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1.
Korean Journal of Blood Transfusion ; : 12-20, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977190

ABSTRACT

Background@#ABO genotyping is performed when the exact ABO blood type cannot be determined through serological testing. Conventionally, only exons 6 and 7 of the ABO gene have been analyzed, but our laboratory introduced additional analysis of the proximal promoter and intron 1 +5.8 kb site. Accordingly, we report the clinical use of ABO genotyping and distribution of the ABO subgroups based on our experience over the past 5 years. @*Methods@#A total of 265 samples tested at the Samsung Medical Center from August 2017 to July 2022 were retrospectively analyzed at their request. Serological ABO blood typing and direct sequencing of exons 6 and 7 were performed on all samples, and additional analysis of the regulatory region of the ABO gene was performed on 17 samples. Since some of the ABO discrepant cases revealed multiple causes, a total of 339 causes among 238 ABO discrepant cases were analyzed. @*Results@#Among the total of 265 samples, 89.8% (238/265) exhibited ABO discrepancies. Weak red cell reactivity (51.6%, 175/339) was the most common cause of ABO discrepancy, followed by extra serum reactivity (35.7%, 121/339). Among the samples, 40.8% (108/265) were identified as ABO subgroups. Among the 108 ABO subgroup alleles, cisAB.01 in exons 6 and 7 accounted for 82 cases (75.9%, 82/108), and two g.10925C>T mutations in intron 1 +5.8 kb were identified. @*Conclusion@#Through our recent experience of the last 5 years of ABO genotyping, we elucidated the cause of ABO discrepancies and ABO subgroup alleles. The extended sequencing of the regulatory region of the ABO gene was helpful for further understanding the ABO discrepancy caused by weak red cell reactivity. (Korean J Blood Transfus 2023;34:12-20)

2.
The Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics ; : 1-10, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968638

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#Accuracy of image matching between resting and smiling facial models is affected by the stability of the reference surfaces. This study aimed to investigate the morphometric variations in subdivided facial units during resting, posed and spontaneous smiling. @*MATERIALS AND METHODS@#The posed and spontaneous smiling faces of 33 adults were digitized and registered to the resting faces. The morphological changes of subdivided facial units at the forehead (upper and lower central, upper and lower lateral, and temple), nasal (dorsum, tip, lateral wall, and alar lobules), and chin (central and lateral) regions were assessed by measuring the 3D mesh deviations between the smiling and resting facial models. The one-way analysis of variance, Duncan post hoc tests, and Student’s t-test were used to determine the differences among the groups (α = .05). @*RESULTS@#The smallest morphometric changes were observed at the upper and central forehead and nasal dorsum; meanwhile, the largest deviation was found at the nasal alar lobules in both the posed and spontaneous smiles (P < .001). The spontaneous smile generally resulted in larger facial unit changes than the posed smile, and significant difference was observed at the alar lobules, central chin, and lateral chin units (P < .001). @*CONCLUSION@#The upper and central forehead and nasal dorsum are reliable areas for image matching between resting and smiling 3D facial images. The central chin area can be considered an additional reference area for posed smiles; however, special cautions should be taken when selecting this area as references for spontaneous smiles.

3.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e4-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967432

ABSTRACT

Background@#Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 )/forced vital capacity (FVC) naturally decreases with age; however, an excessive decline may be related with increased morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the FEV1 /FVC decline rate in the Korean general population and to identify whether rapid FEV1 /FVC decline is a risk factor for obstructive lung disease (OLD) and all-cause and respiratory mortality. @*Methods@#We evaluated individuals aged 40−69 years who underwent baseline and biannual follow-up spirometric assessments for up to 18 years, excluding those with airflow limitations at baseline. Based on the quartiles of the annual FEV1 /FVC decline rate, the most negative FEV1 /FVC change (1 st quartile of annual FEV1 /FVC decline rate) was classified as rapid FEV1 / FVC decline. We investigated the risk of progression to OLD and all-cause and respiratory mortality in individuals with rapid FEV1 /FVC decline. @*Results@#The annual FEV1 /FVC decline rate in the eligible 7,768 patients was 0.32 percentage point/year. The incidence rate of OLD was significantly higher in patients with rapid FEV1 / FVC decline than in those with non-rapid FEV1 /FVC decline (adjusted incidence rate, 2.119; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.932–2.324). Rapid FEV1 /FVC decline was an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard [HR], 1.374; 95% CI, 1.105–1.709) and respiratory mortality (adjusted HR, 1.353; 95% CI, 1.089–1.680). @*Conclusion@#The annual FEV1 /FVC decline rate was 0.32%p in the general population in Korea. The incidence rate of OLD and the hazards of all-cause and respiratory mortality were increased in rapid FEV1 /FVC decliners.

