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1.
Gut and Liver ; : 44-52, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914382

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a curative treatment modality for early gastric neoplasms; however, ESD can be a time-consuming process. To overcome this pitfall, we developed the one-step knife (OSK) approach, which combines an endoscopic knife and injection needle on a single sheath. We aimed to evaluate whether this approach could reduce the ESD procedure time. @*Methods@#This single-blinded randomized multicenter trial at four tertiary hospitals from June 2019 to June 2020 included patients aged 19 to 85 years undergoing ESD. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups (OSK or conventional knife [CK]). The injection time, total procedure time, resected specimen size, submucosal fluid amount, degree of device satisfaction, and adverse events were evaluated and compared between groups. @*Results@#Fifty-one patients were analyzed (OSK: 25 patients and CK: 26 patients). No baseline differences were observed between groups, with the exception of a higher portion of males in the OSK group. The mean injection time was significantly reduced in the OSK group (39.0 seconds) compared to that in the CK group (87.5 seconds, p<0.001). A decrease of more than 10 minutes in the total procedure time (18.0 minutes vs 28.1 minutes, p=0.055) in the OSK group compared to the CK group was observed. Second-look esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed two delayed bleeding cases in the OSK group that were easily controlled by endoscopic hemostasis. @*Conclusions@#OSK reduced the injection time and showed a decrease in total procedure time compared with the CK approach. OSK can be a feasible tool for ESD, especially in difficult cases.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889020

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 antibody assay is a test that checks whether an antibody against the SARSCoV-2 virus has been formed in the blood after SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination. SARSCoV-2 antibody is detected 1–2 weeks after infection, and antibodies are produced in more than 90% of infected patients. The duration for the formation of antibodies differs by individual and by type of antibody. In the case of IgG, it is at least several months or longer,and the relationship between antibodies and immunity is being studied. As test methods, enzyme-inked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA), immunochromatographic assay, and neutralizing antibody assay have been developed and used. The target antibody to be detected differs depending on the type of recombinant antigen and the type of secondary antibody in reagents. Many kinds of commercialized SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays are currently being developed, and the S (spike) protein, N (nucleocapsid) protein, S1 or RBD (receptor binding domain) part of the S protein, and a mixture of these antigens are used as recombinant antigens of reagents. IgG, IgM, IgA, or total immunoglobulin antibodies in patients’ blood that react with these reagent antigens are detected. In this review, the types and performance of SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests and the guidelines for COVID-19 antibody tests published domestically and abroad were investigated.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889019

ABSTRACT

Background@#Staphylococcus aureus is a common colonizer of the nasal vestibule and is found in approximately 20%–30% of healthy adults, while Staphylococcus epidermidis appears to be the most frequent colonizer in all regions of the upper respiratory tract. Esp, aserine protease of S. epidermidis, was reported to inhibit S.aureus colonization. This study was performed to examine the nasal colonization of S. aureus and S. epidermidis and the presence of esp determinants. @*Methods@#Nasal swab specimens from 54 patients were cultured on blood agar plates (BAP) and selective media for S. aureus (S. aureus ID, bioMerieux, France) for the isolation of S.aureus and S. epidermidis. After 48 hours of incubation of with BAP, three or four colonies suspected of being coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were identified by MALDI-TOF MS (Bruker, Germany). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for esp was performed on all CNS isolates identified as S. epidermidis. @*Results@#Forty-three S. epidermidis strains were isolated from 18 (33.3%) of the 54 patients.Nine (50.0%) of the 18 patients carried S. aureus, while the other nine did not. Of the 36 S. epidermidis non-carriers, 13 (36.1%) were colonized by S. aureus. All S. epidermidis strains were confirmed by PCR to have esp determinants. @*Conclusion@#S. epidermidis colonization did not affect S. aureus colonization in the nasal cavity. All S. epidermidis strains harbored the esp gene. We could not find any differences in the nasal colonization rates of S. aureus according to the presence of esp-positive S. epidermidis. Further research on the characterization of S. epidermidis in Korea is needed to understand the association between S. epidermidis and S. aureus colonization.

