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1.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 305-313, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001860

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Venom-induced coagulopathy (VIC) is a common snakebite complication that can cause life-threatening hemorrhage. Previous studies have shown that snake venom can cause a decrease in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), but this has not been investigated in actual clinical practice. This study evaluated the clinical utility of erythrocyte sedimentation rate as a predictive factor for VIC in patients with a poisonous snakebite. @*Methods@#From January 2012 to December 2021, this study performed a retrospective study of patients with venomous snakebites presenting to a tertiary emergency department. The demographic and laboratory data were collected through a chart review. The patients were divided into two groups, VIC and NoVIC groups. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the factors that predicted the presence of VIC, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn. @*Results@#One hundred and fifty-three patients were enrolled, and 31 patients (20.3%) developed VIC. The VIC group had significantly lower ESR than the NoVIC group (5.1±5.6 vs. 14.8±13.8; P<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that the decreased ESR was associated with the occurrence of coagulopathy (odds ratio, 0.957; 95% confidence interval, 0.917-0.999; P=0.045). The area under the curve was 0.701 in the ROC curve, and the cutoff value was set to 4.5 mm/hr. @*Conclusion@#ESR measured upon arrival at the emergency department was available to predict venom-induced coagulopathy in snakebite patients.

2.
Pediatric Emergency Medicine Journal ; : 60-67, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968474

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We investigated the current status of imaging studies for pediatric blunt cervical spine injury, and applied 3 clinical decision rules to children with blunt trauma of the head or neck in a pediatric emergency center in Korea. The rules included National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS) criteria, Canadian Cervical Spine Rule, and Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network risk factors. @*Methods@#This was a retrospective study conducted on 399 children aged 15 years or younger who visited the center after the blunt trauma, and underwent cervical spine radiographs from January 2020 through December 2021. We examined the clinical characteristics per age groups (0-1, 2-5, 6-12, and 13-15 years). Using the 3 rules, we selected children with a potential need for imaging studies (PNI). For this purpose, we analyzed the absence of low-risk variables and the presence of high-risk variables. Predictive performances of the rules were measured for the imaging-confirmed cervical spine injury. @*Results@#The study population (n = 399) had a median age of 5.0 years (interquartile range, 2.0-9.0) and a 64.2% boys’ proportion. Fall (36.6%) was the most common injury mechanism. Two children had the cervical spine injuries. As per NEXUS criteria, Canadian Cervical Spine Rule, and Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network risk factors, 72 (18.0%), 289 (72.4%), and 74 children (18.5%) were classified as those with PNI, respectively. Resultantly, 291 children (72.9%) were classified as having PNI whereas the other 108 (27.1%) were deemed to undergo unnecessary imaging. The 3 rules had nearly 100% sensitivity and negative predictive value, except a 50% sensitivity of NEXUS criteria. @*Conclusion@#Imaging studies can be minimized for children with blunt trauma of the head or neck who are deemed without PNI per the 3 current clinical decision rules. More elaborate criteria are needed to make a timely diagnosis.

3.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 115-120, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977118

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Pesticide poisoning is one of the leading causes of death, and it is important to classify high-risk patients. Lactate measurement could be used to assess the triage level and decide and prioritize treatment even within the same triage group. This study investigates whether point-of-care lactate measurement helps to triage pesticide poisoning patients in the emergency department (ED). @*Methods@#This retrospective study was done for pesticide poisoning patients between January 2018 to December 2021. Demographic data and laboratory results were collected by reviewing medical records. Statistical analysis was performed by dividing patients into death and survival groups. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were done. Receiver operating characteristic curves were obtained for variables with significant differences, and area under the curves (AUC) were calculated and compared. @*Results@#Among the 288 patients evaluated, there were 24 (8.33%) mortalities and 264 (91.67%) survivals during hospitalization. Age, the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE-II) score, pH and base excess, and lactate levels were analyzed via univariable and multivariable logistic regression tests. We found that old age and high lactate were independent factors in predicting mortality for pesticide poisoning patients. AUCs with 95% confidence interval for age and lactate were 0.784 (0.653-0.915) and 0.803 (0.674-0.932), respectively. @*Conclusion@#Lactate measurement may be useful during triage of alert and consciousness patients presenting with pesticide poisoning and having stable vital signs in ED. This study has several limitations, and it is necessary to reconfirm the results through a well-designed prospective study.

