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1.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 135-146, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966688

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Anxious depression is associated with greater chronicity, higher severity of symptoms, more severe functional impairment, and poor response to drug treatment. However, evidence for first-choice antidepressants in patients with anxious depression is limited. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of escitalopram, desvenlafaxine, and vortioxetine in the acute treatment of anxious depression. @*Methods@#Patients (n = 124) with major depressive disorder and high levels of anxiety were randomly assigned to an escitalopram treatment group (n = 42), desvenlafaxine treatment group (n = 40), or vortioxetine treatment group (n = 42) in a 6-week randomized rater-blinded head-to-head comparative trial. Changes in overall depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA), respectively. @*Results@#Patients demonstrated similar baseline-to-endpoint improvement in scores and similar response and remission rates for HAMD and HAMA. Analysis of the individual HAMD items revealed that desvenlafaxine significantly reduced anxiety somatic scores (p= 0.013) and hypochondriasis scores (p = 0.014) compared to escitalopram. With respect to the individual HAMA items, desvenlafaxine treatment showed significantly lower scores for respiratory symptoms (p = 0.013) than escitalopram treatment and cardiovascular symptoms (p = 0.005) than vortioxetine treatment. The treatments were well tolerated, with no significant differences. @*Conclusion@#Our results indicated no significant differences in the efficacy and tolerability of escitalopram, desvenlafaxine, and vortioxetine in this subtype of patients with anxious depression during the acute phase of treatment.

2.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 984-990, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002744

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a growth factor used to regulate the mobilization of bone marrow progenitor cells and has been shown to promote brain repair and reduce inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the pro-cognitive and neuroplastic effects of G-CSF in healthy adults. @*Methods@#Sixteen healthy adults or donors of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation received G-CSF injections for 5 consecutive days, and their blood samples were collected before, immediately after, and 3 weeks after the G-CSF injections. Twelve subjects underwent neuropsychological testing before and 12 weeks after the G-CSF injections. @*Results@#The study found that G-CSF administration resulted in significant improvements in cognitive function, as measured by the Rey– Osterrieth Complex Figure test for immediate recall, delayed recall, and recognition score at 12 weeks after the injections. The blood levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, interleukin-4, and interleukin-8 were significantly increased immediately after the injections and returned to baseline levels after 3 weeks. There was no significant change in the plasma level of Multimer Detection System-oligomerized amyloid beta. @*Conclusion@#Our results might suggest that G-CSF has neuroplastic and pro-cognitive effects in healthy adults. However, further study containing a larger sample size is needed to confirm our findings.

3.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1054-1060, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002736

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is known to influence cerebral functional connectivity (FC) in Alzheimer’s disease continuum. We investigated association between APOE allotypes and FC, structural connectivity, and cortical thickness in amyloid-PET negative cognitive normal older adults (CN). @*Methods@#A total of 188 CN (37 had ε2/ε2 or ε2/ε3 [ε2 group], 113 had ε3/ε3 [ε3 group], and 38 had ε3/ε4 or ε4/ε4 [ε4 group]) were recruited. Voxel-based morphometry and cortical thickness analysis were used to investigate differences in cortical thickness between three APOE allotypes. To investigate integrity of structural connectivity, we analyzed diffusion weighted imaging using fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity. In terms of FC, differences of FC in default mode network (DMN) among APOE allotypes were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging. @*Results@#There were no significant differences in age, sex, education, cerebral beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition severity, or neuropsychological profiles. No significant differences were found in cortical thickness and structural connectivity among the APOE allotypes. However, FC within the DMN was significantly lower in ε4 and ε2 carriers compared to ε3 homozygotes. @*Conclusion@#This study suggests that both ε4 and ε2 exhibit APOE-associated DMN FC changes before Aβ deposition, structural changes, and neurodegeneration.