4.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 997-1004, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904277

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to determine whether the use of drugs in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease is related to the risk of colorectal cancer using a Cox proportional hazards model with the landmark method to minimize immortal time bias. @*Materials and Methods@#This study was conducted as national cohort-based study using data from Korea’s Health Insurance Corporation. Newly diagnosed patients with inflammatory bowel disease from 2006 to 2010 were monitored for colorectal cancer until 2015. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and compared with the incidence of colorectal cancer with or without medications by applying various landmark points. @*Results@#In patients with Crohn’s disease, the prevention of colorectal cancer in the group exposed to immunomodulators was significant in the basic Cox model; however, the effect was not statistically significant in the model using the landmark method. The preventive effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid in patients with ulcerative colitis was significant in the basic and 6-month landmark point application models, but not in the remaining landmark application models. @*Conclusion@#In patients with inflammatory bowel disease, the preventive effect of drug exposure on colorectal cancer varies depending on the application of the landmark method. Hence, the possibility of immortal time bias should be considered.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903639

ABSTRACT

Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a low-grade lymphoma with a long median survival time because of its low proliferation rate. A 75-year-old man was referred to the hospital for hematemesis. Upper endoscopy revealed a 30-mm subepithelial tumor (SET). Abdominal CT and EUS revealed a homogeneously hypoechoic lesion arising from the second layer of the stomach, without distant metastasis. Laparoscopic wedge resection was performed. On microscopic examination, the tumor showed diffuse aggregation of small lymphoid cells with abnormal architecture. Neoplastic cells showed positive reactivity for CD20 and prominent lymphoepithelial lesions were observed. The urease breath test was also conducted, with a negative result. Our final diagnosis was Helicobacter pylori-negative MALT lymphoma (Ann Arbor classification IE2), which is a rapidly growing SET pattern. This case highlights the importance of including gastric MALT lymphoma as a differential diagnosis for rapidly growing gastric SETs.

6.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1100-1109, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902434

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To compare the diagnostic performance between Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System version 2.0 (PIRADSv2.0) and version 2.1 (PI-RADSv2.1) for clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) in the peripheral zone (PZ). @*Materials and Methods@#This retrospective study included 317 patients who underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and targeted biopsy for PZ lesions. Definition of csPCa was International Society of Urologic Pathology grade ≥ 2 cancer. Area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy for csPCa were analyzed by two readers. The cancer detection rate (CDR) for csPCa was investigated according to the PI-RADS categories. @*Results@#AUC of PI-RADSv2.1 (0.856 and 0.858 for reader 1 and 2 respectively) was higher than that of PI-RADSv2.0 (0.795 and 0.747 for reader 1 and 2 respectively) (both p < 0.001). Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy for PI-RADSv2.0 vs. PI-RADSv2.1 were 93.2% vs. 88.3% (p = 0.023), 52.8% vs. 76.6% (p < 0.001), 48.7% vs. 64.5% (p < 0.001), 94.2% vs. 93.2% (p = 0.504), and 65.9% vs. 80.4% (p < 0.001) for reader 1, and 96.1% vs. 92.2% (p = 0.046), 34.1% vs. 72.4% (p < 0.001), 41.3% vs. 61.7% (p < 0.001), 94.8% vs. 95.1% (p = 0.869), and 54.3% vs. 78.9% (p < 0.001) for reader 2, respectively. CDRs of PI-RADS categories 1–2, 3, 4, and 5 for PI-RADSv2.0 vs. PI-RADSv2.1 were 5.9% vs. 5.9%, 5.8% vs. 12.5%, 39.8% vs. 56.2%, and 88.9% vs. 88.9% for reader 1; and 4.5% vs. 4.1%, 6.1% vs. 11.1%, 32.5% vs. 53.4%, and 85.0% vs. 86.8% for reader 2, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Our data demonstrated improved AUC, specificity, PPV, accuracy, and CDRs of category 3 or 4 of PI-RADSv2.1, but decreased sensitivity, compared with PI-RADSv2.0, for csPCa in PZ.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899055