4.
Gut and Liver ; : 139-149, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966879

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#A relationship between fatty liver and lung function impairment has been identified, and both are independently associated with metabolic dysfunction. However, the temporal relationship between changes in fatty liver status and lung function and their genome-wide association remain unclear. @*Methods@#This longitudinal cohort consisted of subjects who received serial health check-ups, including liver ultrasonography and spirometry, for ≥3 years between 2003 and 2015. Lung func-tion decline rates were classified as “slow” and “accelerated” and compared among four different sonographic changes in steatosis status: “normal,” “improved,” “worsened,” and “persistent.” A genome-wide association study was conducted between the two groups: normal/improved steatosis with a slow decline in lung function versus worsened/persistent steatosis with an accelerated decline in lung function. @*Results@#Among 6,149 individuals, the annual rates of decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume measured in the first second of exhalation (FEV 1 ) were higher in the worsened/persistent steatosis group than in the normal/improved steatosis group. In multivariable analysis, persistent or worsened status of fatty liver was significantly associated with accelerated declines in FVC (persistent status, odds ratio [OR]=1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.04–1.44; worsened status, OR=1.30, 95% CI=1.12–1.50), while improved status of fatty liver was significantly associated with slow declines in FEV 1 (OR=0.77, 95% CI=0.64–0.92). The PNPLA3 risk gene was most strongly associated with steatosis status change and accelerated declines in FVC (rs12483959, p=2.61×10 -7 ) and FEV 1(rs2294433, p=3.69×10 -8 ). @*Conclusions@#Regression of fatty liver is related to lung function decline. Continuing efforts to improve fatty liver may preserve lung function, especially for subjects with a high genetic risk.

5.
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery ; : 71-81, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966734

ABSTRACT

Background@#Patella baja with patellar tendon shortening due to traumatic or ischemic injury is a widely known complication after primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Pseudo-patella baja may arise from the elevation of the joint line after excessive distal femoral resection. The maintenance of original patellar height is important in revision TKA because postoperative patella baja and pseudo-patella baja can cause inferior biomechanical and clinical results. We investigated the incidence and risk factors of patella baja and pseudo-patella baja after revision TKA. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed data for 180 revision TKAs. Patella baja was defined as a truly low-lying patella with an Insall-Salvati ratio (ISR) of < 0.8 and a Blackburne-Peel ratio (BPR) of < 0.54. Pseudo-patella baja was defined as a relatively lowlying patella compared to the joint line within the normal range of ISR and with a BPR of < 0.54. Clinically, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and range of motion (ROM) were evaluated. Risk factors increasing the incidence of patella baja and pseudo-patella baja after revision TKA were evaluated using multiple regression analysis. @*Results@#Before revision TKA, 169 knees did not exhibit patella baja or pseudo-patella baja, while 9 knees showed patella baja and 2 knees exhibited pseudo-patella baja. At 2 years after revision TKAs, 25 knees (13.9%) showed patella baja and 23 knees (12.8%) exhibited pseudo-patella baja. Despite no differences in the postoperative WOMAC score between groups with and without patella baja and pseudo-patella baja, the postoperative ROM was significantly smaller in the group with patella baja (113.3°) or pseudo patella baja (110.5°) than in the normal group (122.0°). Infection as the cause of revision TKA increased the risk of patella baja (odds ratio, 10.958; p < 0.001), and instability increased the risk of pseudo-patella baja (odds ratio, 11.480; p < 0.001). @*Conclusions@#Infection and instability resulted in increases in the incidence of patella baja and pseudo-patella baja after revision TKA. Information about the risk factors of patella baja and pseudo-patella baja will help TKA surgeons plan the height of the patella after revision TKA and improve clinical outcomes.