4.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 410-418, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000111

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has multiple negative impacts on the psychiatric health of both those previously infected and not infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Moreover, the negative impacts of COVID-19 are closely associated with geographical region, culture, medical system, and ethnic background. We summarized the evidence of the impact of COVID-19 on the psychiatric health of the Korean population. This narrative review included thirteen research articles, which investigated the impact of COVID-19 on the psychiatric health of Koreans. COVID-19 survivors were reported to have a 2.4 times greater risk of developing psychiatric disorders compared to members of a control group, and anxiety and stress-related disorders were the most common newly diagnosed psychiatric illnesses. Studies also reported that COVID-19 survivors had a 3.33-fold higher prevalence of insomnia, a 2.72-fold higher prevalence of mild cognitive impairment, and a 3.09-fold higher prevalence of dementia compared to the control group. In addition, more than four studies have highlighted that the medical staff members, including nurses and medical students, exhibit a greater negative psychiatric impact of COVID-19. However, none of the articles investigated the biological pathophysiology or mechanism linking COVID-19 and the risk of diverse psychiatric disorders. Moreover, none of the studies were actual prospective studies. Thus, longitudinal studies are needed to more clearly elucidate the effect of COVID-19 on the psychiatric health of the Korean population. Lastly, studies focusing on preventing and treating COVID-19–associated psychiatric problems are needed to provide a benefit in real clinical settings.

5.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 86-94, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976988

ABSTRACT

Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a key tool for diagnosing neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, MRI analysis by visual interpretation and reading can be time-consuming and requires specialized expertise. Brain MRI-based artificial intelligence (AI) software has been developed to aid clinicians in diagnosing and managing neurodegenerative disorders, including AD. This study demonstrates the clinical application of the AI software for volumetric analysis of brain MRI scans in patients within the AD spectrum. In the current case series, four patients with memory impairment visited the memory clinic of Yeouido St. Mary’s Hospital. They underwent a series of assessments, including automated analysis of AI-based software for brain MRI volumetric measurements. The information provided by the software was highly accurate, consistent, and was especially valuable for the early diagnosis and monitoring of disease progression. The results imply that this technology potentially aids in the early detection and management of AD, making it a valuable tool for clinicians in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases.

6.
Journal of Korean Geriatric Psychiatry ; : 8-11, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925371

ABSTRACT

Melatonin is a hormone with neuroregulatory, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Its benevolent effects on Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been replicated in both animal models and clinical studies. Melatonin was effective in deterring the toxic effects of amyloid beta (Aβ) and reducing tau phosphorylation. Conflicting results exist for the clinical effectiveness of melatonin administration in AD patients. The positive effects of melatonin in AD have mainly been viewed from its role in sleep and circadian rhythm. Several limitations exist in the previous research on the relationship between melatonin and AD. Future research should focus on sharpening methodology, and adopting more expanded, multi-faceted approach, with consideration for melatonin’s antioxidant and anti-inflam-matory properties.

7.
Journal of Korean Geriatric Psychiatry ; : 76-82, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915398

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Recent evidence shows that the quantitative value of amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition below the threshold of Aβ positivi-ty carries biological and clinical significance regarding future cognitive decline. We evaluated whether the quantitative value of sub-threshold Aβ deposition had a significant correlation with neuropsychological test scores in cognitively normal older adults without the APOE ε4 allele. @*Methods@#Sixty cognitively normal APOE ε4 allele non-carriers with negative Aβ retention aged 60 to 85 years were included in this study. We assessed neuropsychological performance with the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Al-zheimer’s Disease (CERAD-K) and obtained standardized [ 18 F] flutemetamol uptake values in the pons as a reference (SUVR PONS), evaluated with PET. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to assess the effect of global and regional Aβ load on cognitive performance, adjusting for age, sex, years of education, and volumes of white matter hyperintensities. @*Results@#We found that Aβ deposition in the precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex, and parietal lobe had a significant association with the total CERAD-K scores. There was also a significant correlation between the SUVR PONS in the precuneus and the CERAD-K total score after Bonferroni correction. @*Conclusion@#Subthreshold Aβ retention in the core brain regions of the default mode network could affect cognitive functions in the cognitively normal APOE ε4 non-carriers, considered to be the lowest risk group for Alzheimer’s disease (AD).