ABSTRACT

Air pollutants are in the spotlight because the human body can easily be exposed to them. Among air pollutants, the particulate matter (PM) represents one of the most serious toxicants that can enter the human body through various exposure routes. PMs have various adverse effects and classified as severe carcinogen by International Agency for Research on Cancer. Their physical and chemical characteristics are distinguished by their size. In this review, we summarized the published information on the physicochemical characteristics and adverse effects of PMs on the skin, including carcinogenicity. Through comparisons of biological networks constructed from relationships discussed in the previous scientific publications, we show it is possible to predict skin cancers and other disorders from particle-size-specific signaling alterations of PM-responsive genes. Our review not only helps to grasp the biological association between ambient PMs and skin diseases including cancer, but also provides new approaches to interpret chemical-gene-disease associations regarding the adverse effects of these heterogeneous particles.

8.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 432-435, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897777

ABSTRACT

Angiolipoma is a benign fatty neoplasm that has components of proliferating blood vessels. These types of lesions commonly occur in the subcutaneous tissue of the limbs and trunk. Angiolipoma in the gastrointestinal tract is extremely rare, and the final diagnosis generally depends on histological examination of the excised biopsy. In most previously reported cases, the lesions were diagnosed and treated with surgical management. In this study, we report a case of gastric angiolipoma of approximately 4 cm in size that was diagnosed and treated with endoscopic submucosal dissection.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896724

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 antibody assay is a test that checks whether an antibody against the SARSCoV-2 virus has been formed in the blood after SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination. SARSCoV-2 antibody is detected 1–2 weeks after infection, and antibodies are produced in more than 90% of infected patients. The duration for the formation of antibodies differs by individual and by type of antibody. In the case of IgG, it is at least several months or longer,and the relationship between antibodies and immunity is being studied. As test methods, enzyme-inked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA), immunochromatographic assay, and neutralizing antibody assay have been developed and used. The target antibody to be detected differs depending on the type of recombinant antigen and the type of secondary antibody in reagents. Many kinds of commercialized SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays are currently being developed, and the S (spike) protein, N (nucleocapsid) protein, S1 or RBD (receptor binding domain) part of the S protein, and a mixture of these antigens are used as recombinant antigens of reagents. IgG, IgM, IgA, or total immunoglobulin antibodies in patients’ blood that react with these reagent antigens are detected. In this review, the types and performance of SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests and the guidelines for COVID-19 antibody tests published domestically and abroad were investigated.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896723

ABSTRACT

Background@#Staphylococcus aureus is a common colonizer of the nasal vestibule and is found in approximately 20%–30% of healthy adults, while Staphylococcus epidermidis appears to be the most frequent colonizer in all regions of the upper respiratory tract. Esp, aserine protease of S. epidermidis, was reported to inhibit S.aureus colonization. This study was performed to examine the nasal colonization of S. aureus and S. epidermidis and the presence of esp determinants. @*Methods@#Nasal swab specimens from 54 patients were cultured on blood agar plates (BAP) and selective media for S. aureus (S. aureus ID, bioMerieux, France) for the isolation of S.aureus and S. epidermidis. After 48 hours of incubation of with BAP, three or four colonies suspected of being coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were identified by MALDI-TOF MS (Bruker, Germany). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for esp was performed on all CNS isolates identified as S. epidermidis. @*Results@#Forty-three S. epidermidis strains were isolated from 18 (33.3%) of the 54 patients.Nine (50.0%) of the 18 patients carried S. aureus, while the other nine did not. Of the 36 S. epidermidis non-carriers, 13 (36.1%) were colonized by S. aureus. All S. epidermidis strains were confirmed by PCR to have esp determinants. @*Conclusion@#S. epidermidis colonization did not affect S. aureus colonization in the nasal cavity. All S. epidermidis strains harbored the esp gene. We could not find any differences in the nasal colonization rates of S. aureus according to the presence of esp-positive S. epidermidis. Further research on the characterization of S. epidermidis in Korea is needed to understand the association between S. epidermidis and S. aureus colonization.

