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1.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919961

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study examined the effectiveness of tranexamic acid in reducing postoperative blood loss in total knee arthroplasty by comparing the methods of administration between an intravenous group, topical group, and non-tranexamic acid group. @*Materials and Methods@#This was a retrospective case series study of patients who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty from March 2017 to February 2019 performed by a single surgeon. The study population was divided into three groups according to the method of tranexamic acid administration (Group I: intravenous group, Group II: topical group, Group III: non-tranexamic acid group). To evaluate the effectiveness of tranexamic acids, the total amount of postoperative blood loss, postoperative hemoglobin loss, and volume of red blood cell transfusion in the three groups were compared. @*Results@#The total amount of postoperative blood loss was lower in the tranexamic acid administered group than in the non-tranexamic acid group (1,366±866 ml). Among the administration methods, the intravenous group (987±449 ml) was significantly lower than the topical group (1,136±339 ml) (p=0.004). Postoperative hemoglobin loss was lower in the tranexamic acid group than the non-tranexamic acid group.Among the administration methods, the intravenous group was lower than the topical group. The transfusion rate was higher in the nontranexamic acid group (5.7%) than the tranexamic administered group. The transfusion rate of the intravenous group was 1.4%, and no patient required a transfusion postoperatively in the topical group. The number of postoperative thromboembolic events, as a complication of tranexamic acid, was similar in the three groups. @*Conclusion@#Tranexamic acid was effective in reducing postoperative blood loss after primary total knee arthroplasty compared to the nontranexamic acid administered group. No significant difference in the complications induced by tranexamic acid was observed among the three groups.

2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919778

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of posttraumatic growth and health promoting behavior on quality of life (QOL) of patients with gastrointestinal cancer. @*Methods@#The study was a cross-sectional, descriptive design. Participants were 142 patients with gastrointestinal cancer who were seen at Dongnam Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences in Busan. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, one-way ANOVA, and multiple regression analysis with SPSS/WIN 23.0 program. @*Results@#The results show that QOL had a significant correlation with posttraumatic growth (r=.24, p=.004) and health promoting behavior (r=.49, p<.001). Posttraumatic growth had a significant correlation with health promoting behavior (r=.54, p<.001). Multiple regression analysis for QOL revealed that the most powerful predictor was stress management in the sub-area of health promoting behavior. Stress management, coping skills, preciousness of life, diagnosis and duration since diagnosis explained 38.0% of the variance in QOL. @*Conclusion@#Findings indicate that various factors are related to the QOL of patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Based on the results of this study, further development and application of specific nursing programs to improve posttraumatic growth and health promoting behavior with a focus on improving stress management and coping ability, are needed to improve the QOL of gastrointestinal cancer patients.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915436

ABSTRACT

Background@#Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exerts cytotoxic effects on brain cells, especially on those belonging to the oligodendrocyte lineage, in preterm infants. The susceptibility of oligodendrocyte lineage cells to LPS-induced inflammation is dependent on the developmental stage. This study aimed to investigate the effect of LPS on oligodendrocyte lineage cells at different developmental stages in a microglial cell and oligodendrocyte coculture model. @*Methods@#The primary cultures of oligodendrocytes and microglia cells were prepared from the forebrains of 2-day-old Sprague–Dawley rats. The oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) co-cultured with microglial cells were treated with 0 (control), 0.01, 0.1, and 1 µg/mL LPS at the D3 stage to determine the dose of LPS that impairs oligodendrocyte differentiation. The co-culture was treated with 0.01 µg/mL LPS, which was the lowest dose that did not impair oligodendrocyte differentiation, at the developmental stages D1 (early LPS group), D3 (late LPS group), or D1 and D3 (double LPS group). On day 7 of differentiation, oligodendrocytes were subjected to neural glial antigen 2 (NG2) and myelin basic protein (MBP) immunostaining to examine the number of OPCs and mature oligodendrocytes, respectively. @*Results@#LPS dose-dependently decreased the proportion of mature oligodendrocytes (MBP+ cells) relative to the total number of cells. The number of MBP+ cells in the early LPS group was significantly lower than that in the late LPS group. Compared with those in the control group, the MBP+ cell numbers were significantly lower and the NG2+ cell numbers were significantly higher in the double LPS group, which exhibited impaired oligodendrocyte lineage cell development, on day 7 of differentiation. @*Conclusion@#Repetitive LPS stimulation during development significantly inhibited brain cell development by impairing oligodendrocyte differentiation. In contrast, brain cell development was not affected in the late LPS group. These findings suggest that inflammation at the early developmental stage of oligodendrocytes increases the susceptibility of the preterm brain to inflammation-induced injury.

