Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 229
Filter
1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918626

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#Aster yomena (Kitam.) Honda (AY) has remarkable bioactivities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and anti-cancer activities. On the other hand, the effects of AY against obesity-induced insulin resistance have not been reported. Therefore, this study examined the potential of AY against obesity-associated insulin resistance in highfat diet (HFD)-fed mice.MATERIALS/METHODS: An obesity model was established by feeding C57BL/6J mice a 60% HFD for 16 weeks. The C57BL6/When ethyl acetate fraction from AY (EFAY) at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day was administered orally to mice fed a HFD for the last 4 weeks. Normal and control groups were administered water orally. The body weight and fasting blood glucose were measured every week. Dietary intake was measured every other day. After dissection, blood and tissues were collected from the mice. @*RESULTS@#The administration of EFAY reduced body and organ weights significantly compared to HFD-fed control mice. The EFAY-administered groups also improved the serum lipid profile by decreasing the triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein compared to the control group. In addition, EFAY ameliorated the insulin resistance-related metabolic dysfunctions, including the fasting blood glucose and serum insulin level, compared to the HFD-fed control mice. The EFAY inhibited lipid synthesis and insulin resistance by down-regulation of hepatic fatty acid synthase and up-regulation of the AMPactivated protein kinase pathway. EFAY also reduced lipid peroxidation in the liver, indicating that EFAY protected hepatic injury induced by obesity. @*CONCLUSIONS@#These results suggest that EFAY improved obesity-associated insulin resistance by regulating the lipid and glucose metabolism, suggesting that AY could be used as a functional food to prevent obesity and insulin resistance.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915751

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a clinically heterogeneous syndrome characterized by compromised peristalsis and intestinal obstruction. Variants of actin gamma 2 (ACTG2), a protein crucial for correct enteric muscle contraction, have been found in CIPO patients. The aim of this study is to examine the clinical features and ACTG2 variants in Korean patients with CIPO. @*Methods@#From January 1995 to August 2020, 12 patients diagnosed with CIPO were included and genetic analysis testing of ACTG2 was performed. @*Results@#Heterozygous ACTG2 missense variants were found in 6 patients (50.0%). The p.Arg257Cys variant was found in 3 patients, and p.Arg63Gln and p.Arg178His variants were found in 1 patient each. A novel variant, p.Ile193Phe, was found in 1 patient. Three patients were diagnosed at birth, 2 at the age of 1 year, and 1 at 3 years of age. Abnormal prenatal genitourinary ultrasonographic findings were found in all 6 patients; microcolon was found in 4 patients (66.7%), and megacystis in all 6 patients. The pathology showed abnormal ganglion cells as well as myopathic findings. All patients are dependent on total parenteral nutrition and are to date alive. @*Conclusions@#ACTG2 variants are commonly found in Korean patients with CIPO. In CIPO patients with megacystis and abnormal prenatal ultrasonography, genetic testing of ACTG2 should be considered. Molecular diagnosis of CIPO is more important than pathologic diagnosis.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902857

ABSTRACT

RESULTS@#In behavioral tests, deterioration was revealed in the short- and long-term learning and memory functions in the Aβ25-35 -injected control group compared to the normal group, indicating that Aβ25-35 injection impairs cognitive functions. However, administration of Zj and Zj-Y improved cognitive function in mice, as compared to the Aβ25-35 -injected control mice. In addition, the Aβ25-35 induced elevations of MDA and NO in the brain, kidney, and liver were suppressed after exposure to Zj and Zj-Y. Especially, Zj-Y showed stronger scavenging effect against MDA and NO, as compared to Zj. @*CONCLUSIONS@#Results of the present study indicate that Zj-Y exerts a protective effect on cognitive impairment and memory dysfunction, which is exerted by attenuating the oxidative stress induced by Aβ25-35 .