11.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 997-1004, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896573

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to determine whether the use of drugs in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease is related to the risk of colorectal cancer using a Cox proportional hazards model with the landmark method to minimize immortal time bias. @*Materials and Methods@#This study was conducted as national cohort-based study using data from Korea’s Health Insurance Corporation. Newly diagnosed patients with inflammatory bowel disease from 2006 to 2010 were monitored for colorectal cancer until 2015. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and compared with the incidence of colorectal cancer with or without medications by applying various landmark points. @*Results@#In patients with Crohn’s disease, the prevention of colorectal cancer in the group exposed to immunomodulators was significant in the basic Cox model; however, the effect was not statistically significant in the model using the landmark method. The preventive effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid in patients with ulcerative colitis was significant in the basic and 6-month landmark point application models, but not in the remaining landmark application models. @*Conclusion@#In patients with inflammatory bowel disease, the preventive effect of drug exposure on colorectal cancer varies depending on the application of the landmark method. Hence, the possibility of immortal time bias should be considered.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895935

ABSTRACT

Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a low-grade lymphoma with a long median survival time because of its low proliferation rate. A 75-year-old man was referred to the hospital for hematemesis. Upper endoscopy revealed a 30-mm subepithelial tumor (SET). Abdominal CT and EUS revealed a homogeneously hypoechoic lesion arising from the second layer of the stomach, without distant metastasis. Laparoscopic wedge resection was performed. On microscopic examination, the tumor showed diffuse aggregation of small lymphoid cells with abnormal architecture. Neoplastic cells showed positive reactivity for CD20 and prominent lymphoepithelial lesions were observed. The urease breath test was also conducted, with a negative result. Our final diagnosis was Helicobacter pylori-negative MALT lymphoma (Ann Arbor classification IE2), which is a rapidly growing SET pattern. This case highlights the importance of including gastric MALT lymphoma as a differential diagnosis for rapidly growing gastric SETs.

13.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1100-1109, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894730

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To compare the diagnostic performance between Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System version 2.0 (PIRADSv2.0) and version 2.1 (PI-RADSv2.1) for clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) in the peripheral zone (PZ). @*Materials and Methods@#This retrospective study included 317 patients who underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and targeted biopsy for PZ lesions. Definition of csPCa was International Society of Urologic Pathology grade ≥ 2 cancer. Area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy for csPCa were analyzed by two readers. The cancer detection rate (CDR) for csPCa was investigated according to the PI-RADS categories. @*Results@#AUC of PI-RADSv2.1 (0.856 and 0.858 for reader 1 and 2 respectively) was higher than that of PI-RADSv2.0 (0.795 and 0.747 for reader 1 and 2 respectively) (both p < 0.001). Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy for PI-RADSv2.0 vs. PI-RADSv2.1 were 93.2% vs. 88.3% (p = 0.023), 52.8% vs. 76.6% (p < 0.001), 48.7% vs. 64.5% (p < 0.001), 94.2% vs. 93.2% (p = 0.504), and 65.9% vs. 80.4% (p < 0.001) for reader 1, and 96.1% vs. 92.2% (p = 0.046), 34.1% vs. 72.4% (p < 0.001), 41.3% vs. 61.7% (p < 0.001), 94.8% vs. 95.1% (p = 0.869), and 54.3% vs. 78.9% (p < 0.001) for reader 2, respectively. CDRs of PI-RADS categories 1–2, 3, 4, and 5 for PI-RADSv2.0 vs. PI-RADSv2.1 were 5.9% vs. 5.9%, 5.8% vs. 12.5%, 39.8% vs. 56.2%, and 88.9% vs. 88.9% for reader 1; and 4.5% vs. 4.1%, 6.1% vs. 11.1%, 32.5% vs. 53.4%, and 85.0% vs. 86.8% for reader 2, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Our data demonstrated improved AUC, specificity, PPV, accuracy, and CDRs of category 3 or 4 of PI-RADSv2.1, but decreased sensitivity, compared with PI-RADSv2.0, for csPCa in PZ.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891351

ABSTRACT

Air pollutants are in the spotlight because the human body can easily be exposed to them. Among air pollutants, the particulate matter (PM) represents one of the most serious toxicants that can enter the human body through various exposure routes. PMs have various adverse effects and classified as severe carcinogen by International Agency for Research on Cancer. Their physical and chemical characteristics are distinguished by their size. In this review, we summarized the published information on the physicochemical characteristics and adverse effects of PMs on the skin, including carcinogenicity. Through comparisons of biological networks constructed from relationships discussed in the previous scientific publications, we show it is possible to predict skin cancers and other disorders from particle-size-specific signaling alterations of PM-responsive genes. Our review not only helps to grasp the biological association between ambient PMs and skin diseases including cancer, but also provides new approaches to interpret chemical-gene-disease associations regarding the adverse effects of these heterogeneous particles.