4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915293

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aim of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Korean version of the self-efficacy for managing chronic disease 6-item scale (SECD-6-K). @*Methods@#The English version of the Self-Efficacy for Managing Chronic Disease 6-item Scale first underwent forward and backward translation procedures. The SECD-6-K was then used to collect data from 350 adults diagnosed with chronic diseases. Content, construct, convergent, discriminant, and criterion validity were all evaluated. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s α. SPSS 25.0 and the data were analyzed using AMOS 26.0 software. @*Results@#The SECD-6-K consists of six items in two domains: disease management and health behavior. The results for construct, convergent, and discriminant validity were good. Exploratory factor analysis produced eigen values between 2.27 and 3.28, with factors total explained cumulative variance of 91.1%. Confirmatory factor analysis supported goodness of fit and reliability for the modified SECD-6-K model. The criterion validity also showed significant correlation with both the Patient Health Questionnaire and 12-item Short-Form Health Survey version 2. Finally, reliability was found to be excellent. @*Conclusion@#This study identified the high reliability and validity of SECD-6-K. The SECD-6-K is an appropriate tool for determining Korean patients’ self-efficacy in managing their chronic conditions. Therefore, this scale may be used in clinical settings as well as in educational and research settings.

5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915132

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating effect of self-leadership on the relationship between media literacy and learning agility in nursing students based on their experiences in online classes during the Coronavirus Disease-19 pandemic. @*Methods@#A descriptive survey was conducted among 165 nursing students from four universities in Busan. Data were collected from June 2 to 13, 2021, and was analyzed using a t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression with SPSS/WIN 26.0. @*Results@#Significant relationships were found between learning agility and media literacy (r=.62,p<.001), between learning agility and self-leadership (r=.58, p<.001), and between media literacy and self-leadership (r=.53, p<.001). Additionally, self-leadership had a partial mediating effect on the relationship between media literacy and learning agility (Z=4.30, p<.001); its explanatory power was 46.0%. @*Conclusion@#These results indicate that interventions to increase the level of media literacy, along with self-leadership, are necessary to improve the level of learning agility of nursing students who will be essential human resources in a rapidly changing healthcare field.

6.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 138-146, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874102

ABSTRACT

Background@#The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and autophagy are both important to maintain skin homeostasis.However, they are also involved in skin disorders. So far, their roles in psoriasis pathogenesis are unknown. @*Objective@#We studied the immunohistochemical and gene expression of AHR, CYP1A1, and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) in lesional skin of psoriasis patients to determine correlations among them. @*Methods@#We included 24psoriasis patients and ten healthy volunteers. Skin biopsies were collected. AHR, CYP1A1, and LC3 protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and western blotting. AHR, CYP1A1, LC3, ATG5, BECN1 and Nrf2 mRNA levels were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. @*Results@#AHR and CYP1A1 protein expression were higher in psoriasis lesional skin than in normal skin. LC3 protein expression was lower in psoriasis lesions than in normal controls. AHR and CYP1A1 protein expression in psoriasis lesions showed significant positive correlations with mean epidermal thickness and inflammatory cell density. Significant negative correlations were noted between LC3 protein expression in psoriasis lesions and the mean epidermal thickness or inflammatory cell density. A significant negative correlation was found between AHR and LC3 expression in psoriatic skin. AHR, CYP1A1 and Nrf2 mRNA expression were upregulated while LC3, ATG5, and BECN1 mRNA were down-regulated, in psoriatic lesional skin compared with normal controls. @*Conclusion@#AHR and autophagy could play a role in psoriasis pathogenesis by modifying epidermal hyperproliferation and inflammation. AHR and autophagy regulation are potential therapeutic targets in chronic inflammatory skin diseases.