4.
Journal of Stroke ; : 420-436, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900657

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Previous studies have revealed the diverse neuroprotective effects of GV1001. In this study, we investigated the effects of GV1001 on focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in rats and oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R)-induced injury in neural stem cells (NSCs) and cortical neurons. @*Methods@#Focal cerebral IRI was induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Brain diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed 2 hours after occlusion, and a total of 37 rats were treated by reperfusion with GV1001 or saline 2 hours after occlusion. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging, immunohistochemistry, and neurobehavioral function analyses were performed. Additionally, OGD/R-injured NSCs and cortical neurons were treated with different GV1001 concentrations. Cell viability, proliferation, migration, and oxidative stress were determined by diverse molecular analyses. @*Results@#In the stroke model, GV1001 protected neural cells against IRI. The most effective dose of GV1001 was 60 μM/kg. The infarct volume on FLAIR 48 hours after MCAO compared to lesion volume on DWI showed a significantly smaller ratio in the GV1001-treated group. GV1001-treated rats exhibited better behavioral functions than the saline-treated rats. Treatment with GV1001 increased the viability, proliferation, and migration of the OGD/R-injured NSCs. Free radicals were significantly restored by treatment with GV1001. These neuroprotective effects of GV1001 have also been demonstrated in OGD/R-injured cortical neurons. Conclusions The results suggest that GV1001 has neuroprotective effects against IRI in NSCs, cortical neurons, and the rat brain. These effects are mediated through the induction of cellular proliferation, mitochondrial stabilization, and anti-apoptotic, anti-aging, and antioxidant effects.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898717

ABSTRACT

Periodontitis and periimplantitis are caused as a result of dental biofilm formation. This biofilm is composed of multiple species of pathogens. Therefore, controlling biofilm formation is critical for disease prevention. To inhibit biofilm formation, sugars can be used to interrupt lectin-involving interactions between bacteria or between bacteria and a host. In this study, we evaluated the effect of D-Arabinose on biofilm formation of putative periodontal pathogens as well as the quorum sensing activity and whole protein profiles of the pathogens. Crystal violet staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy revealed that D-Arabinose inhibited biofilm formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Tannerella forsythia. D-Arabinose also significantly inhibited the activity of autoinducer 2 of F. nucleatum and the expression of representative bacterial virulence genes.Furthermore, D-Arabinose treatment altered the expression of some bacterial proteins. These results demonstrate that D-Arabinose can be used as an antibiofilm agent for the prevention of periodontal infections.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895153

ABSTRACT

RESULTS@#In behavioral tests, deterioration was revealed in the short- and long-term learning and memory functions in the Aβ25-35 -injected control group compared to the normal group, indicating that Aβ25-35 injection impairs cognitive functions. However, administration of Zj and Zj-Y improved cognitive function in mice, as compared to the Aβ25-35 -injected control mice. In addition, the Aβ25-35 induced elevations of MDA and NO in the brain, kidney, and liver were suppressed after exposure to Zj and Zj-Y. Especially, Zj-Y showed stronger scavenging effect against MDA and NO, as compared to Zj. @*CONCLUSIONS@#Results of the present study indicate that Zj-Y exerts a protective effect on cognitive impairment and memory dysfunction, which is exerted by attenuating the oxidative stress induced by Aβ25-35 .

7.
Journal of Stroke ; : 420-436, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892953

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Previous studies have revealed the diverse neuroprotective effects of GV1001. In this study, we investigated the effects of GV1001 on focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in rats and oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R)-induced injury in neural stem cells (NSCs) and cortical neurons. @*Methods@#Focal cerebral IRI was induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Brain diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed 2 hours after occlusion, and a total of 37 rats were treated by reperfusion with GV1001 or saline 2 hours after occlusion. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging, immunohistochemistry, and neurobehavioral function analyses were performed. Additionally, OGD/R-injured NSCs and cortical neurons were treated with different GV1001 concentrations. Cell viability, proliferation, migration, and oxidative stress were determined by diverse molecular analyses. @*Results@#In the stroke model, GV1001 protected neural cells against IRI. The most effective dose of GV1001 was 60 μM/kg. The infarct volume on FLAIR 48 hours after MCAO compared to lesion volume on DWI showed a significantly smaller ratio in the GV1001-treated group. GV1001-treated rats exhibited better behavioral functions than the saline-treated rats. Treatment with GV1001 increased the viability, proliferation, and migration of the OGD/R-injured NSCs. Free radicals were significantly restored by treatment with GV1001. These neuroprotective effects of GV1001 have also been demonstrated in OGD/R-injured cortical neurons. Conclusions The results suggest that GV1001 has neuroprotective effects against IRI in NSCs, cortical neurons, and the rat brain. These effects are mediated through the induction of cellular proliferation, mitochondrial stabilization, and anti-apoptotic, anti-aging, and antioxidant effects.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891013