6.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 37-46, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919478

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although respiratory tract infection is one of the most important factors triggering acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD), limited data are available to suggest an epidemiologic pattern of microbiology in South Korea. @*Methods@#A multicenter observational study was conducted between January 2015 and December 2018 across 28 hospitals in South Korea. Adult patients with moderate-to-severe acute exacerbations of COPD were eligible to participate in the present study. The participants underwent all conventional tests to identify etiology of microbial pathogenesis. The primary outcome was the percentage of different microbiological pathogens causing AE-COPD. A comparative microbiological analysis of the patients with overlapping asthma–COPD (ACO) and pure COPD was performed. @*Results@#We included 1,186 patients with AE-COPD. Patients with pure COPD constituted 87.9% and those with ACO accounted for 12.1%. Nearly half of the patients used an inhaled corticosteroid-containing regimen and one-fifth used systemic corticosteroids. Respiratory pathogens were found in 55.3% of all such patients. Bacteria and viruses were detected in 33% and 33.2%, respectively. Bacterial and viral coinfections were found in 10.9%. The most frequently detected bacteria were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.8%), and the most frequently detected virus was influenza A (10.4%). Multiple bacterial infections were more likely to appear in ACO than in pure COPD (8.3% vs. 3.6%, p=0.016). @*Conclusion@#Distinct microbiological patterns were identified in patients with moderate-to-severe AE-COPD in South Korea. These findings may improve evidence-based management of patients with AE-COPD and represent the basis for further studies investigating infectious pathogens in patients with COPD.

7.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e206-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938038

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the association between Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination and nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD). Patients in the prospective NTM-PD cohort were matched to healthy controls to measure the association between BCG and NTM-PD development. The clinical course of NTM-PD patients was also evaluated to investigate the association between BCG and NTM-PD progression. BCG scars were not associated with NTM-PD development (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96–4.34) or progression (adjusted OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 0.92–2.81).In conclusion, BCG vaccination was not associated with the development or progression of NTM-PD.

8.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 653-659, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927019

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The study investigated the incidence of thromboembolic events (TEE) in head and neck (H&N) cancer patients who received concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) with cisplatin, and analyzed the factors affecting TEE occurrence @*Methods@#Two hundred and fifty-seven patients who started CCRT with cisplatin for H&N cancer from January 2005 to December 2019 were analyzed. @*Results@#TEE occurred in five patients, an incidence rate of 1.9%. The 2-, 4-, and 6-month cumulative incidences of TEE were 0.8%, 1.6%, and 1.9%, respectively. Khorana score was the only factor associated with TEE occurrence (p = 0.010). @*Conclusions@#The incidence of TEE in H&N cancer patients who underwent CCRT with cisplatin was relatively low when compared to other types of cancer. However, patients with a high Khorana score require more careful surveillance for possible TEE occurrence.

9.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 434-443, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926995

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The optimal treatment (Tx) for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with brain metastasis (BM) remains to be determined. @*Methods@#A retrospective review was conducted on 77 NSCLC patients with synchronous BM who underwent first-line EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) Tx. The outcomes of patients were analyzed according to the clinicopathological characteristics including local Tx modalities. @*Results@#Fifty-nine patients underwent local Tx for BM (gamma knife surgery [GKS], 37; whole brain radiotherapy [WBRT], 18; others, four) concurrently or sequentially with EGFR-TKI. Patients treated with TKI alone showed significantly lower incidence of central nervous system (CNS) symptoms. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) after the initiation of EGFR-TKI for all patients were 9 and 19 months, respectively. In 60 patients with follow-up brain imaging, the median time to CNS progression was 15 months. Patients with EGFR exon 19 deletion had a significantly longer median OS than those with other mutations including L858R (23 months vs. 17 months). Other clinical characteristics, including CNS symptoms, number of BM, and the use of local Tx were not associated with OS, as well as PFS. In terms of the local optimal Tx modality, no difference was found between GKS and WBRT in the OS and PFS. @*Conclusions@#This study suggests that EGFR-TKI may result in a favorable outcome in NSCLC patients with synchronous BM, especially in deletion 19 mutant, regardless of the extent of BM lesions or local Tx modalities. Patients with asymptomatic BM can be treated with EGFR-TKI and careful surveillance.