8.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 294-302, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897912

ABSTRACT

Objective@#No previous study examined impact of dementia in the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We aimed to investigate overall survival (OS) of patients with dementia after receiving HSCT. @*Methods@#Among 8,230 patients who underwent HSCT between 2002 and 2018, 5,533 patients younger than 50 years were first excluded. Remaining patients were divided into those who were and were not diagnosed with dementia before HSCT (dementia group: n = 31; no dementia: n = 2,666). Thereafter, among 2,666 participants without dementia, 93 patients were selected via propensity-matched score as non-dementia group. Patients were followed from the day they received HSCT to the occurrence of death or the last follow-up day (December 31, 2018), whichever came first. @*Results@#With median follow-up of 621 days for dementia group and 654 days for non-dementia group, 2 year-OS of dementia group was lower than that of non-dementia group (53.3% [95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 59.0−80.2%] vs. 68.8% [95% CI, 38.0−68.2%], p = 0.076). In multivariate analysis, dementia had significant impacts on OS (hazard risk = 2.539, 95% CI, 1.166−4.771, p = 0.017). @*Conclusion@#Our results indicated that patients diagnosed with dementia before HSCT have 2.539 times higher risk of mortality after transplantation than those not having dementia. With number of elderly needing HSCT is increasing, further work to establish treatment guidelines for the management of HSCT in people with dementia is needed.

9.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 341-354, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897907

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We performed a meta-analysis of randomized double-blinded placebo controlled trials (DB-RCTs) to investigate efficacy and safety of intranasal esketamine in treating major depressive disorder (MDD) including treatment resistant depression (TRD) and major depression with suicide ideation (MDSI). @*Methods@#Mean change in total scores on Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) from baseline to different time-points were our primary outcome measure. Secondary efficacy measures included rate of remission of depression and resolution of suicidality. @*Results@#Eight DB-RCTs (seven published and one un-published) covering 1,488 patients with MDD were included. Esketamine more significantly improved MADRS total scores than placebo starting from 2−4 hours after the first administration (standardized mean difference, −0.41 [95% CI, −0.58 to −0.25], p < 0.00001), and this superiority maintained until end of double-blinded period (28 days). Sub-group analysis showed that superior antidepressant effects of esketamine over placebo in TRD and MDSI was observed from 2−4 hours, which was maintained until 28 days. Resolution of suicide in MDSI was also greater for esketamine than for placebo at 2−4 hours (OR of 2.04, 95% CIs, 1.37 to 3.05, p = 0.0005), but two groups did not statistically differ at 24 hours and day 28. Total adverse events (AEs), and other common AEs including dissociation, blood pressure increment, nausea, vertigo, dysgeusia, dizziness, and somnolence were more frequent in esketamine than in placebo group. @*Conclusion@#Esketamine showed rapid antidepressant effects in patients with MDD, including TRD and MDSI. The study also suggested that esketamine might be associated with rapid anti-suicidal effects for patients with MDSI.

10.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 545-553, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897886

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The aim of the present study is to identify the factors that affect retention in outpatients with psychiatric disorders as indicators of treatment adherence, including Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) scores. @*Methods@#The medical records of 146 patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, or anxiety disorder for at least 10 years and discharged were retrospectively reviewed in the present study. The subjects were categorized based on the duration of outpatient treatment as < 6 months (L6) or ≥ 6 months (M6) groups and reclassified as < 36 months (L36) and ≥ 36 months (M36) groups. The demographic, clinical, and personality characteristics of the groups were compared. @*Results@#Patients in M6 and M36 groups were more likely to have a higher educational level compared with those in the L6 and L36 groups, respectively. Patients in the M6 group showed significantly lower hypomania (Ma) scores on the MMPI test than did patients in the L6 group. @*Conclusion@#The association between high Ma score on the MMPI test and early discontinuation of treatment suggests that impulsivity, hostility, and disinhibition confer higher risk of nonadherence.