ABSTRACT

Periodontitis and periimplantitis are caused as a result of dental biofilm formation. This biofilm is composed of multiple species of pathogens. Therefore, controlling biofilm formation is critical for disease prevention. To inhibit biofilm formation, sugars can be used to interrupt lectin-involving interactions between bacteria or between bacteria and a host. In this study, we evaluated the effect of D-Arabinose on biofilm formation of putative periodontal pathogens as well as the quorum sensing activity and whole protein profiles of the pathogens. Crystal violet staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy revealed that D-Arabinose inhibited biofilm formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Tannerella forsythia. D-Arabinose also significantly inhibited the activity of autoinducer 2 of F. nucleatum and the expression of representative bacterial virulence genes.Furthermore, D-Arabinose treatment altered the expression of some bacterial proteins. These results demonstrate that D-Arabinose can be used as an antibiofilm agent for the prevention of periodontal infections.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913510

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The incidence of choledochal cyst (CC) with protein plugs is between 15.5%–40.4%. However, studies on CCs with protein plugs in children are limited. We aimed to analyze the clinical features, surgical findings, and complications of pediatric CCs with and without protein plugs. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed 390 patients who underwent surgery for CCs between January 1987 and September 2017. The patients were divided into 2 groups: groups A (CC with protein plugs) and B (CC without protein plugs). The presence of protein plugs was evaluated using preoperative images or identified during surgery. @*Results@#One hundred forty-two (36.4%) patients had protein plugs in the pancreaticobiliary duct. The most common initial clinical presentation was abdominal pain, and its incidence was significantly higher in group A (66.2%) than in group B (54.8%) (P = 0.032). The incidence of accompanying pancreatitis was also significantly higher in group A (37.3% vs. 27.0%) (P = 0.040). Anomalous pancreaticobiliary ductal union (APBDU) was found in 261 patients (66.9%) and its incidence was significantly higher in group A (74.6% vs. 62.5%) (P = 0.014). Most protein plugs were found in the cyst (88.0%) and common channel (31.7%).The incidence of early complications was higher in group A; conversely, that of late complications did not differ. @*Conclusion@#Approximately 36.4% of the pediatric CC patients were accompanied by protein plugs. Abdominal pain, pancreatitis, and APBDU were more commonly observed among those with protein plugs than among those without; longterm complications did not differ between them.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874218

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Cyst excision with hepaticojejunostomy has been the classic procedure for treating choledochal cysts, and the use of laparoscopic treatment has been favored recently. The purpose of this study was to compare the long-term biliary complication of laparoscopic operation with open surgery for choledochal cyst presenting in children. @*Methods@#A retrospective study comparing the laparoscopic and open procedures was performed in 185 patients with choledochal cyst in a single children’s hospital. There were 109 patients who were operated with open surgery, and 76 patients operated with laparoscopic surgery. The primary outcome was long-term biliary complications and the secondary outcome included operative time, intraoperative transfusion, length of hospital stay, and other late postoperative complications. @*Results@#In the patient’s demographics, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups. Notably, it was shown that the operative time was longer in the laparoscopic group. The number of patients requiring blood transfusion intraoperatively was lower in the laparoscopic group. It was noted that the hospital stay was not statistically different. The duration to resumption of diet and duration of drainage were longer in the laparoscopic group. Biliary complications were shown to be significantly higher in the open group. The risk factor for long-term biliary complications was noted with the intraoperative transfusion. @*Conclusion@#The use of a laparoscopic choledochal cyst excision with hepaticojejunostomy is a safe and feasible technique in a young patient. The long-term biliary complication was lower compared to open surgery, rendering this a good option for pediatric patients.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899705