4.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 297-303, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938355

ABSTRACT

Objective@#After the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, there have been some changes in the way the medical system deals with suspected infectious diseases. These changes may also affect non-COVID-19 patients. Acute appendicitis is a common disease that requires emergent surgical intervention in pediatric patients, and delayed diagnosis and treatment may cause some complications. This study analyzed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the incidence of complicated appendicitis in pediatric patients presenting to emergency departments in South Korea. @*Methods@#The target group (post-COVID group) included patients aged under 15 years and diagnosed with acute appendicitis between February 23 and November 30, 2020. Patients diagnosed during the same period in 2019 were selected as the control group (pre-COVID group). The difference in the incidence of complicated appendicitis before and after the COVID-19 outbreak was investigated, and the association with various variables was analyzed using the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. @*Results@#The study enrolled a total of 94 patients: 54 in the pre-COVID group and 40 in the post-COVID group. There was no statistically significant variation in the incidence of complicated appendicitis (31.5% vs 35.0%, P=0.723) between the groups. In-hospital time was longer in the post-COVID group (7 hours vs. 10.5 hours, P=0.014), but pre-hospital time showed no significant difference (16 hours vs. 22 hours, P=0.768). In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, pre-hospital time (odds ratio [OR], 1.08; P=0.004), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (OR, 33.24; P<0.001), and the presence of fever (OR, 21.11, P=0.002) showed a significant correlation. @*Conclusion@#Post the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak, there was no difference in the incidence of pediatric complicated appendicitis in South Korea.

5.
Pediatric Emergency Medicine Journal ; : 81-86, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918667

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Fluid therapy for diarrhea-induced dehydration inadvertently increases emergency department length of stay (EDLOS). To prevent this delay, we investigated the usefulness of triage using point-of-care (POC) lactate in infants with diarrhea. @*Methods@#This study was performed on infants with diarrhea who visited the emergency department from January 2019 through December 2020. According to the POC lactate concentration and the Korean Triage and Acuity Scale (KTAS) level, the infants were separately divided into the low (< 2 mmol/L), moderate (2-3.9), and high (≥ 4) lactate groups and the mild (KTAS 4-5) and severe (1-3) groups, respectively. Using these 2 group designations, we compared variables regarding the emergency medicine resource use and outcomes. To predict the prolonged EDLOS (≥ median value) we performed logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic analyses. @*Results@#A total of 540 infants were included. The median of EDLOS was 169 minutes (interquartile range, 103-220). Fluid therapy was more frequently performed in the high lactate group than in the low-moderate lactate groups (85.0% vs. 60.4%-73.6%; P = 0.025). The high lactate and severe groups respectively showed higher rates of hospitalization (40.0% vs. 3.8%-7.6% [P < 0.001] and 10.9% vs. 1.4% [P = 0.015]), and longer median EDLOS (259 minutes vs. 147-178 [P < 0.001] and 185 vs. 131 [P = 0.001]) compared to the low-moderate lactate and mild groups. Compared to the KTAS, lactate is more strongly associated with the prolonged EDLOS (lactate, adjusted odds ratio, 4.80 [95% confidence interval, 1.87-15.34] vs. KTAS, 3.52 [1.90-6.54]). The areas under curve for lactate and for the KTAS were 0.66 (0.60-0.73) and 0.62 (0.55-0.69), respectively (P = 0.058). @*Conclusion@#In infants with diarrhea, POC lactate can be a predictor of emergency medicine resource use and outcomes.

