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1.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 761-771, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002391

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the association among the electrode placement method, electrode type, and local tumor progression (LTP) following percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for small hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and to assess the risk factors for LTP. @*Materials and Methods@#In this retrospective study, we enrolled 211 patients, including 150 males and 61 females, who had undergone ultrasound-guided RFA for a single HCC < 3 cm. Patients were divided into four combination groups of the electrode type and placement method: 1) tumor-puncturing with an internally cooled tip (ICT), 2) tumor-puncturing with an internally cooled wet tip (ICWT), 3) no-touch with ICT, and 4) no-touch with ICWT. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression analyses were performed to evaluate the risk factors for LTP. The major RFA-related complications were assessed. @*Results@#Overall, 83, 34, 80, and 14 patients were included in the ICT, ICWT, no-touch with ICT, and no-touch with ICWT groups, respectively. The cumulative LTP rates differed significantly among the four groups. Compared to tumor puncturing with ICT, tumor puncturing with ICWT was associated with a lower LTP risk (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0–0.88, P = 0.034). However, the cumulative LTP rate did not differ significantly between tumorpuncturing with ICT and no-touch RFA with ICT (aHR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.03–1.62, P = 0.188) or ICWT (aHR = 0.28, 95% CI = 0–2.28, P = 0.294). An insufficient ablative margin was a risk factor for LTP (aHR = 6.13, 95% CI = 1.41–22.49, P = 0.019). The major complication rates were 1.2%, 0%, 2.5%, and 21.4% in the ICT, ICWT, no-touch with ICT, and no-touch with ICWT groups, respectively. @*Conclusion@#ICWT was associated with a lower LTP rate compared to ICT when performing tumor-puncturing RFA. An insufficient ablation margin was a risk factor for LTP.

2.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 241-261, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001326

ABSTRACT

Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) was introduced in 1977 with the administration of chemotherapeutic agent to gelatin sponge particles through the hepatic artery in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and was established as conventional TACE using Lipiodol in the 1980s. In the 2000s, drug-eluting beads were developed and applied clinically. Currently, TACE is a commonly used non-surgical treatment modality for patients with HCC who are unsuitable for curative treatment. Considering the vital role of TACE in the management of HCC, it is crucial to organize current knowledge and expert opinions regarding patient preparation, procedural techniques, and post-treatment care in TACE, which can enhance therapeutic efficacy and safety. A group of 12 experts in the fields of interventional radiology and hepatology, convened by the Research Committee of the Korean Liver Cancer Association (KLCA), has developed expert consensus-based practical recommendations in TACE. These recommendations have been endorsed by the Korean Society of Interventional Radiology and provide useful information and direction in performing TACE procedure as well as pre- and post- procedural patient care.

3.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 362-376, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001319

ABSTRACT

Background@#/Aim: Despite the increasing proportion of elderly patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) over time, treatment efficacy in this population is not well established. @*Methods@#Data collected from the Korean Primary Liver Cancer Registry, a representative cohort of patients newly diagnosed with HCC in Korea between 2008 and 2017, were analyzed. Overall survival (OS) according to tumor stage and treatment modality was compared between elderly and non-elderly patients with HCC. @*Results@#Among 15,186 study patients, 5,829 (38.4%) were elderly. A larger proportion of elderly patients did not receive any treatment for HCC than non-elderly patients (25.2% vs. 16.7%). However, OS was significantly better in elderly patients who received treatment compared to those who did not (median, 38.6 vs. 22.3 months; P0.05). After IPTW, in intermediate-stage HCC, surgery (median, 66.0 vs. 90.3 months) and transarterial therapy (median, 36.5 vs. 37.2 months), and in advanced-stage HCC, transarterial (median, 25.3 vs. 26.3 months) and systemic therapy (median, 25.3 vs. 26.3 months) yielded comparable OS between the elderly and non-elderly HCC patients (all P>0.05). @*Conclusions@#Personalized treatments tailored to individual patients can improve the prognosis of elderly patients with HCC to a level comparable to that of non-elderly patients.