10.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1410-1419, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919173

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We assessed the diagnostic yield of chest computed tomography (CT) as an initial diagnostic method for patients with a tuberculosis (TB) infection detected by mass screening in a country with an intermediate TB burden. @*Methods@#A retrospective study was conducted on patients with TB infection detected by mass screening performed between January 2015 and March 2018. The patients were classified according to whether they had a chest X-ray (CXR) or CT scan as an initial diagnostic test to exclude active TB. @*Results@#Of 542 patients with TB infection detected by mass screening, 222 and 320 were initially examined by CXR and CT, respectively; the two modalities showed no significant difference in rate of detection of patients with active TB (0.9% and 2.5%, respectively; p = 0.110). However, chest CT was associated with further invasive tests using bronchoscopy and respiratory specimens, and significantly increased the frequency of hospital visits. @*Conclusions@#Chest CT was not supported as an initial diagnostic method to rule out active TB in patients with a TB infection detected by mass screening in a country with an intermediate TB burden.

11.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 944-949, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915586

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: The stability is an important factor to decide the treatment plan in thoracolumbar burst fracture patients. Patients with an unstable burst fracture generally need operative management. Decrease in vertebral body height, local kyphosis, involvement of posterior column, and/or canal compromise are considered important factors to determine the treatment plan. On the other hand, in thoracolumbar injury classification system (TLICS), surgery is recommended in patients with TLICS of more than 5 points. The purpose of this study was to apply the TLICS score in patients with thoracolumbar burst fractures and to distinguish the differences of treatment plan on burst fracture. @*Methods@#: All patients, diagnosed as a thoracolumbar burst fracture between January 2006 and February 2019 were included in this study. Unstable thoracolumbar burst fracture was defined as burst fracture with neurologic deficit, three-column injury, kyphosis over 30 degrees, decrease of anterior body height over 40 percent and canal comprise more than 50%. TLICS score was measured with morphology, neurological involvement and posterior ligamentous complex integrity. The existence of instability was compared with TLICS score. @*Results@#: Total 233 patients (131 men, 102 women) were included in this study. In Denis classification, 51 patients (21.9%) diagnosed as stable burst fracture while 182 patients (78.1%) had unstable burst fracture. According to TLICS, 72 patients (30.9%) scored less than 4, while 161 patients (69.1%) scored 4 or more. All the patients with stable burst fracture scored 2 in TLICS. Twenty-one patients (9.0) scored 2 in TLICS but diagnosed as unstable burst fracture. Thirteen patients had over 40% of vertebra body compression, four patients had more than 50% of canal compromise, three patients had both body compression over 40% and kyphosis over 30 degrees, one patients had both body compression and canal compromise. Fifteen patients presented kyphosis over 30 degrees, and three (20%) of them scored 2 in TLICS. Seventy-three patients presented vertebral body compression over 40% and 17 (23.3%) of them scored 2 in TLICS. Fifty-three patients presented spinal canal compromise more than 50%, and five (9.4%) of them scored 2 in TLICS. @*Conclusion@#: Although the instability of thoracolumbar burst fracture was regarded as a critical factor for operability, therapeutic strategies by TLICS do not exactly match with the concept of instability. According to the concept of TLICS, it should be reconsidered whether the unstable burst fracture truly unstable to do operation.

12.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 371-381, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875481