11.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 523-529, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903199

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Despite a high prevalence of dementia in older adults hospitalized with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection (SARS-CoV-2), or so called COVID-19, research investigating association between preexisting diagnoses of dementia and prognosis of COVID-19 is scarce. We aimed to investigate treatment outcome of patients with dementia after COVID-19. @*Methods@#We explored a nationwide cohort with a total of 2,800 subjects older than 50 years who were diagnosed with COVID-19 between January and April 2020. Among them, 223 patients had underlying dementia (dementia group). We matched 1:1 for each dementia- non-dementia group pair yielding 223 patients without dementia (no dementia group) using propensity score matching. @*Results@#Mortality rate after COVID-19 was higher in dementia group than in no dementia group (33.6% vs. 20.2%, p=0.002). Dementia group had higher proportion of patients requiring invasive ventilatory support than no dementia group (34.1% vs. 22.0%, p=0.006). Multivariable analysis showed that dementia group had a higher risk of mortality than no dementia group (odds ratio=3.05, p<0.001). We also found that patients in dementia group had a higher risk of needing invasive ventilatory support than those in no dementia group. @*Conclusion@#Our results suggest that system including strengthen quarantines are required for patients with dementia during the COVID- 19 pandemic.

12.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 523-529, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895495

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Despite a high prevalence of dementia in older adults hospitalized with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection (SARS-CoV-2), or so called COVID-19, research investigating association between preexisting diagnoses of dementia and prognosis of COVID-19 is scarce. We aimed to investigate treatment outcome of patients with dementia after COVID-19. @*Methods@#We explored a nationwide cohort with a total of 2,800 subjects older than 50 years who were diagnosed with COVID-19 between January and April 2020. Among them, 223 patients had underlying dementia (dementia group). We matched 1:1 for each dementia- non-dementia group pair yielding 223 patients without dementia (no dementia group) using propensity score matching. @*Results@#Mortality rate after COVID-19 was higher in dementia group than in no dementia group (33.6% vs. 20.2%, p=0.002). Dementia group had higher proportion of patients requiring invasive ventilatory support than no dementia group (34.1% vs. 22.0%, p=0.006). Multivariable analysis showed that dementia group had a higher risk of mortality than no dementia group (odds ratio=3.05, p<0.001). We also found that patients in dementia group had a higher risk of needing invasive ventilatory support than those in no dementia group. @*Conclusion@#Our results suggest that system including strengthen quarantines are required for patients with dementia during the COVID- 19 pandemic.

13.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 294-302, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890208

ABSTRACT

Objective@#No previous study examined impact of dementia in the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We aimed to investigate overall survival (OS) of patients with dementia after receiving HSCT. @*Methods@#Among 8,230 patients who underwent HSCT between 2002 and 2018, 5,533 patients younger than 50 years were first excluded. Remaining patients were divided into those who were and were not diagnosed with dementia before HSCT (dementia group: n = 31; no dementia: n = 2,666). Thereafter, among 2,666 participants without dementia, 93 patients were selected via propensity-matched score as non-dementia group. Patients were followed from the day they received HSCT to the occurrence of death or the last follow-up day (December 31, 2018), whichever came first. @*Results@#With median follow-up of 621 days for dementia group and 654 days for non-dementia group, 2 year-OS of dementia group was lower than that of non-dementia group (53.3% [95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 59.0−80.2%] vs. 68.8% [95% CI, 38.0−68.2%], p = 0.076). In multivariate analysis, dementia had significant impacts on OS (hazard risk = 2.539, 95% CI, 1.166−4.771, p = 0.017). @*Conclusion@#Our results indicated that patients diagnosed with dementia before HSCT have 2.539 times higher risk of mortality after transplantation than those not having dementia. With number of elderly needing HSCT is increasing, further work to establish treatment guidelines for the management of HSCT in people with dementia is needed.