ABSTRACT

Background@#Fifty to sixty percent of patients with anorectal malformation (ARM) have at least one associated anomaly (AA). We determined the incidence of AA with the subtypes of ARM classified in accordance with the Krickenbeck classification and analyzed differences in the incidence rates of major and minor AAs according to organ system. @*Methods@#From January 1999 to May 2017, we retrospectively analyzed congenital anomalies in patients who underwent an anoplasty for ARM at our institution. The AAs were divided into nine organ systems. To analyze the difference in the incidence of AAs, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) using cases of perineal fistula as the base group. @*Results@#Of the 460 patients, 256 (55.7%) were male, 299 (65%) had at least one anomaly, and 274 (59.6%) had major AAs. According to organ system, AAs were most common in the genitourinary (28%), cardiovascular (25%), and spinal/vertebral systems (22.6%). Major AA was most common in the cardiovascular (23%) and spinal/vertebral and genitourinary systems (19.3%). According to ARM subtype, AAs were common in the order of cloaca (93.9%), rectovaginal fistula (85.7%), and recto-bladder neck fistula (85%). For the incidence of AAs, cloaca (OR, 15.7) and recto-bladder neck fistula (OR, 5.74) showed significantly higher ORs. In the analysis of major AAs, the cloaca (OR, 19.77) showed the highest OR, followed by no fistula (OR, 4.78) and recto-bladder neck fistula (OR, 3.83). @*Conclusion@#A considerable number of patients with ARM had AAs. Our data are useful for predicting AAs in patients with ARM.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892001

ABSTRACT

Background@#Fifty to sixty percent of patients with anorectal malformation (ARM) have at least one associated anomaly (AA). We determined the incidence of AA with the subtypes of ARM classified in accordance with the Krickenbeck classification and analyzed differences in the incidence rates of major and minor AAs according to organ system. @*Methods@#From January 1999 to May 2017, we retrospectively analyzed congenital anomalies in patients who underwent an anoplasty for ARM at our institution. The AAs were divided into nine organ systems. To analyze the difference in the incidence of AAs, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) using cases of perineal fistula as the base group. @*Results@#Of the 460 patients, 256 (55.7%) were male, 299 (65%) had at least one anomaly, and 274 (59.6%) had major AAs. According to organ system, AAs were most common in the genitourinary (28%), cardiovascular (25%), and spinal/vertebral systems (22.6%). Major AA was most common in the cardiovascular (23%) and spinal/vertebral and genitourinary systems (19.3%). According to ARM subtype, AAs were common in the order of cloaca (93.9%), rectovaginal fistula (85.7%), and recto-bladder neck fistula (85%). For the incidence of AAs, cloaca (OR, 15.7) and recto-bladder neck fistula (OR, 5.74) showed significantly higher ORs. In the analysis of major AAs, the cloaca (OR, 19.77) showed the highest OR, followed by no fistula (OR, 4.78) and recto-bladder neck fistula (OR, 3.83). @*Conclusion@#A considerable number of patients with ARM had AAs. Our data are useful for predicting AAs in patients with ARM.

13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835779

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Duodenal atresia (DA) and atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) are well known ultrasonographic findings associated with Down syndrome. The risk of Down syndrome in fetuses with these anomalies has been reported as 30% to 40%. However, on the basis of our clinical experience, the risk of Down syndrome of DA may be lower in Korean population. To clarify this issue, we compared the risk of Down syndrome between cases with DA and AVSD. @*Materials and Methods@#The study population consisted of neonates who were confirmed as DA or AVSD by postnatal diagnosis. Postnatal diagnosis was made by surgery, postnatal echocardiography, or autopsy. Medical record was reviewed retrospectively. @*Results@#A total of 213 neonates with DA or AVSD were included: 67 cases with DA and 146 cases with AVSD. The risk of Down syndrome was 4.5% (3/67) in DA vs. 29.5% (43/146) in AVSD. When confining analysis to those whose karyotyping were not performed during antenatal period, the risk of Down syndrome were 7.9% (3/38) in DA and 35.4% (35/99) in AVSD. @*Conclusion@#The risk of Down syndrome in cases with DA was much lower in Korean population than previously reported risk in the literature. The significance of some antenatal sonographic markers for Down syndrome may be different according to ethnicity.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835085