6.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 408-415, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916550

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Although accurate diagnosis in neurologic emergencies is critical, the emergency department (ED) suffers from a shortage of neurologists. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a dedicated neurologist on the competence in the management of ED physicians on patients with neurologic abnormalities. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with neurologic abnormalities between 1 March 2016 and 30 September 2019. Two periods, including control and intervention periods, were assigned. Neurology consultations were routinely performed by an ED physician in the control period and by a physician of the ED working with a dedicated neurologist in the intervention period. @*Results@#In the control period, the most frequent chief complaints were dizziness (22.45%), focal motor weakness (except the face, 19.62%), altered mental status (9.98%), dysarthria (9.62%), seizures (8.57%), and headaches (6.87%). In the intervention period, the rate of final disposition by the ED physician was significantly increased in patients with dizziness (P<0.001), altered mental status (P=0.003), dysarthria (P<0.001), seizure (P<0.001), headaches (P<0.001), facial palsy (P<0.001), and memory impairment (P=0.043). @*Conclusion@#ED physicians who were educated by a dedicated neurologist could effectively enhance the competence in the management of the patient with neurologic abnormalities. We suggest that the method implemented in this study can be a good alternative for solving the gap in neurology department consultation.

7.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 611-619, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916526

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the CRB-65 score as a prognostic predictor in acute heart failure (HF) patients who visited the emergency department (ED). @*Methods@#This study was performed retrospectively on HF patients over the age of 19 years admitted to the ED between August 2018 and July 2020. The patients who met the Framingham criteria, including acute pulmonary edema, were classified by the CRB-65 score and compared with previous HF prognostic predictors (Acute Decompensated Heart Failure National Registry, Get with The Guidelines-Heart Failure and Enhanced Feedback for Effective Cardiac Treatment). We defined the primary outcome as 30-day mortality and secondary outcomes as hospitalization days (HD), admission to intensive care unit (ICU), length of stay (LOS) in the ICU and mechanical ventilation (MV). We conducted linear regression and logistic regression with these outcomes and obtained the area under the receiver-operating characteristics (AUROC) curve to compare the predictive power of the primary outcome. @*Results@#A total of 462 patients were included in the study, and their mean age was 80 years. According to the linear and logistic regression analysis results, the CRB-65 score was significantly correlated with HD (P<0.001), admission to ICU (P=0.014), LOS in ICU (P<0.001) and MV (P=0.004). The AUROC curve of CRB-65 was not higher than the other previous prognostic predictors (AUROC, 0.69), but the result was not different from the predictors. @*Conclusion@#The CRB-65 score is one of the prognostic indicators of acute HF in the ED. However, its prognostic predictive power remains limited.

8.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 371-376, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901191

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Triage in the emergency department is important as mistriage leads to inefficient use of resources. The Korean Triage and Acuity Scale (KTAS) was developed in 2012 and has been implemented in emergency departments nationwide since January 2016. The purpose of this study was to determine whether KTAS can predict resource use in a pediatric emergency center. @*Methods@#From October to December 2019, a retrospective analysis was conducted by a review of medical records. Demographic data, KTAS grades, Emergency Severity Index (ESI) as an indicator of resource utilization and details of the use of each resource were collected. Patients were divided into non-trauma and trauma groups. KTAS grades 1 and 2 were defined as the severe group, grade 3 was the moderate group, and grades 4 and 5 were defined as the mild group. We investigated whether triage using KTAS is related to resource utilization. @*Results@#In the non-trauma group, ESI, length of stay in the emergency department, and hospitalization were significantly correlated with the KTAS groups. In the trauma group, there was no significant difference between the moderate and mild groups in the above variables except for hospitalization. This was because there was no significant difference in sedation, procedure, and intravenous injection, in the trauma group. @*Conclusion@#The KTAS triage helped predict resource utilization in the non-trauma group, but not in the trauma group especially between the moderate and mild groups. Additional research will be needed to predict resource utilization in children with trauma.