4.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 521-541, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999969

ABSTRACT

Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) was introduced in 1977 with the administration of chemotherapeutic agent to gelatin sponge particles through the hepatic artery in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and was established as conventional TACE using Lipiodol in the 1980s. In the 2000s, drug-eluting beads were developed and applied clinically. Currently, TACE is a commonly used non-surgical treatment modality for patients with HCC who are unsuitable for curative treatment. Considering the vital role of TACE in the management of HCC, it is crucial to organize current knowledge and expert opinions regarding patient preparation, procedural techniques, and post-treatment care in TACE, which can enhance therapeutic efficacy and safety. A group of 12 experts in the fields of interventional radiology and hepatology, convened by the Research Committee of the Korean Liver Cancer Association (KLCA), has developed expert consensus-based practical recommendations in TACE. These recommendations have been endorsed by the Korean Society of Interventional Radiology and provide useful information and direction in performing TACE procedure as well as pre- and post- procedural patient care.

5.
Ultrasonography ; : 41-53, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969257

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to assess the incidence of and factors associated with major complications, delayed discharge, and emergency room (ER) visits or readmission after percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for single hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) <3 cm in a recent cohort at a tertiary cancer center. @*Methods@#A total of 188 patients with treatment-naïve single HCCs <3 cm who underwent RFA between January 2018 and April 2021 were included in the analysis. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the factors associated with major complications, delayed discharge, and ER visits or readmission. Local tumor progression (LTP) and overall survival were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis. @*Results@#Major complications occurred in 3.2% (6/188) of the patients. The longest diameter of the ablation zone was significantly larger in patients with major complications (P=0.023). Delayed discharge occurred in 5.8% (9/188) of the patients, for which albumin-bilirubin grade 3 was identified as an important determinant. No variables other than major complications were significantly associated with ER visits or readmission, which occurred in 7.0% (13/188) of the patients. Major complications, delayed discharge, and ER visits or readmission were not substantially related to the post-treatment outcomes of LTP and overall survival. @*Conclusion@#This study confirmed RFA as a highly safe procedure for single HCCs <3 cm, despite the rapidly changing RFA techniques in the most recent cohort. A large ablation zone and poor liver function were predictors of major complications and delayed discharge, respectively.

6.
Ultrasonography ; : 189-197, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919557

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and causes of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) infeasibility in cases of metastatic colorectal cancer and to evaluate factors affecting the invisibility of the tumor on planning ultrasonography (US). @*Methods@#This study screened 386 patients who underwent planning US using fusion imaging and/or contrast-enhanced US for percutaneous RFA for suspected metastatic colorectal cancer between January 2013 and December 2020, from whom 136 patients with a single hepatic metastasis from colorectal cancer measuring <3 cm were included. The factors related to the infeasibility of percutaneous RFA were investigated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the factors associated with tumor invisibility on planning US. @*Results@#Among the 136 patients, percutaneous RFA was considered infeasible in 24.3% (33/136) due to a high risk of the heat-sink effect caused by the abutment of a large vessel (n=12), an inconspicuous tumor on planning US (n=11), a high risk of collateral thermal damage to an adjacent organ (n=8), and the absence of a safe electrode path (n=2). In univariate and multivariate analyses, tumor size was a statistically significant factor affecting invisibility on planning US (P=0.003 and P=0.018, respectively). @*Conclusion@#Percutaneous RFA was infeasible in approximately one-fourth of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. The reason for the infeasibility was mainly an unfavorable tumor location and invisibility on planning US. Small tumor size was the sole significant factor affecting the invisibility of hepatic metastases on planning US.

7.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 42-51, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918240

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to investigate the direction of tissue contraction after microwave ablation in ex vivo bovine liver models. @*Materials and Methods@#Ablation procedures were conducted in a total of 90 sites in ex vivo bovine liver models, including the surface (n = 60) and parenchyma (n = 30), to examine the direction of contraction of the tissue in the peripheral and central regions from the microwave antenna. Three commercially available 2.45-GHz microwave systems (Emprint, Neuwave, and Surblate) were used. For surface ablation, the lengths of two overlapped square markers were measured after 2.5- and 5-minutes ablations (n = 10 ablations for each system for each ablation time). For parenchyma ablation, seven predetermined distances between the markers were measured on the cutting plane after 5- and 10-minutes ablations (n = 5 ablations for each system for each ablation time). The contraction in the radial and longitudinal directions and the sphericity index (SI) of the ablation zones were compared between the three systems using analysis of variance. @*Results@#In the surface ablation experiment, the mean longitudinal contraction ratio and SI from a 5-minutes ablation using the Emprint, Neuwave, and Surblate systems were 28.92% and 1.04, 20.10% and 0.53, and 24.90% and 0.45, respectively (p < 0.001). A positive correlation between longitudinal contraction and SI was noted, and a similar radial contraction was observed. In the parenchyma ablation experiment, the mean longitudinal contraction ratio and SI from a 10-minutes ablation using the three pieces of equipment were 38.60% and 1.06, 32.45% and 0.61, and 28.50% and 0.50, respectively (p < 0.001). There was a significant difference in the longitudinal contraction properties, whereas there was no significant difference in the radial contraction properties. @*Conclusion@#The degree of longitudinal contraction showed significant differences depending on the microwave ablation equipment, which may affect the SI of the ablation zone.