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#Alzheimer's disease is common age-related neurodegenerative condition characterized by amyloid beta (Aβ) accumulation that leads cognitive impairment.In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of paeoniflorin (PF) against Aβ-induced neuroinflammation and the underlying mechanism in C6 glial cells.MATERIALS/METHODS: C6 glial cells were treated with PF and Aβ25–35, and cell viability, nitric oxide (NO) production, and pro-inflammatory cytokine release were measured. Furthermore, the mechanism underlying the effect of PF on inflammatory responses and Aβ degradation was determined by Western blot. @*RESULTS@#Aβ25–35 significantly reduced cell viability, but this reduction was prevented by the pretreatment with PF. In addition, PF significantly inhibited Aβ25–35 -induced NO production in C6 glial cells. The secretion of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha was also significantly reduced by PF. Further mechanistic studies indicated that PF suppressed the production of these pro-inflammatory cytokines by regulating the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. The protein levels of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 were downregulated and phosphorylation of NF-κB was blocked by PF. However, PF elevated the protein expression of inhibitor kappa B-alpha and those of Aβ degrading enzymes, insulin degrading enzyme and neprilysin. @*CONCLUSIONS@#These findings indicate that PF exerts protective effects against Aβ-mediated neuroinflammation by inhibiting NF-κB signaling, and these effects were associated with the enhanced activity of Aβ degradation enzymes.

15.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833669

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose: The incidence of ischemic stroke (IS) in young adults is increasing, and the associated large socioeconomic impact makes understanding IS in young adults important. We investigated the causes of and risk factors for IS in young adults, and their impact on outcomes. @*Methods@#The Stroke in Korean Young Adults (SKY) study is a standardized multicenter prospective study involving eight medical centers of the Republic of Korea. First-ever IS patients aged 18 years to 44 years were prospectively included in this study within 7 days of stroke onset.Their outcomes at 3 months were analyzed. @*Results@#This study enrolled 270 patients from April 2014 to December 2018, most (67.8%) of whom were male. About 41.5% of the patients had one or more vascular risk factors from among hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. However, only half of them had received regular treatment. Arterial dissection was more common in males, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Moyamoya disease were more common in females. The outcome was favorable (modified Rankin Scale score of 0 or 1) in 81.9% of the patients at 3 months after stroke onset. More severe initial symptoms, higher initial glucose level, and SLE as a comorbidity were associated with unfavorable outcomes. @*Conclusions@#Young adult IS patients in Korea exhibit low awareness and poor management of their risk factors. Although the short-term outcome was relatively favorable in those patients, having SLE was associated with unfavorable outcomes. More attention needs to be paid for improving awareness and controlling risk factors in this population.

16.
Gut and Liver ; : 439-449, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833127

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The utility of serum pepsinogen (sPG) I and the sPGI/II ratio as biomarkers for screening individuals with gastric cancer (GC) has not been established in Korea. The aim of this study was to define the role of sPG, especially sPGII, in GC screening. @*Methods@#This study enrolled 2,940 subjects, including patients with GC (n=1,124) or gastric dysplasia (n=353) and controls (n=1,463). Tests to determine sPG levels and Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection status were performed. Area under the curve and receiver operating characteristic curve were calculated to identify the optimal cutoff values for sPG. The usefulness of sPG levels for the detection of GC and gastric dysplasia was validated by multivariate logistic regression. @*Results@#The sPGI/II ratio was associated with the risk of gastric dysplasia and advanced-stage intestinal-type GC (IGC). In contrast, sPGII was associated with the risk of early-stage diffuse-type GC (DGC). Significantly higher risk was indicated by an sPGI/II ratio <3 for gastric dysplasia and advanced-stage IGC and by sPGII levels ≥20 µg/L for early-stage DGC. Positive HP status showed a stronger association with DGC than with IGC. When sPGII level and HP status were combined, the prevalence of DGC was higher in the ≥20 µg/L sPGII and HP-positive group. Age younger than 40 years was strongly related to early-stage DGC, especially in females (odds ratio, 21.00; p=0.006). @*Conclusions@#sPGII ≥20 ng/mL and positive HP status suggest a risk of early-stage DGC, particularly in young adult females in South Korea.