8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920047

ABSTRACT

Malignant tumors rarely occur in the paranasal sinuses. Paranasal tumors, when they occur, exhibit atypical symptoms, such as nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea, facial pain, and nasal bleeding. Because of nonspecific symptoms commonly observed in the sinusitis and their infrequent occurrence, malignant tumors of the paranasal sinuses are generally diagnosed late. If there is bone destruction or invasion of the surrounding tissues in the imaging studies, malignant tumors could be suspected; however, without such findings, it is difficult to predict the existence of cancer. It is more difficult to suspect malignant tumors when they coexist with sinus diseases. In addition, since the concomitant presence of fungal balls and cancer is extremely rare, it is difficult to suspect the presence of cancer when treating fungal balls. We report a case of a fungal ball accompanied by squamous cell carcinoma without any sign of malignancy, such as bone destruction, which has not been reported in the English literature to date.

9.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 151-158, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902812

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#As preterm infants have shown advances in survival rate, many very-lowbirth-weight (VLBW) infants have shown developmental delay even without a major brain injury. Thus, the incidence of and risk factors associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcome should be evaluated. @*Methods@#A multicenter nationwide prospective longitudinal cohort study of VLBW infants born in South Korea between 2013 and 2015 was conducted. Poor neurodevelopmental outcome was diagnosed if the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID)-III composite score was ≤85 (cognition, language, motor). We analyzed the associations of baseline neonatal characteristics, environmental characteristics and neonatal morbidities with poor neurodevelopmental outcome. @*Results@#The study included 285 infants, of whom 34 (11.9%) exhibited cognition delay; 59 (20.7%), showed language delay and 32 (11.2%) showed motor delay. The mean gestational age and birth weight were 29 weeks and 1,130 g, respectively. Moderate and severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (P=0.056) and intraventricular hemorrhage grade I (P=0.079) were marginally associated with cognition delay. Higher paternal educational level (P<0.05) was significantly associated with the language outcome. Birth weight (P<0.05) and head circumference at discharge (P<0.05) were the major predictors of motor delay. @*Conclusion@#The population-based nationwide cohort study shows that approximately 20% of VLBW infants without major brain injury have developmental delay. Several factors that are not directly associated with major brain injury were significantly associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcome.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899782

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The cognitive consequences and risk factors based long-term outcome of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW; < 1,500 g) infants in Korea has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of perinatal and neonatal risk factors on the cognitive performance of VLBW children at 3 to 5 years of age.@*METHODS@#We enrolled 88 VLBW infants without cystic periventricular leukomalacia for the assessment of their demographic data, cognitive performance, and development of cerebral palsy (CP) at 3 to 5 years of age. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Korean version of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence IV. Growth data were assessed with measurements of weight, height, and head circumference (HC) at the corrected ages of 6, 12, and 18 months, and 3 to 5 years of age.@*RESULTS@#In the VLBW group, the full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) was 96.1 ± 15.2 at the mean age of 4.5 years. The incidence rate of CP was 3.4%. Overall, 17% (15/88) of the VLBW children had a below-average FSIQ (< 85). We divided the VLBW children into the abnormal FSIQ group (< 85, n = 15) and the normal FSIQ group (≥ 85, n = 73). VLBW children with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was associated with a below-average FSIQ at the mean age of 4.5 years (< 85, 8/15, 53.3% vs. ≥ 85, 5/73, 6.8%; P < 0.001). After controlling for associated clinical factors, IUGR in the VLBW children was found to be associated with an abnormal FSIQ at the mean age of 4.5 years (P = 0.025). The weight, height, and HC obtained for both groups showed that normal growth was maintained at the mean age of 4.5 years with no significant difference between abnormal and normal FSIQ groups.@*CONCLUSION@#Fifteen of 88 (17%) of the VLBW children had a below-average FSIQ (< 85). VLBW with IUGR is associated with poor cognitive outcomes at the mean age of 4.5 years.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899444