8.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 189-201, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918225

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To compare the outcomes of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using dual switching monopolar (DSM), switching bipolar (SB), and combined DSM + SB modes at two different interelectrode distances (25 and 20 mm) in an ex vivo study, which simulated ablation of a 2.5-cm virtual hepatic tumor. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 132 ablation zones were created (22 ablation zones for each protocol) using three separable clustered electrodes. The performances of the DSM, SB, and combined DSM + SB ablation modes were compared by evaluating the following parameters of the RFA zones at two interelectrode distances: shape (circularity), size (diameter and volume), peritumoral ablative margins, and percentages of the white zone at the midpoint of the two electrodes (ablative margin at midpoint, AMm) and in the electrode path (ablative margin at electrode path, AMe). @*Results@#At both distances, circularity was the highest in the SB mode, followed by the DSM + SB mode, and was the lowest in the DSM mode. The circularity of the ablation zone showed a significant difference among the three energy groups (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002 for 25-mm and 20-mm, respectively). All size measurements, AMm, and AMe were the greatest in the DSM mode, followed by the DSM + SB mode, and the lowest were with the SB mode (all statistically significant). The white zone proportion in AMm and AMe were the greatest in the SB mode, followed by the DSM + SB mode and DSM in general. @*Conclusion@#DSM and SB appear to be complementary in creating an ideal ablation zone. RFA with the SB mode can efficiently eradicate tumors and create a circular ablation zone, while DSM is required to create a sufficient ablative margin and a large ablation zone.

9.
Ultrasonography ; : 728-739, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969218

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to evaluate local tumor progression-free survival (LTPFS) and overall survival (OS) after percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for solitary colorectal liver metastases (CLM) <3 cm and to identify the risk factors associated with poor LTPFS and OS after percutaneous RFA. @*Methods@#This study screened 219 patients who underwent percutaneous RFA for CLM between January 2013 and November 2020. Of these, 92 patients with a single CLM <3 cm were included. LTPFS and OS were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the differences between curves were compared using the log-rank test. Risk factors for LTPFS and OS were assessed using Cox proportional-hazard regression models. @*Results@#Technical efficacy was achieved in the first (n=91) or second (n=1) RFA sessions. During the follow-up (median, 20.0 months), cumulative LTPFS rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 92.4%, 83.4%, and 76.5%, respectively. During the follow-up (median, 27.8 months), the corresponding OS rates were 97.5%, 81.3%, and 74.8%, respectively. In multivariable Cox regression analyses, the group with both tumor-puncturing RFA and a T4 stage primary tumor (hazard ratio, 3.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 10.2; P=0.037) had poor LTPFS. In the univariable analysis, no factors were significantly associated with poor OS. @*Conclusion@#Both LTPFS and OS were promising after percutaneous RFA for a single CLM <3 cm. The group with both tumor-puncturing RFA and a T4 stage primary tumor showed poor LTPFS. No risk factors were identified for poor OS.