17.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831082

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Adenocarcinoma is an extremely rare malignancy in the pediatric population. Research regarding pediatric adenocarcinoma is very rare in Korea. This study aimed to investigate the clinical features of pediatric adenocarcinomas of various primary organ sites in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#Pediatric patients under 18 years, diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of various sites between January 1995 and December 2016, were included. We retrospectively reviewed patient and tumor characteristics and calculated survival estimates, reported as 5-year survival rate and 95% confidence interval. @*Results@#Of 80 patients (median age, 15 years; range, 10 to 17 years), 37 (46.3%) were men, and 24 (30%) had a family history of cancer or underlying disease relevant to malignancy. The cancer locations were the colon and rectum (n=32), ovaries (n=18), stomach (n=15), lung (n=4), small bowel (n=1), and other sites (n=10). Totally, 54.8% patients (42/77) had stage 3 or 4 disease. The median follow-up period was 2.0 years (range, 0 to 20.4). The 5-year overall survival estimate for all patients, and for those with stomach, colorectal, ovarian, and other cancer sites were 57.9%±11.5%, 58.2%±25.7%, 41.5%±18.2%, 87.5%±16.2%, and 64.0%±34.4%, respectively. The 5-year survival rate differed significantly between categories of adenocarcinomas into gastrointestinal (GI) (44.7%) and non-GI adenocarcinomas (78.8%) (p=0.007). The 5-year survival rate also differed significantly according to carcinoembryonic antigen level (69.3% in 3 ng/mL; p < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#In pediatric patients, adenocarcinomas arise from various organs and are often diagnosed at advanced stages. Large, prospective studies for their accurate clinical characteristics and prognostic factors are needed.

19.
Immune Network ; : e9-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740219

ABSTRACT

Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive pathogen, can cause severe inflammation in humans, leading to various life-threatening diseases. The lipoprotein is a major virulence factor in S. aureus-induced infectious diseases and is responsible for excessive inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO). Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) including butyrate, propionate, and acetate are microbial metabolites in the gut that are known to have anti-inflammatory effects in the host. In this study, we investigated the effects of SCFAs on S. aureus lipoprotein (Sa.LPP)-induced NO production in mouse macrophages. Butyrate and propionate, but not acetate, inhibited Sa.LPP-induced production of NO in RAW 264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages. Butyrate and propionate inhibited Sa.LPP-induced expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS). However, acetate did not show such effects under the same conditions. Furthermore, butyrate and propionate, but not acetate, inhibited Sa.LPP-induced activation of NF-κB, expression of IFN-β, and phosphorylation of STAT1, which are essential for inducing transcription of iNOS in macrophages. In addition, butyrate and propionate induced histone acetylation at lysine residues in the presence of Sa.LPP in RAW 264.7 cells. Moreover, Sa.LPP-induced NO production was decreased by histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Collectively, these results suggest that butyrate and propionate ameliorate the inflammatory responses caused by S. aureus through the inhibition of NF-κB, IFN-β/STAT1, and HDAC, resulting in attenuated NO production in macrophages.


Subject(s)
Acetylation , Animals , Butyrates , Communicable Diseases , Diethylpropion , Fatty Acids, Volatile , Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors , Histone Deacetylases , Histones , Humans , Inflammation , Lipoproteins , Lysine , Macrophages , Mice , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Nitric Oxide , Phosphorylation , Staphylococcus aureus , Virulence
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739110

ABSTRACT

Red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization varies across human populations and ethnic groups. We evaluated the characteristics of RBC alloimmunization and compared the risk of alloimmunization in Korean patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and liver cirrhosis (LC), two representative diseases in which chronic transfusion is required. In total, 115 MDS patients and 202 LC patients transfused with RBCs between 2013 and 2015 were retrospectively included. Twenty patients (6.3%) were newly alloimmunized (five MDS patients, 4.3%; 15 LC patients, 7.4%). The median number of RBC units transfused in alloimmunized patients was nine (interquartile range, 4–15 units). As the number of transfused RBC units increased, the cumulative risk of alloimmunization was higher in LC than in MDS patients (P=0.001). The most common alloantibody detected in patients was anti-E (45%), followed by anti-c (17%), anti-e (10%), anti-C (7%), anti-Fyb (7%), and anti-Jka (7%). The present data indicate the need for matching of extended RBC antigens (Rh, Duffy, and Kidd systems) for chronically transfused patients with MDS and LC in Korea.


Subject(s)
Erythrocytes , Ethnic Groups , Humans , Korea , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Retrospective Studies
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL