked BPE was associated with the inaccurate tumor size estimations in both US and MRI (odds ratio [OR]:2.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.12−3.52, p=0.001 in US, OR:8.16, 95% CI=1.17−15.2, p=0.031 in MRI). @*Conclusion@#MRI was more accurate for measuring tumor size in patients with DCIS. Moderate and marked BPE was a risk factor that prevented accurate measurement of preoperative tumor size. In premenopausal patients, US would help measure tumor size accurately.

14.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 85-91, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891318

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in breast cancer patients has the advantage of decreasing related morbidities by reducing the extent of axillary surgery. However, it remains a controversy with regards to the appropriate extent of axillary lymph node dissection after NACT. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the accuracy of breast ultrasonography (US) and breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess the axillary nodal status after NACT. @*Methods@#We reviewed pre- and post-NACT axillary imaging and clinicopathological data of patients who received NACT for primary breast cancer and underwent surgery. After NACT, accuracy of imaging modalities were evaluated through the comparison of pathologic lymph node (LN) status and imaging LN status. @*Results@#Fifty seven patients completed NACT and underwent surgery. Breast US was found to have a sensitivity of 61.1%, specificity of 57.7%, negative predictive value (NPV) of 68.2%, and positive predictive value (PPV) of 50.0%. For breast MRI, sensitivity was 58.3%, specificity 75.8%, NPV 71.4%, and PPV 63.6%. For US combined with MRI, sensitivity was 66.7%, specificity 54.5%, NPV 69.2%, and PPV 51.6%. The accuracy of imaging modalities was 59.1% for US, 68.4% for MRI, and 59.6% for US combined with MRI. @*Conclusion@#In breast cancer patients who received NACT, MRI showed a higher specificity, NPV, and PPV than US, although it had a lower sensitivity. However, due to the low accuracy, breast MRI alone is not sufficient to determine the extent of axillary surgery. Therefore, determining the extent of axillary surgery based on the results of intraoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy may be the right method for accurate staging.

15.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 100-107, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891316

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to investigate and analyze the current fertility-related practices for breast cancer patients; the results are intended to help improve the quality of life of young patients and survivors. @*Methods@#This study collected voluntary responses to a questionnaire that was used to survey Korean breast cancer specialists. The questionnaire consisted of five categories: knowledge, practice behaviors regarding fertility preservation, barriers to discussing fertility preservation, attitude toward fertility issues, and demographics and medical background. @*Results@#A total of 120 copies of the questionnaire were distributed; the response rate was 89%. The section of the questionnaire regarding knowledge indicated that most respondents had adequate fertility preservation knowledge for cancer patients. However, 13.1% of the respondents indicated that they thought pregnancy increased the cancer recurrence risk. Respondents’ knowledge and attitudes about fertility preservation were not correlated with actual practice. The absence of patient’s expressions (24.30%), high recurrence risk (27.10%), insufficient time in the clinic (21.50%), and hospital conditions such as no reproductive specialists or infertility clinic (16.82%), were considered major barriers to discussing fertility issues. @*Conclusion@#Although more than 50% of the respondents thought that cancer treatment is more important than fertility preservation and it is complex and difficult, the Korean breast surgical oncologists were generally encouraging when discussing fertility issues with young breast cancer patients. Hence, breast clinicians should share with young patients the updated evidence regarding the feasibility and safety of pregnancy after cancer treatment and the available options so that the best decisions can be made.

16.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 647-655, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891255

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#BRCA1/2 mutations are associated with risks of breast and ovarian cancer. In Korea, incidences of BRCA1/2 genetic testing and risk-reducing surgery (RRS) have increased with insurance coverage and the Angelina Jolie effect. The aim of this study was to identify trends in RRS performed in Korean women with the BRCA1/2 mutation. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers with (affected carriers) and without (unaffected carriers) breast cancer until August 2018 from 25 Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA)-affiliated hospitals. @*Results@#The numbers of contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) and risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (RRBSO) in affected carriers have increased 5.8- and 3.6-fold, respectively, since 2013. The numbers of RRBSO in unaffected carriers has increased 8-fold since 2013. The number of institutions that perform RRS has increased gradually. The number of hospitals that perform contralateral RRM on affected carriers increased from 3 in 2012 to 11 in 2018, and that of those that perform RRBSO increased from 7 to 17. The number of hospitals that perform bilateral RRM on unaffected carriers increased from 1 in 2012 to 2 in 2018, and that of those that perform RRBSO increased from 1 to 8. However, the hospitals showed differences in the rates of RRM or RRBSO performed. @*Conclusion@#The incidence of RRS increased each year throughout the study period. However, in Korea, the rate of RRS procedures depended on the hospital.