14.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 341-354, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890203

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We performed a meta-analysis of randomized double-blinded placebo controlled trials (DB-RCTs) to investigate efficacy and safety of intranasal esketamine in treating major depressive disorder (MDD) including treatment resistant depression (TRD) and major depression with suicide ideation (MDSI). @*Methods@#Mean change in total scores on Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) from baseline to different time-points were our primary outcome measure. Secondary efficacy measures included rate of remission of depression and resolution of suicidality. @*Results@#Eight DB-RCTs (seven published and one un-published) covering 1,488 patients with MDD were included. Esketamine more significantly improved MADRS total scores than placebo starting from 2−4 hours after the first administration (standardized mean difference, −0.41 [95% CI, −0.58 to −0.25], p < 0.00001), and this superiority maintained until end of double-blinded period (28 days). Sub-group analysis showed that superior antidepressant effects of esketamine over placebo in TRD and MDSI was observed from 2−4 hours, which was maintained until 28 days. Resolution of suicide in MDSI was also greater for esketamine than for placebo at 2−4 hours (OR of 2.04, 95% CIs, 1.37 to 3.05, p = 0.0005), but two groups did not statistically differ at 24 hours and day 28. Total adverse events (AEs), and other common AEs including dissociation, blood pressure increment, nausea, vertigo, dysgeusia, dizziness, and somnolence were more frequent in esketamine than in placebo group. @*Conclusion@#Esketamine showed rapid antidepressant effects in patients with MDD, including TRD and MDSI. The study also suggested that esketamine might be associated with rapid anti-suicidal effects for patients with MDSI.

15.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 545-553, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890182

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The aim of the present study is to identify the factors that affect retention in outpatients with psychiatric disorders as indicators of treatment adherence, including Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) scores. @*Methods@#The medical records of 146 patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, or anxiety disorder for at least 10 years and discharged were retrospectively reviewed in the present study. The subjects were categorized based on the duration of outpatient treatment as < 6 months (L6) or ≥ 6 months (M6) groups and reclassified as < 36 months (L36) and ≥ 36 months (M36) groups. The demographic, clinical, and personality characteristics of the groups were compared. @*Results@#Patients in M6 and M36 groups were more likely to have a higher educational level compared with those in the L6 and L36 groups, respectively. Patients in the M6 group showed significantly lower hypomania (Ma) scores on the MMPI test than did patients in the L6 group. @*Conclusion@#The association between high Ma score on the MMPI test and early discontinuation of treatment suggests that impulsivity, hostility, and disinhibition confer higher risk of nonadherence.

16.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 69-79, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875370

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia and the prevalence rapidly increased as the elderly population increased worldwide. In the contemporary model of AD, it is regarded as a disease continuum involving preclinical stage to severe dementia. For accurate diagnosis and disease monitoring, objective index reflecting structural change of brain is needed to correctly assess a patient’s severity of neurodegeneration independent from the patient’s clinical symptoms. The main aim of this paper is to develop a random forest (RF) algorithm-based prediction model of AD using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). @*Methods@#We evaluated diagnostic accuracy and performance of our RF based prediction model using newly developed brain segmentation method compared with the Freesurfer’s which is a commonly used segmentation software. @*Results@#Our RF model showed high diagnostic accuracy for differentiating healthy controls from AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using structural MRI, patient characteristics, and cognitive function (HC vs. AD 93.5%, AUC 0.99; HC vs. MCI 80.8%, AUC 0.88). Moreover, segmentation processing time of our algorithm (<5 minutes) was much shorter than of Freesurfer’s (6–8 hours). @*Conclusion@#Our RF model might be an effective automatic brain segmentation tool which can be easily applied in real clinical practice.

17.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1013-1020, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832597

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Previous studies investigating association of alcohol intake and fracture risk in elderly yielded conflicting results. We first examined the association between alcohol intake and total fracture risk in elderly subjects and further analyzed whether the association varied by fracture locations. @*Methods@#This is a nationwide population-based cohort study which included all people aged 66 (n=1,431,539) receiving the National Screening Program during 2009–2014. Time-to-event were defined as duration from study recruitment, the day they received health screening, to the occurrence of fracture. @*Results@#Total fracture was significantly lower in mild drinkers [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)=0.952; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) =0.931–0.973] and higher in heavy drinkers (aHR=1.246; 95% CI=1.201–1.294) than non-drinkers. Risk pattern of alcohol consumption and fracture differed according to affected bones. Similar J-shaped trends were observed for vertebra fractures, but risk of limb fracture showed a linear relationship with alcohol intake. For hip fracture, risk decrement was more pronounced in mild and moderate drinkers, and significant increment was noted only in very severe drinkers [≥60 g/day; (aHR)=1.446; 1.162–1.801]. @*Conclusion@#Light to moderate drinking generally lowered risk of fractures, but association between alcohol and fracture risk varied depending on the affected bone lesions.