9.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 371-376, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893487

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Triage in the emergency department is important as mistriage leads to inefficient use of resources. The Korean Triage and Acuity Scale (KTAS) was developed in 2012 and has been implemented in emergency departments nationwide since January 2016. The purpose of this study was to determine whether KTAS can predict resource use in a pediatric emergency center. @*Methods@#From October to December 2019, a retrospective analysis was conducted by a review of medical records. Demographic data, KTAS grades, Emergency Severity Index (ESI) as an indicator of resource utilization and details of the use of each resource were collected. Patients were divided into non-trauma and trauma groups. KTAS grades 1 and 2 were defined as the severe group, grade 3 was the moderate group, and grades 4 and 5 were defined as the mild group. We investigated whether triage using KTAS is related to resource utilization. @*Results@#In the non-trauma group, ESI, length of stay in the emergency department, and hospitalization were significantly correlated with the KTAS groups. In the trauma group, there was no significant difference between the moderate and mild groups in the above variables except for hospitalization. This was because there was no significant difference in sedation, procedure, and intravenous injection, in the trauma group. @*Conclusion@#The KTAS triage helped predict resource utilization in the non-trauma group, but not in the trauma group especially between the moderate and mild groups. Additional research will be needed to predict resource utilization in children with trauma.

10.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 99-104, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834906

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Tsutsugamushi disease is a febrile illness caused by tick bites. Delay in making the diagnosis and treatment cause an increase of the frequency of complications and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine quick sequential organ failure assessment (qSOFA) to predict the clinical outcome of scrub typhus patients in emergency departments. @*Methods@#This was a retrospective, observational study of patients with tsutsugamushi disease and who presented to the emergency department of an urban hospital and a rural tertiary hospital between January 2013 and December 2018. The demographic and laboratory data was collected through a chart review. Statistical analysis was performed by dividing the patients into the general ward admission group (general ward) and the intensive care unit admission group (ICU). @*Results@#Age, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE) II score and laboratory tests such as pH, leukocyte count, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin also showed significant differences between the general ward and ICU groups on the univariable logistic regression analysis, but only the qSOFA score among the variables showed a significant difference on the multivariate logistic regression analysis (P=0.014). @*Conclusion@#The qSOFA score will be a prompt and useful tool for predicting the prognosis of patients with tsutsugamushi disease in the emergency department.

11.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 105-110, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834905

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Serious bacterial infection (SBI) is a common disease among infants, and it is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Making the diagnosis of SBI is challenging and measurement of various biomarkers is useful. This study examined the utility of lactate at an emergency department for diagnosing SBI patients. @*Methods@#This was a retrospective, observational study of febrile infants less than 90 days old presenting to the emergency department of a tertiary hospital between September 2014 and August 2017. The demographic and laboratory data was collected through a chart review. @*Results@#Laboratory tests such as the white blood cell count, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin, and lactate showed significant differences on the Student-T test and the Mann Whitney-U test. Multivariabe logistic regression test was done using the variables with significant differences. CRP (P=0.037; odds ratio, 1.01), procalcitonin (P=0.011; odds ratio, 1.02) and lactate (P=0.001; odds ratio, 2.38) shows significant correlation. @*Conclusion@#For febrile infants at the emergency department, the measurement of lactate is expected to be a useful tool to diagnose serious bacterial infection.

12.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 9-16, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811316

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We determined whether elevated serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was related to prevalence, location, type, length, and recurrence of pterygium in a population from the Republic of Korea.METHODS: A nationwide cross-sectional dataset, the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2011), was used in this study. All participants were > 30 years of age and underwent the ALP test and ophthalmic evaluation (n = 22,359). One-way analysis of variance, the chi-square test, and Fisher's exact test were used to compare characteristics and outcomes among participants. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the possible associations between serum ALP levels and various types of pterygium. Data were adjusted for known risk factors for development of pterygium and ALP elevation (age, sex, residence, sunlight exposure, drinking, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, BMI, AST, ALT, vitamin D, and HDL).RESULTS: The overall prevalence of pterygium was 8.1%, and participants with pterygium had higher levels of serum ALP (p < 0.001). Participants with higher serum ALP had a significantly higher prevalence of all types of pterygium than those in the lower serum ALP quartiles. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that ALP was associated with the prevalence of pterygium (odds ratio [OR], 1.001; p = 0.038). Trend analysis between the OR and ALP quartiles revealed a linear trend in overall prevalence and in the intermediate type of pterygium. Subgroup analysis revealed a stronger correlation in participants > 50 years of age. One-way analysis of variance revealed an association between the size of pterygium and serum ALP quartile levels. Serum ALP was not associated with recurrence of pterygium.CONCLUSIONS: Increased serum ALP was associated with the prevalence and size of pterygium.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dataset , Drinking , Hypertension , Korea , Logistic Models , Nutrition Surveys , Prevalence , Pterygium , Recurrence , Republic of Korea , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking , Sunlight , Vitamin D
13.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 1339-1343, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916345