17.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 398-409, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891243

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Breast cancer treatments, including chemotherapy, administered in combination with glucocorticoids can induce hyperglycemia. This study aimed to investigate the effect of hyperglycemia during adjuvant chemotherapy on the prognosis of breast cancer patients without a known history of diabetes. @*Methods@#In this study, 936 patients who underwent breast cancer surgery from 2010 to 2015 were initially selected as participants. Chemotherapy-related hyperglycemia was defined as fasting plasma glucose levels ≥ 100 mg/dL or random blood glucose levels ≥ 140 mg/dL during 2 or more cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy. After dividing the patients into the euglycemia and hyperglycemia groups, univariate and multivariate analyses were performed, and survival outcomes were analyzed by propensity score matching. @*Results@#The mean age of the patients was 47.4 ± 7.7 years, and the median follow-up period was 70.1 months. Eighty-two patients (19.4%) were diagnosed as having hyperglycemia.There were significant differences between the euglycemia and hyperglycemia groups with respect to age, hypertension, body mass index, axillary surgery extents, nodal stage, and total steroid dosage. T stage, vascular invasion, and hyperglycemia were identified as prognostic factors of relapse-free survival (RFS). The 5-year RFS rates were 92.0% and 82.3% in the euglycemia and hyperglycemia groups, respectively, and there was a statistically significant difference between the 2 groups (p = 0.011). The 5-year overall survival rates were 94.6% and 92.0% in the euglycemia and hyperglycemia groups, respectively, showing no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups (p = 0.113). @*Conclusion@#These data suggest that hyperglycemia during adjuvant chemotherapy is a prognostic factor for RFS in breast cancer patients without diabetes.

18.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 115-128, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835608

ABSTRACT

This article describes the breast cancer statistics in Korea, including the incidence, type of surgical procedure, stage, and molecular subtype, using the Korean Breast Cancer Society (KBCS) and Korea Central Cancer Registry data. There were a total of 26,534 new breast cancer diagnoses in 2017 in Korea, of which 4,139 were carcinoma in situ cases and 22,395 were invasive cancer cases. The age standardized rate of breast cancer was 75.3 per 100,000 women in 2017 (63.0 of invasive carcinoma and 12.3 of carcinoma in situ), and it has been steadily increasing across all age groups. Breast cancer occurred most commonly in the 40–49 age group. Compared to 2016, breast conserving surgery (BCS) has increased, and 67.4% of patients were treated with BCS in 2017. The proportions of stage 0 and stage I have continued to increase, accounting for 60.7%. The most common subtype of breast cancer was hormone receptor (HR) positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) negative type comprising 65.9% of the cases, whereas HR negative and HER2 positive type was the rarest comprising 10.2% of the cases. The 5-year relative survival rate of breast cancer patients had increased by 14.0% from 79.2% in 1993–1995 to 93.2% in 2013–2017. It is essential to actively enter breast cancer data into the KBCS registry to improve our understanding.

19.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 85-91, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899022

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in breast cancer patients has the advantage of decreasing related morbidities by reducing the extent of axillary surgery. However, it remains a controversy with regards to the appropriate extent of axillary lymph node dissection after NACT. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the accuracy of breast ultrasonography (US) and breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess the axillary nodal status after NACT. @*Methods@#We reviewed pre- and post-NACT axillary imaging and clinicopathological data of patients who received NACT for primary breast cancer and underwent surgery. After NACT, accuracy of imaging modalities were evaluated through the comparison of pathologic lymph node (LN) status and imaging LN status. @*Results@#Fifty seven patients completed NACT and underwent surgery. Breast US was found to have a sensitivity of 61.1%, specificity of 57.7%, negative predictive value (NPV) of 68.2%, and positive predictive value (PPV) of 50.0%. For breast MRI, sensitivity was 58.3%, specificity 75.8%, NPV 71.4%, and PPV 63.6%. For US combined with MRI, sensitivity was 66.7%, specificity 54.5%, NPV 69.2%, and PPV 51.6%. The accuracy of imaging modalities was 59.1% for US, 68.4% for MRI, and 59.6% for US combined with MRI. @*Conclusion@#In breast cancer patients who received NACT, MRI showed a higher specificity, NPV, and PPV than US, although it had a lower sensitivity. However, due to the low accuracy, breast MRI alone is not sufficient to determine the extent of axillary surgery. Therefore, determining the extent of axillary surgery based on the results of intraoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy may be the right method for accurate staging.

20.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 100-107, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899020

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to investigate and analyze the current fertility-related practices for breast cancer patients; the results are intended to help improve the quality of life of young patients and survivors. @*Methods@#This study collected voluntary responses to a questionnaire that was used to survey Korean breast cancer specialists. The questionnaire consisted of five categories: knowledge, practice behaviors regarding fertility preservation, barriers to discussing fertility preservation, attitude toward fertility issues, and demographics and medical background. @*Results@#A total of 120 copies of the questionnaire were distributed; the response rate was 89%. The section of the questionnaire regarding knowledge indicated that most respondents had adequate fertility preservation knowledge for cancer patients. However, 13.1% of the respondents indicated that they thought pregnancy increased the cancer recurrence risk. Respondents’ knowledge and attitudes about fertility preservation were not correlated with actual practice. The absence of patient’s expressions (24.30%), high recurrence risk (27.10%), insufficient time in the clinic (21.50%), and hospital conditions such as no reproductive specialists or infertility clinic (16.82%), were considered major barriers to discussing fertility issues. @*Conclusion@#Although more than 50% of the respondents thought that cancer treatment is more important than fertility preservation and it is complex and difficult, the Korean breast surgical oncologists were generally encouraging when discussing fertility issues with young breast cancer patients. Hence, breast clinicians should share with young patients the updated evidence regarding the feasibility and safety of pregnancy after cancer treatment and the available options so that the best decisions can be made.

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