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), reportedly have anti-inflammatory effects. This study assessed the association of prior use of ACE inhibitors and ARBs with sepsis-related clinical outcomes. @*Methods@#A population-based observational study was conducted using the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service claims data. Among the adult patients hospitalized with new onset of sepsis in 2012, patients who took ARBs or ACE inhibitors at least 30 days prior to hospitalization were analyzed. Generalized linear models and logistic regression were used to examine the relation between the prior use of medication and clinical outcomes, such as in-hospital mortality, mechanical ventilation, and length of stay. @*Results@#Of a total of 27,628 patients who were hospitalized for sepsis, the ACE inhibitor, ARB, and non-user groups included 1,214 (4.4%), 3,951 (14.4%), and 22,463 (82.1%) patients, respectively. As the patients in the ACE inhibitor and ARB groups had several comorbid conditions, higher rates of intensive care unit admission, hemodialysis, and mechanical ventilation were observed. However, after covariate adjustment, the use of ACE inhibitor (odds ratio [OR], 0.752; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.661 to 0.855) or ARB (OR, 0.575; 95% CI, 0.532 to 0.621) was significantly associated with a lower rate of in-hospital mortality. @*Conclusions@#Pre-hospitalization use of ACE inhibitors or ARBs for sepsis was an independent factor for a lower rate of in-hospital mortality.

13.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1-10, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875438

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Although a majority of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases were characterized as mild, data assessing the development of pneumonia in mild COVID-19 patients are limited. We aimed to examine the effect of pneumonia development on the clinical course of mild COVID-19 in hospitalized patients. @*Methods@#A retrospective cohort study was conducted via medical record review between February 25, 2020 and April 11, 2020 at a single center. The impact of pneumonia development on the time to viral clearance in mild COVID-19 patients was evaluated. Risk factors associated with the development of pneumonia were also identified. @*Results@#Chest radiographs revealed the development of pneumonia in 26.8% of mild COVID-19 patients. The time to pneumonia development was a median of 8.0 days from the onset of symptoms and 3.5 days after hospital admission. A multivariate analysis for predicting pneumonia development identified age ≥ 65 years (odds ratio [OR], 3.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14 to 8.73), cough (OR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.29 to 3.68), dyspnea (OR, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.10 to 11.69), and diarrhea (OR, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.51 to 4.78) as significant variables. The time to negative conversion was longer in mild COVID-19 patients who developed pneumonia (23.6 days vs. 18.4 days, p = 0.003). In Kaplan–Meier estimation and multivariate Cox regression analyses, newly developed pneumonia was significantly related with delayed time to negative conversion (log-rank test, p = 0.02; hazard ratio, 2.90; 95% CI, 1.06 to 7.97). @*Conclusions@#The development of pneumonia delayed viral clearance in patients with mild COVID-19. Elderly patients or those suffering from diarrhea should be closely monitored, given the increased risk of developing pneumonia.

14.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 217-225, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896453

ABSTRACT

Background@#Despite the proven benefits of dexamethasone in hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, the optimum time for the administration of dexamethasone is unknown. We investigated the progression of COVID-19 pneumonia based on the timing of dexamethasone administration. @*Methods@#A single-center, retrospective cohort study based on medical record reviews was conducted between June 10 and September 21, 2020. We compared the risk of severe COVID-19, defined as the use of a high-flow nasal cannula or a mechanical ventilator, between groups that received dexamethasone either within 24 hours of hypoxemia (early dexamethasone group) or 24 hours after hypoxemia (late dexamethasone group). Hypoxemia was defined as room-air SpO2 <90%. @*Results@#Among 59 patients treated with dexamethasone for COVID-19 pneumonia, 30 were in the early dexamethasone group and 29 were in the late dexamethasone group. There was no significant difference in baseline characteristics, the time interval from symptom onset to diagnosis or hospitalization, or the use of antiviral or antibacterial agents between the two groups. The early dexamethasone group showed a significantly lower rate of severe COVID-19 compared to the control group (75.9% vs. 40.0%, p=0.012). Further, the early dexamethasone group showed a significantly shorter total duration of oxygen supplementation (10.45 days vs. 21.61 days, p=0.003) and length of stay in the hospital (19.76 days vs. 27.21 days, p=0.013). However, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and in-hospital mortality rates were not significantly different between the two groups. @*Conclusion@#Early administration of dexamethasone may prevent the progression of COVID-19 to a severe disease, without increased mortality.