18.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 613-619, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832539

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We aimed to explore the impact of moderate intensity exercise on the cortical thickness and subcortical volumes of preclinical Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. @*Methods@#Sixty-three preclinical AD patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 18-florbetaben positron emission tomography (PET) data were enrolled in the study. Information on demographic characteristics, cognitive battery scores, self-reported exercise habits were attained. Structural magnetic resonance images were analyzed and processed using Freesurfer v6.0. @*Results@#Compared to Exercise group, Non-Exercise group demonstrated reduced cortical thickness in left parstriangularis, rostral middle frontal, entorhinal, superior frontal, lingual, superior parietal, lateral occipital, inferior parietal gyrus, temporal pole, precuneus, insula, fusiform gyrus, right precuneus, superiorparietal, lateral orbitofrontal, rostral middle frontal, medial orbitofrontal, superior frontal, lingual, middle temporal gyrus, insula, supramarginal, parahippocampal, paracentral gyrus. Volumes of right thalamus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus, amygdala were also reduced in Non-Exercise group. @*Conclusion@#Moderate intensity exercise affects cortical and subcortical structures in preclinical AD patients. Thus, physical exercise has a potential to be an effective intervention to prevent future cognitive decline in those at high risk of AD.

19.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 621-626, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832537

ABSTRACT

Orexin’s role in human cognition has recently been emphasized and emerging evidences indicate its close relationship with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This review aimed to demonstrate recent research on the relationship between orexin and AD. Orexin’s role in stress regulation and memory is discussed, with significant findings related to sexual disparities in stress response, with potential clinical implications pertaining to AD pathology. There are controversies regarding the orexin levels in AD patients, but the role of orexin in the trajectory of AD is still emphasized in recent literatures. Orexin is also accentuated in the context of tau pathology, and orexin as a potential therapeutic target for AD is frequently discussed. Future directions with regard to the relationship between orexin and AD are suggested: 1) consideration for AD trajectory in the measurement of orexin levels, 2) the need for objective measure such as polysomnography and actigraphy, 3) the need for close observation of cognitive profiles of orexin-deficient narcolepsy patients, 4) the need for validation studies by neuroimaging 5) the need for taking account sexual disparities in orexinergic activiation, and 6) consideration for orexin’s role as a stress regulator. The aforementioned new perspectives could help unravel the relationship between orexin and AD.

20.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 786-795, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832496

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We aimed to explore the differential impact of cigarette smoking on fracture risks in SCD and dementia. @*Methods@#A nationwide population-based cohort study design was used. Out of all the people aged 66 (n=1,555,103) who went through the National Screening Program from 2009–2014, 968,240 participants with eligible data were included in the study. Time-to-event was calculated as the duration between the NSPTA and fracture incidence. Cox proportional-hazard regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the risk of fractures. @*Results@#Increased risk of all [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)=1.184; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.184, 1.093–1.283], hip (aHR=1.518; 95% CI=1.168–4.972), vertebral (aHR=1.235; 95% CI=1.101–1.386) fractures were increased in current smokers with more than 20 or more pack years (≥20 py) of SCD group, after adjusting for all relevant confounding factors. In dementia group, however, current smokers ≥20 py were at reduced risk of hip fractures (aHR=0.249; 95% CI=0.089–0.97). @*Conclusion@#There was a disparate influence of cigarette smoking on the fracture risks in SCD and dementia group. Further studies are warranted to explicate this phenomenon, and personalized preventive measures according to one’s cognitive status are imperative, since risk factors of fractures can exert disparate influence on patients at different stage of cognitive trajectory.

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