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to construct the education applying Havruta's method for nursing students and to examine its effect on the communication competency, critical thinking competency, and self-leadership. @*Methods@#A non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. The participants were 138 nursing students at two universities. The experimental group (n=70) received the education applying Havruta's method for six weeks. The study was carried out from September 23 to November 8, 2019. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS/WIN 22.0 for the x 2 test, Fisher's exact test, and independent t-test. @*Results@#The experimental group had a significant increase in communication competency (t=2.44, p=.016). However, there was no significant difference in critical thinking competency (t=1.85, p=.067), and self-leadership (t=1.78, p=.077) between the two groups. @*Conclusion@#The education applying Havruta's method is an effective nursing education for communication competency. The result of this study could be a guide for nursing professors at the nursing education field when developing education programs that apply Habruta’s method. Based on these results, future studies should be conducted to apply Habruta’s teaching method to various nursing majors.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899424

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to identify personal factors, social factors, and environmental factors related to physical activity in older adults in urban and non-urban areas. Methods: We used source data from the 2017 Community Health Survey. The subjects of this study included some older adults aged 65 and over, and analyzed the data of 23,043 older adults living in the urban and 34,063 older adults living in the non-urban area. Results: The common factors influencing physical activity in older adults by region include current smoking and drinking, BMI, sleep duration, and subjective health status, help with neighbors, frequency of meeting with neighbors and friends, participation in social and leisure activities, and falls experience (p<.001). However, the living environment, public transport satisfaction, and medical service use significantly associated with physical activity for only older adults living in the urban area (p<.001). Conclusion: In order to improve physical activity in older adults in the community, it is necessary to consider not only the improvement of individual factors that practice health behaviors but also health promotion strategies that take into account social and environmental factors because there are environmental differences among regions.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899319

ABSTRACT

Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by intrauterine growth restriction, poor postnatal growth, relative macrocephaly, a triangular face, body asymmetry, and feeding difficulties. It is primarily diagnosed according to a clinical scoring system; however, the clinical diagnosis is confirmed with molecular testing, and the disease is stratified into the specific molecular subtypes. SRS is a genetically heterogeneous condition. The major molecular changes are hypomethylation of imprinting control region 1 in 11p15.5 and maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 7 (UPD(7)mat). Therefore, first-line molecular testing should include methylation-specific approaches for these regions. Here, we report an extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infant with intrauterine growth retardation, postnatal growth retardation, and dysmorphic facial appearance—characteristics consistent with the clinical diagnostic criteria of SRS. Methylation-specific molecular genetic analysis revealed UPD(7)mat, while the loss of heterozygosity was not detected on chromosomal microarray analysis. We present a case of SRS with suspected uniparental heterodisomy of chromosome 7 in an ELBW infant.