15.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 217-225, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904157

ABSTRACT

Background@#Despite the proven benefits of dexamethasone in hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, the optimum time for the administration of dexamethasone is unknown. We investigated the progression of COVID-19 pneumonia based on the timing of dexamethasone administration. @*Methods@#A single-center, retrospective cohort study based on medical record reviews was conducted between June 10 and September 21, 2020. We compared the risk of severe COVID-19, defined as the use of a high-flow nasal cannula or a mechanical ventilator, between groups that received dexamethasone either within 24 hours of hypoxemia (early dexamethasone group) or 24 hours after hypoxemia (late dexamethasone group). Hypoxemia was defined as room-air SpO2 <90%. @*Results@#Among 59 patients treated with dexamethasone for COVID-19 pneumonia, 30 were in the early dexamethasone group and 29 were in the late dexamethasone group. There was no significant difference in baseline characteristics, the time interval from symptom onset to diagnosis or hospitalization, or the use of antiviral or antibacterial agents between the two groups. The early dexamethasone group showed a significantly lower rate of severe COVID-19 compared to the control group (75.9% vs. 40.0%, p=0.012). Further, the early dexamethasone group showed a significantly shorter total duration of oxygen supplementation (10.45 days vs. 21.61 days, p=0.003) and length of stay in the hospital (19.76 days vs. 27.21 days, p=0.013). However, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and in-hospital mortality rates were not significantly different between the two groups. @*Conclusion@#Early administration of dexamethasone may prevent the progression of COVID-19 to a severe disease, without increased mortality.

16.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 303-311, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837365

ABSTRACT

Background@#If the duration of mechanical ventilation (MV) is related with the intensive care unit (ICU) readmission must be clarified. The purpose of this study was to elucidate if prolonged MV duration increases ICU readmission rate. @*Methods@#The present observational cohort study analyzed national healthcare claims data from 2006 to 2015. Critically ill patients who received MV in the ICU were classified into five groups according to the MV duration: MV for <7 days, 7–13 days, 14–20 days, 21–27 days, and ≥28 days. The rate and risk of the ICU readmission were estimated according to the MV duration using the unadjusted and adjusted analyses. @*Results@#We found that 12,929 patients had at least one episode of MV in the ICU. There was a significant linear relationship between the MV duration and the ICU readmission (R2=0.85, p=0.025). The total readmission rate was significantly higher as the MV duration is prolonged (MV for <7 days, 13.9%; for 7–13 days, 16.7%; for 14–20 days, 19.4%; for 21–27 days, 20.4%; for ≥28 days, 35.7%; p<0.001). The analyses adjusted by covariables and weighted with the multinomial propensity scores showed similar results. In the adjusted regression analysis with a Cox proportional hazards model, the MV duration was significantly related to the ICU readmission (hazard ratio, 1.058 [95% confidence interval, 1.047–1.069], p<0.001). @*Conclusion@#The rate of readmission to the ICU was significantly higher in patients who received longer durations of the MV in the ICU. In the clinical setting, closer observation of patients discharged from the ICU after prolonged periods of MV is required.

17.
Gut and Liver ; : 248-256, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833135

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The natural history of spontaneous decrease in the size of pancreatic cystic lesions (PCLs) without high-risk stigmata is under investigation. This study aimed to investigate the timing of spontaneous decrease in the size of PCLs without high-risk stigmata and to identify the characteristics associated with their complete resolution. @*Methods@#From 2000 to 2016, patients with spontaneous decreases in PCL size on computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) who had at least 1 year of follow-up were evaluated retrospectively. @*Results@#A total of 78 patients underwent follow-up for an average of 55.7 months. Most patients were asymptomatic, and 35 (37.2%) showed complete resolution. The initial mean PCL size was 1.6±0.9 cm (range, 0.5 to 5.6 cm). The average time to initial decrease in size and complete resolution of PCLs were 32.1 and 41.5 months, respectively. Compared with PCLs that completely resolved, presence of underlying malignancy was associated with partial resolution of PCLs in multivariable analysis (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% confidence interval, 0.32 to 0.81; p=0.005). Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) identified detailed findings, especially the presence of septum (p<0.001), calcification (p=0.015) and lobulation (p=0.001) that were not found on CT/MRI. @*Conclusions@#Asymptomatic small PCLs without high-risk stigmata can naturally decrease in size at approximately 3 years, and complete resolution can be expected in the absence of underlying malignancy.Regular follow-up of approximately 3 years with EUS may be a reasonable and safe alternative when planning the initial treatment of small PCLs without high-risk stigmata.