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#To report a case of recurrent intraocular hemorrhage due to type A hemophilia in a female patient without any previous medical history.CASE SUMMARY: A 51-year-old female patient without any previous medical history was referred to our clinic due to blurred vision in her left eye. Slit lamp microscopy of the anterior segment was nonspecific. Fundus examination revealed vitreous hemorrhage with retinal tear in her left eye. Vitrectomy and cataract surgery were performed. One day after surgery, hyphema and vitreous hemorrhage recurred. A coagulation disorder was suspected and further serological evaluation was conducted. Coagulation factor analyses showed that the activity of coagulation factors 8 and 12 decreased to 25% and 47%, respectively. Genetic sequence analyses were conducted, and a missense mutation of C6724G> A] was found in exon 25, and type A hemophilia was confirmed.@*CONCLUSIONS@#In patients who tend to show persistent bleeding even after proper treatment, hematological evaluation including coagulation factor assays, and the possibility of rare diseases such as hemophilia should be considered.

14.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 270-278, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739539

ABSTRACT

Chronic immobilization stress (CIS) induces low levels of glutamate (Glu) and glutamine (Gln) and hypoactive glutamatergic signaling in the mouse prefrontal cortex (PFC), which is closely related to the Glu-Gln cycle. A Gln-supplemented diet ameliorates CIS-induced deleterious changes. Here, we investigated the effects of CIS and Gln supplementation on Glu-Gln cycle-related proteins to characterize the underlying mechanisms. Using the CIS-induced depression mouse model, we examined the expression of 11 proteins involved in the Glu-Gln cycle in the PFC. CIS decreased levels of glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1) and sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter (SNAT) 1, SANT2, SNAT3, and SNAT5. Gln supplementation did not affect the non-stressed group but significantly increased GLT1 and SNATs of the stressed group. By immunohistochemical analysis, we confirmed that SNAT1 and SNAT2 were decreased in neurons and GLT1, SNAT3, and SNAT5 were decreased in astrocytes in the medial PFC of the stressed group, but Gln-supplemented diet ameliorated these decrements. Collectively, these results suggest that CIS may cause depressive-like behaviors by decreasing Glu and Gln transportation in the PFC and that a Gln-supplemented diet could prevent the deleterious effects of CIS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Amino Acid Transport System X-AG , Amino Acid Transport Systems , Astrocytes , Depression , Depressive Disorder , Diet , Glutamic Acid , Glutamine , Immobilization , Neurons , Prefrontal Cortex , Transportation
15.
Korean Journal of Family Practice ; (6): 122-124, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787420

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The detection of thyroid nodules through ultrasonography (US) has improved with the development of imaging technologies and thyroid cancer screening in Korea. We evaluated the relationship between the presence of thyroid nodules on US and thyroid function test (TFT) results in healthy individuals.METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of data from 449 adults (313 men and 136 women) who underwent tests to evaluate serum thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine levels, thyroid US, and if needed, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC).RESULTS: Of the 449 subjects, 144 subjects (32.1%) had thyroid nodules. Among the 144 with thyroid nodules, 24 (16.7%) were advised to undergo FNAC, and all of them showed normal serum TSH levels. Logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of thyroid nodules was not related to abnormalities noted on TFTs after adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, and presence of risky drinking behavior and hypertension (P=0.647).CONCLUSION: The presence of thyroid nodules on US in healthy adults was not associated with abnormal TFT results. Serum TSH check-ups during the evaluation of thyroid nodules discovered through US in asymptomatic individuals living in areas with a low prevalence of autonomous functioning thyroid nodules might not be necessary from the perspective of cost-effectiveness and subject convenience.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Drinking Behavior , Hypertension , Korea , Logistic Models , Mass Screening , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Smoke , Smoking , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroid Nodule , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine , Ultrasonography
16.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 274-283, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718952