14.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 151-158, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895108

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#As preterm infants have shown advances in survival rate, many very-lowbirth-weight (VLBW) infants have shown developmental delay even without a major brain injury. Thus, the incidence of and risk factors associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcome should be evaluated. @*Methods@#A multicenter nationwide prospective longitudinal cohort study of VLBW infants born in South Korea between 2013 and 2015 was conducted. Poor neurodevelopmental outcome was diagnosed if the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID)-III composite score was ≤85 (cognition, language, motor). We analyzed the associations of baseline neonatal characteristics, environmental characteristics and neonatal morbidities with poor neurodevelopmental outcome. @*Results@#The study included 285 infants, of whom 34 (11.9%) exhibited cognition delay; 59 (20.7%), showed language delay and 32 (11.2%) showed motor delay. The mean gestational age and birth weight were 29 weeks and 1,130 g, respectively. Moderate and severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (P=0.056) and intraventricular hemorrhage grade I (P=0.079) were marginally associated with cognition delay. Higher paternal educational level (P<0.05) was significantly associated with the language outcome. Birth weight (P<0.05) and head circumference at discharge (P<0.05) were the major predictors of motor delay. @*Conclusion@#The population-based nationwide cohort study shows that approximately 20% of VLBW infants without major brain injury have developmental delay. Several factors that are not directly associated with major brain injury were significantly associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcome.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892078

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The cognitive consequences and risk factors based long-term outcome of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW; < 1,500 g) infants in Korea has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of perinatal and neonatal risk factors on the cognitive performance of VLBW children at 3 to 5 years of age.@*METHODS@#We enrolled 88 VLBW infants without cystic periventricular leukomalacia for the assessment of their demographic data, cognitive performance, and development of cerebral palsy (CP) at 3 to 5 years of age. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Korean version of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence IV. Growth data were assessed with measurements of weight, height, and head circumference (HC) at the corrected ages of 6, 12, and 18 months, and 3 to 5 years of age.@*RESULTS@#In the VLBW group, the full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) was 96.1 ± 15.2 at the mean age of 4.5 years. The incidence rate of CP was 3.4%. Overall, 17% (15/88) of the VLBW children had a below-average FSIQ (< 85). We divided the VLBW children into the abnormal FSIQ group (< 85, n = 15) and the normal FSIQ group (≥ 85, n = 73). VLBW children with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was associated with a below-average FSIQ at the mean age of 4.5 years (< 85, 8/15, 53.3% vs. ≥ 85, 5/73, 6.8%; P < 0.001). After controlling for associated clinical factors, IUGR in the VLBW children was found to be associated with an abnormal FSIQ at the mean age of 4.5 years (P = 0.025). The weight, height, and HC obtained for both groups showed that normal growth was maintained at the mean age of 4.5 years with no significant difference between abnormal and normal FSIQ groups.@*CONCLUSION@#Fifteen of 88 (17%) of the VLBW children had a below-average FSIQ (< 85). VLBW with IUGR is associated with poor cognitive outcomes at the mean age of 4.5 years.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891740

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to construct the education applying Havruta's method for nursing students and to examine its effect on the communication competency, critical thinking competency, and self-leadership. @*Methods@#A non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. The participants were 138 nursing students at two universities. The experimental group (n=70) received the education applying Havruta's method for six weeks. The study was carried out from September 23 to November 8, 2019. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS/WIN 22.0 for the x 2 test, Fisher's exact test, and independent t-test. @*Results@#The experimental group had a significant increase in communication competency (t=2.44, p=.016). However, there was no significant difference in critical thinking competency (t=1.85, p=.067), and self-leadership (t=1.78, p=.077) between the two groups. @*Conclusion@#The education applying Havruta's method is an effective nursing education for communication competency. The result of this study could be a guide for nursing professors at the nursing education field when developing education programs that apply Habruta’s method. Based on these results, future studies should be conducted to apply Habruta’s teaching method to various nursing majors.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891720

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to identify personal factors, social factors, and environmental factors related to physical activity in older adults in urban and non-urban areas. Methods: We used source data from the 2017 Community Health Survey. The subjects of this study included some older adults aged 65 and over, and analyzed the data of 23,043 older adults living in the urban and 34,063 older adults living in the non-urban area. Results: The common factors influencing physical activity in older adults by region include current smoking and drinking, BMI, sleep duration, and subjective health status, help with neighbors, frequency of meeting with neighbors and friends, participation in social and leisure activities, and falls experience (p<.001). However, the living environment, public transport satisfaction, and medical service use significantly associated with physical activity for only older adults living in the urban area (p<.001). Conclusion: In order to improve physical activity in older adults in the community, it is necessary to consider not only the improvement of individual factors that practice health behaviors but also health promotion strategies that take into account social and environmental factors because there are environmental differences among regions.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891615