18.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1411-1423, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831900

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Only a few epidemiologic studies on the patients with pulmonary disorders admitted to intensive care unit exist. We investigated the characteristics and clinical outcomes of the patients with severe pulmonary disorders. @*Methods@#The sample cohort database of National Health Insurance Sharing Service from 2006 to 2015 was used. Operational definition of critically ill patients was adults who were either admitted to intensive care unit for at least 3 days or expired within first 2 days in the unit. The pulmonary disorder group comprised of critically ill patients with respiratory disease as the main diagnosis. @*Results@#Among the 997,173 patients, 12,983 (1.3%) in 383 intensive care units were categorized as critically ill. Patients in the pulmonary disorder group tended to have more comorbidities or disabilities. The length of hospital stay and duration of mechanical ventilation were longer in the pulmonary disorder group. Overall mortality and re-admission were higher in the pulmonary disorder group, with adjusted incidence rate ratios of 1.22 (95% confidence interval, 1.18 to 1.27) and 1.26 (95% confidence interval, 1.17 to 1.36), respectively. After adjustment by Cox regression, the pulmonary disorder group was an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality. @*Conclusions@#In critically ill patients with pulmonary disorder, the use of healthcare resources was higher, and their clinical outcomes were significantly worse than the non-pulmonary disorder group.

19.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e297-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831539

ABSTRACT

Background@#There is limited information describing the presenting characteristics and dynamic clinical changes in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection diagnosed in the early phase of illness. This study is a case series of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) admitted to 11 hospitals in Korea. @*Methods@#Patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection by positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of respiratory specimens by active surveillance that were finally discharged between February 20 and April 30, 2020 were included. Patients were classified into mild and non-mild groups on initial admission according to oxygen demand and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, and the mild group was followed up and subgrouped into non-aggravation and aggravation groups. @*Results@#A total of 161 patients with SARS-CoV2 infection were enrolled. Among the mild group of 136 patients, 11.7% of patients experienced clinical aggravation during hospitalization, but there was no initial clinical parameter on admission predicting their aggravation. Fever (odds ratio [OR], 4.56), thrombocytopenia (OR, 12.87), fever (OR, 27.22) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) > 300 U/L (OR, 18.35), and CRP > 1 mg/dL (OR, 11.31) significantly indicated aggravation in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th 5-day periods, respectively.PCR positivity lasted for a median of 22 days and 32 days after the onset of illness in the nonaggravation and aggravation groups, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Old age was associated with early severe presentation. Clinical aggravation among asymptomatic or mild patients could not be predicted initially but was heralded by fever and several laboratory markers during the clinical course.

20.
Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons ; : 385-392, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893010

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study evaluates soft tissue changes of the upper lip and nose after maxillary setback with orthognathic surgery such as Le Fort I or anterior segmental osteotomy. @*Materials and Methods@#All 50 patients with bimaxillary protrusion and skeletal Class II malocclusion underwent Le Fort I or anterior segmental osteotomy with backward movement. Soft and hard tissue changes were analyzed using cephalograms collected preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively. @*Results@#Cluster analysis on the ratios shows that 2 lines intersected at 4 mm point. Based on this point, we divided the subjects into 2 groups: Group A (less than 4 mm, 27 subjects) and Group B (more than 4 mm, 23 subjects). Also, each group was divided according to changes of upper incisor angle (≥4°=A1, B1 or <4°=A2, B2). The correlation between A and B groups for Aʼ/ANS and Ls/Is (P<0.001) was significant; Aʼ/A (P=0.002), PRN/A (P=0.043), PRN/ANS (P=0.032), and St/Is (P=0.010). Variation of nasolabial angle between the two groups was not significant. There was no significant correlation of vertical movement and angle variation. @*Conclusion@#The ratio of soft tissue to hard tissue movement depends on the amount of posterior movement in the maxilla, showing approximately two times higher rates in most of the midface when posterior movement was greater than 4 mm. The soft tissue changes caused by posterior movement of the maxilla were little affected by angular changes of upper incisors. Interestingly, nasolabial angle showed a different tendency between A and B groups and was more affected by incisal angular changes when horizontal posterior movement was less than 4 mm.

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