ABSTRACT

Hyper-O-GlcNAcylation is a general feature of cancer which contributes to various cancer phenotypes, including cell proliferation and cell growth. Quercetin, a naturally occurring dietary flavonoid, has been reported to reduce the proliferation and growth of cancer. Several reports of the anticancer effect of quercetin have been published, but there is no study regarding its effect on O-GlcNAcylation. The aim of this study was to investigate the anticancer effect of quercetin on HeLa cells and compare this with its effect on HaCaT cells. Cell viability and cell death were determined by MTT and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labelling assays. O-GlcNAcylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was examined by succinylated wheat germ agglutinin pulldown and immunoprecipitation. Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the immunoreactivitiy of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1). Quercetin decreased cell proliferation and induced cell death, but its effect on HaCaT cells was lower than that on HeLa cells. O-GlcNAcylation level was higher in HeLa cells than in HaCaT cells. Quercetin decreased the expression of global O-GlcNAcylation and increased AMPK activation by reducing the O-GlcNAcylation of AMPK. AMPK activation due to reduced O-GlcNAcylation of AMPK was confirmed by treatment with 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine. Our results also demonstrated that quercetin regulated SREBP-1 and its transcriptional targets. Furthermore, immunofluorescence staining showed that quercetin treatment decreased the immunoreactivities of OGT and SREBP-1 in HeLa cells. Our findings demonstrate that quercetin exhibited its anticancer effect by decreasing the O-GlcNAcylation of AMPK. Further studies are needed to explore how quercetin regulates O-GlcNAcylation in cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenosine , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Cell Death , Cell Proliferation , Cell Survival , Deoxyuridine , Diazooxonorleucine , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , HeLa Cells , Immunoprecipitation , Phenotype , Protein Kinases , Quercetin , Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1 , Transferases , Triticum , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
17.
Korean Journal of Health Promotion ; : 71-79, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-165105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In September 2016, the number of North Korean refugees living in South Korea was 29,688. They have been struggling with health problems due to their poor health status and the differences in medical system and terminology between South and North Korea. We aimed to investigate the level of health literacy and its related factors in North Korean refugees. METHODS: This study was conducted with 142 patients who visited North Korean refugees' counseling center at Seoul Medical Center and National Central Medical Center and 100 South Korean patients who visited outpatient clinics or Health Promotion Center of Seoul Medical Center. General and health-related characteristics were surveyed through a questionnaire and health literacy was measured by using ‘Korean Adult Health Literacy Scale’. RESULTS: The average age of North Korean refugees was 48.92±11.49 years old. Almost 95% reported that their monthly income was less than 2 million KRW. The survey showed that North Korean refugees obtain health information mainly through TV, radio, and acquaintances and more than half (54.9%) said their health was bad or very bad. The mean score of North Korean refugees' health literacy was much lower than that of South Koreans (12.42±7.58 vs. 25.3±5.7, P<0.001). This discrepancy was maintained after adjusting related factors such as age, sex, and socioeconomic status with stratified analysis. CONCLUSIONS: It suggest the urgent need for policies which support for futher researches and development of education system, which may lead to the improvememt of the health literacy of North Korean regugees.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Counseling , Democratic People's Republic of Korea , Education , Friends , Health Literacy , Health Promotion , Health Status , Korea , Literacy , Refugees , Seoul , Social Class
18.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 580-585, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-68475