ABSTRACT

Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by intrauterine growth restriction, poor postnatal growth, relative macrocephaly, a triangular face, body asymmetry, and feeding difficulties. It is primarily diagnosed according to a clinical scoring system; however, the clinical diagnosis is confirmed with molecular testing, and the disease is stratified into the specific molecular subtypes. SRS is a genetically heterogeneous condition. The major molecular changes are hypomethylation of imprinting control region 1 in 11p15.5 and maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 7 (UPD(7)mat). Therefore, first-line molecular testing should include methylation-specific approaches for these regions. Here, we report an extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infant with intrauterine growth retardation, postnatal growth retardation, and dysmorphic facial appearance—characteristics consistent with the clinical diagnostic criteria of SRS. Methylation-specific molecular genetic analysis revealed UPD(7)mat, while the loss of heterozygosity was not detected on chromosomal microarray analysis. We present a case of SRS with suspected uniparental heterodisomy of chromosome 7 in an ELBW infant.

19.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831940

ABSTRACT

Function and strength of the deltoid muscle are important in reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA). Moreover, location and shape of the acromion, clavicle, and scapular spine, which are origins of the deltoid muscle, are also important. The frequency of os acromiale is 5% to 15%; however, it is rare in the Asian population, affecting approximately 0.7% of Koreans. RSA has rarely been reported in patients with os acromiale. We present a case series of two patients with cuff tear and arthropathy combined with os acromiale who underwent RSA. From 2016 to 2018, two patients with os acromiale who presented with pain and limited range of motion (ROM) underwent RSA with cuff tear arthropathy using the subscapularis-sparing deltopectoral approach. Their ROM, visual analog scale (VAS), and satisfaction were evaluated before and after surgery. In both patients, VAS decreased, ROM increased, and postoperative satisfaction increased. There were no specific complications due to os acromiale. The VAS, ROM, and satisfaction of patients improved after surgery compared with values before surgery. Thus, os acromiale is not a contraindication for RSA. However, careful attention must be given during surgery to ensure optimal repair and recovery.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760160

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the effect of the level of education on the prevalence of tinnitus and quality of life (QoL) in the Korean population. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Our study included 3155 participants from a representative sample. Tinnitus was measured using questionnaires that evaluated perception of ringing, buzzing, roaring, or hissing sounds. Participants were asked to indicate “Yes” or “No” to these questions. Participants who felt that the sensation was “A little annoying” or “Very annoying” were considered to have moderate or severe tinnitus, respectively. Hearing thresholds were measured using an automatic audiometer. QoL was evaluated using the EuroQoL (EQ) scale. RESULTS: The number of participants in the low, middle, and high education groups were 1521, 967, and 667, respectively. Participants with any degree of tinnitus or moderate to severe tinnitus increased as the level of education decreased. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the low education group had significantly higher odds ratios compared to the middle or high education groups for moderate to severe tinnitus. Abnormal EQ 5-dimensions (EQ-5D) were higher in participants with tinnitus and a low level of education. For participants, univariate and multivariate analyses showed EQ-5D index and EQ-visual analog scale in the low education group were lower than that in the other groups. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that low education level was associated with moderate to severe tinnitus in the Korean adult population. Participants with tinnitus and a low level of education had poorer QoL than those with tinnitus and a high level of education.


Subject(s)
Adult , Education , Hearing , Hearing Loss , Humans , Logistic Models , Methods , Multivariate Analysis , Odds Ratio , Prevalence , Quality of Life , Sensation , Tinnitus
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