15.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 432-435, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890073

ABSTRACT

Angiolipoma is a benign fatty neoplasm that has components of proliferating blood vessels. These types of lesions commonly occur in the subcutaneous tissue of the limbs and trunk. Angiolipoma in the gastrointestinal tract is extremely rare, and the final diagnosis generally depends on histological examination of the excised biopsy. In most previously reported cases, the lesions were diagnosed and treated with surgical management. In this study, we report a case of gastric angiolipoma of approximately 4 cm in size that was diagnosed and treated with endoscopic submucosal dissection.

16.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 185-191, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918933

ABSTRACT

It has been a year and half since the World Health Organization declared the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. As of July 23, 2021, more than 193 million people worldwide have been confirmed to contract the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), with more than 4.15 million deaths. In Korea, about 185,000 people have been confirmed and 2,066 have died of COVID-19. Korea is in the middle of the fourth wave of trends, and the metropolitan area is in the top stage of social distancing. Since the SARS-CoV-2 vaccination began in the UK in December 2020, the number of people who complete vaccination is only 13.3% around the world, and many low-income countries have less than 5%. In Korea, the first vaccination rate was 32.27%, but only 13% completed the vaccination until July 23. As expected, there has been a lot of confusion, controversy, and even fake news and rumors over the past five months since the vaccination against COVID-19 began in Korea on February 26, 2021. People’s views on vaccination are bound to vary depending on their experience, perspective, and even political stance. In this article, we wanted to introduce the arguments and conflicts that could arise during vaccinations and suggest what we should think about so that many people can get vaccinated without hesitation.

17.
Gut and Liver ; : 841-850, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914361

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The mucoprotective drug rebamipide is used to treat gastritis and peptic ulcers. We compared the efficacy of Mucosta Ⓡ (rebamipide 100 mg) and its new formulation, AD-203 (rebamipide 150 mg), in treating erosive gastritis. @*Methods@#This double-blind, active control, noninferiority, multicenter, phase 3 clinical trial randomly assigned 475 patients with endoscopically proven erosive gastritis to two groups: AD-203 twice daily or Mucosta Ⓡ thrice daily for 2 weeks. The intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis included 454 patients (AD-203, n=229; Mucosta Ⓡ , n=225), and the per-protocol (PP) analysis included 439 patients (AD-203, n=224; Mucosta Ⓡ , n=215). The posttreatment assessments included the primary (erosion improvement rate) and secondary endpoints (erosion and edema cure rates; improvement rates of redness, hemorrhage, and gastrointestinal symptoms). Drug-related adverse events were evaluated. @*Results@#According to the ITT analysis, the erosion improvement rates (posttreatment) in AD-203-treated and Mucosta Ⓡ -treated patients were 39.7% and 43.8%, respectively. According to the PP analysis, the erosion improvement rates (posttreatment) in AD-203-treated and Mucosta Ⓡ -treated patients were 39.3% and 43.7%, respectively. The one-sided 97.5% lower limit for the improvement rate difference between the study groups was −4.01% (95% confidence interval [CI], –13.09% to 5.06%) in the ITT analysis and −4.44% (95% CI, –13.65% to 4.78%) in the PP analysis. The groups did not significantly differ in the secondary endpoints in either analysis. Twenty-four AD-203-treated and 20 Mucosta Ⓡ -treated patients reported adverse events but no serious adverse drug reactions; both groups presented similar adverse event rates. @*Conclusions@#The new formulation of rebamipide 150 mg (AD-203) twice daily was not inferior to rebamipide 100 mg (Mucosta Ⓡ ) thrice daily. Both formulations showed a similar efficacy in treating erosive gastritis.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913380