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: High-flow oxygen through a nasal cannula may offer an alternative therapy to patients with respiratory failure. However, a recent study has shown that the success rate of high-flow oxygen through a nasal cannula was only 62%, and the mortality rate for patients who require intubation after failure of high-flow oxygen through a nasal cannula was as high as 32.5%. The aim of this study is to determine the parameters, specifically for emergency department presentation, associated with high-flow oxygen through a nasal cannula failure. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed in respiratory patients who were admitted between June 2015 and January 2016 at a single university hospital. All patients who were treated with high-flow oxygen through a nasal cannula were included. The exclusion criteria for high-flow oxygen via nasal cannulation were as follows: Hemodynamic instability, hypercapnic coma, inefficient clearance of secretions, and cardiac arrest. Univariable regression analysis was used and, if the p-value was less than 0.10, analyses were entered into a multivariable logistic regression analysis model. RESULTS: Sixty-two patients were enrolled in our study. High-flow oxygen through a nasal cannula was successful in 33 patients, and 29 required intubation. Older age (over 65 years), Glasgow Coma Scale Score of less than 15, and respiratory rate of more than 30/min were significantly associated with the failure of high-flow oxygen through a nasal cannula according to multivariable analysis (p-value<0.05). CONCLUSION: Older age, low Glasgow Coma Scale Score, and respiratory rate of more than 30/min are factors associated with the failure of high-flow oxygen through a nasal cannula.


Subject(s)
Humans , Catheterization , Catheters , Cohort Studies , Coma , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Glasgow Coma Scale , Heart Arrest , Hemodynamics , Intubation , Logistic Models , Mortality , Oxygen , Respiratory Insufficiency , Respiratory Rate , Retrospective Studies
19.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 422-428, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-223867

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Flumazenil is an effective benzodiazepine antagonist. However, serious adverse effects, including seizures, cardiac arrhythmias, and even death, have been reported in patients treated with flumazenil. These adverse effects are commonly associated with co-ingested tricyclic antidepressants and benzodiazepine withdrawal. Herein, we examined the safety, effectiveness, and risk of using flumazenil to treat suspected benzodiazepine overdose in the emergency department (ED). METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study of adult patients administered with flumazenil for a known or suspected benzodiazepine overdose in the ED between July 2010 and January 2016. The outcomes included mental status improvement, incidence of seizures, and intubation rate after flumazenil administration. RESULTS: Seventy-six patients were included in the analysis. Thirty-eight (50%) patients experienced clinically significant mental status improvement. One patient had a seizure (1.3%), despite 17 reported proconvulsant coingestants. No patient required endotracheal intubation, and no patient had arrhythmias after flumazenil administration. Flumazenil was given intravenously bolus in all cases, and the average dose was 0.44mg. There were no significant changes in the vital signs after flumazenil administration. CONCLUSION: Flumazenil was effective and associated with a low frequency of seizure. However, patients with contraindications may develop seizures. The benefits with respect to risk of adverse effects should be considered carefully in all patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Benzodiazepines , Drug Overdose , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Flumazenil , Incidence , Intubation , Intubation, Intratracheal , Observational Study , Retrospective Studies , Seizures , Vital Signs
20.
The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology ; : 451-460, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727351

ABSTRACT

Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a mammalian NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase that regulates cellular metabolism and inflammatory response. The organ-specific deletion of SIRT1 induces local inflammation and insulin resistance in dietary and genetic obesity. Macrophage-mediated inflammation contributes to insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, however, the macrophage-specific SIRT1 function in the context of obesity is largely unknown. C57/BL6 wild type (WT) or myeloid-specific SIRT1 knockout (KO) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or normal diet (ND) for 12 weeks. Metabolic parameters and markers of hepatic steatosis and inflammation in liver were compared in WT and KO mice. SIRT1 deletion enhanced HFD-induced changes on body and liver weight gain, and increased glucose and insulin resistance. In liver, SIRT1 deletion increased the acetylation, and enhanced HFD-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB), hepatic inflammation and macrophage infiltration. HFD-fed KO mice showed severe hepatic steatosis by activating lipogenic pathway through sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), and hepatic fibrogenesis, as indicated by induction of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), and collagen secretion. Myeloid-specific deletion of SIRT1 stimulates obesity-induced inflammation and increases the risk of hepatic fibrosis. Targeted induction of macrophage SIRT1 may be a good therapy for alleviating inflammation-associated metabolic syndrome.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Acetylation , Actins , Collagen , Connective Tissue Growth Factor , Diet , Diet, High-Fat , Fibrosis , Glucose , Inflammation , Insulin Resistance , Liver , Macrophages , Metabolism , NF-kappa B , Obesity , Sirtuin 1 , Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1 , Weight Gain
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