ABSTRACT

The application of whole genome sequencing on SARS-CoV-2 viral genome is essential for our understanding of the molecular epidemiology and spread of viruses in the community. The portable whole genome sequencer MinION (Oxford Nanopore Technologies, ONT, UK) could be feasibly used in a clinical microbiology laboratory without the need of vast resources or stringent operating conditions. We used the MinION sequencer to analyze the viral genome sequence of one SARS-CoV-2 strain. In June 2020, nasopharyngeal specimen from one patient was subjected to whole-genome analysis using the nCoV-2019 sequencing protocol v2 of ARTIC using the MinION sequencer. The ONT MinKNOW software, RAMPART tool, and Genome Workbench were used. We identified 11 nucleotide variants using the Wuhan-Hu-1 isolate (NC_045512.2) as the reference sequence. There were six nucleotide variants (T265I, F924, Y3884L, P4715L, L5462, and Q6804L) in the ORF1ab region, one variant (D614G) in the S gene, one variant (Q57H) in ORF3a, one variant (P302) in the N gene, and two variants in each the 5′-UTR and 3′-UTR. In this prolonged coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic season, the MinION system that operates an amplicon-based whole-genome sequencing protocol could be a rapid and reliable sequencer without the need of cumbersome viral cultivation.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874963

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Deliberate self-poisoning (DSP) is the most common suicide method and can be life-threatening. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors related to the lethality of DSP and the characteristics of the adolescent group. @*Methods@#A retrospective study was conducted on patients who had visited an academic hospital’s regional emergency medical center between 2015 and 2018. The data reviewed through their medical records included sociodemographic factors, clinical variables, and psychiatric treatment. Four groups (Q1–Q4) were categorized by descriptive analysis using the risk-rescue rating scale. @*Results@#A total of 491 patients were enrolled in this study. This study showed that high lethality had statistically significant associations with male sex, older age, admitting suicidal intentions, and the use of herbicides for suicide. Logistic regression analyses showed a significant association between high-lethality and female [odds ratio (OR)=0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.30–0.81, p=0.01], non-psychiatric drugs (over-the-counter drug: OR=2.49, 95% CI=1.08–5.74, p=0.03; herbicide: OR=8.65, 95% CI=3.91–19.13, p<0.01), and denial of suicide intent (OR=0.28, 95% CI=0.15–0.55, p<0.01). @*Conclusion@#This study showed the clinical factors associated with the high lethality of DSP and suggested that efforts were needed to care for and thoroughly examine patients with DSP.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874158

ABSTRACT

Background@#Rotaviruses are a major cause of pediatric gastroenteritis. The rotavirus P[6] genotype is the most prevalent genotype isolated from Korean neonates but has rarely been reported in other countries. Histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) is known to play an important role in rotavirus infection. We investigated the relationship between rotavirus genotype and HBGA-Lewis blood type in Korean children and explored the reasons for the predominance of rotavirus P[6] strain in Korean neonates. @*Methods@#Blood and stool samples were collected from 16 rotavirus-infected patients. Rotavirus G (VP7) and P (VP4) genotyping was performed using reverse transcription-PCR and sequencing. Lewis antigen phenotypes (Lea /Leb ) were tested, and HBGA-Lewis genotype was determined by sequencing the secretor (FUT2) and Lewis (FUT3) genes. Deduced amino acid sequences and three-dimensional structures of the VP8* portion of the rotavirus VP4 protein were analyzed. @*Results@#All P[6] rotaviruses were isolated from neonates under one month of age, who were negative or weakly positive for the Leb antigen. However, 10 of the 11 non-P[6] rotaviruses were isolated from older children who were Leb antigen-positive. The VP8* amino acid sequences differed among P[6], P[4], and P[8] genotypes. Korean P[6] strains showed a unique VP8* sequence with amino acid substitutions, including Y169 > L169, which differed from the sequences of P[6] strains from other countries. @*Conclusions@#The predominance of the rotavirus P[6] genotype in Korean neonates may be related to the interaction between HBGA-Lewis antigen and the VP8* portion of the VP4 protein, and this information will be helpful in future neonatal vaccine development.

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