10.
Ultrasonography ; : 543-552, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939268

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Radiofrequency ablation is a curative treatment option for very early-stage or earlystage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (PRFA) for subphrenic tumors is technically challenging. Laparoscopic radiofrequency ablation (LRFA) has been used to overcome this disadvantage. This study compared the treatment outcomes between LRFA and PRFA for subphrenic HCC. @*Methods@#This retrospective study screened patients who underwent PRFA or LRFA for subphrenic HCC between 2013 and 2018. Therapeutic outcomes, including local tumor progression (LTP), intrahepatic distant recurrence (IDR), extrahepatic metastasis (EM), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS), were compared between the two groups. @*Results@#Thirty patients in the PRFA group and 23 patients in the LRFA group were included. LTP was observed in six patients in the PRFA group (20%), but in no patients in the LRFA group. The cumulative LTP rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 3.7%, 23.4%, and 23.4%, respectively, in the PRFA group and 0.0% in the LRFA group (P=0.015). The IDR, EM, and DFS rates were not significantly different between the two groups (P=0.304, P=0.175, and P=0.075, respectively). The OS rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 96.6%, 85.7%, and 71.6%, respectively, in the PRFA group and 100%, 95.7%, and 95.7%, respectively, in the LRFA group (P=0.049). @*Conclusion@#LRFA demonstrated better therapeutic outcomes than did PRFA for subphrenic tumors in terms of LTP and OS. Therefore, LRFA can be considered as the first-line treatment option for subphrenic HCC.

11.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 615-624, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926759

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To compare the therapeutic outcomes of laparoscopic hepatic resection (LHR) and laparoscopic radiofrequency ablation (LRFA) for single subcapsular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). @*Materials and Methods@#We screened 244 consecutive patients who had received either LHR or LRFA between January 2014 and December 2016. The feasibility of LRFA in patients who underwent LHR was retrospectively assessed by two interventional radiologists. Finally, 60 LRFA-feasible patients who had received LHR and 29 patients who had received LRFA as the first treatment for a solitary subcapsular HCC between 1 cm and 3 cm were finally included. We compared the therapeutic outcomes, including local tumor progression (LTP), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS) between the two groups before and after propensity score (PS) matching. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression was also used to evaluate the difference in OS and RFS between the two groups for all 89 patients. @*Results@#PS matching yielded 23 patients in each group. The cumulative LTP and OS rates were not significantly different between the LHR and LRFA groups after PS matching (p = 0.900 and 0.003, respectively). The 5-year LTP rates were 4.6% and 4.4%, respectively, and OS rates were 100% and 90.7%, respectively. The RFS rate was higher in LHR group without statistical significance (p = 0.070), with 5-year rates of 78.3% and 45.3%, respectively. OS was not significantly different between the LHR (reference) and LRFA groups in multivariable analyses, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.33 (95% confidence interval, 0.12–1.54) (p = 0.818). RFS was higher in LHR (reference) than in LRFA without statistical significance in multivariable analysis, with an HR of 2.01 (0.87–4.66) (p = 0.102). @*Conclusion@#There was no significant difference in therapeutic outcomes between LHR and LRFA for single subcapsular HCCs measuring 1–3 cm. The difference in RFS should be further evaluated in a larger study.

12.
Ultrasonography ; : 274-280, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919491

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study investigated which body position is more useful for visualizing subphrenic hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) during ultrasonography (US) examinations. @*Methods@#This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Twenty consecutive patients with a single subphrenic HCC (treatment-naïve, 1 to 3 cm) underwent a US examination for planning radiofrequency ablation. The examinations were done by one of three radiologists and the patients were examined in four different body positions-supine, right posterior oblique (RPO), left lateral decubitus (LLD), and semi-erect-by being positioned on a tilted table. The visibility of the index tumor was prospectively assessed using a 4-point scale. Needle insertion was considered to be technically feasible if the visibility score was lower than 2. The visibility score and technical feasibility were compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test and the McNemar test, respectively, for pairwise comparisons between different body positions. @*Results@#The visibility score was significantly lower in the semi-erect position (median, 2; interquartile range, 1 to 2.75) than in the supine (3, 2 to 4), RPO (3, 2 to 4), and LLD (4, 3.25 to 4) positions (P=0.007, P=0.005, and P=0.001, respectively). The technical feasibility of needle insertion was also significantly higher in the semi-erect position (75%, 15/20) than in the supine (45%, 9/45), RPO (35%, 7/20), and LLD (20%, 4/20) positions (P=0.031, P=0.021, and P=0.001, respectively). @*Conclusion@#The semi-erect position is more useful for the visualization of subphrenic HCCs than the supine, RPO, or LLD positions.

13.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1077-1086, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833586

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the effect of perfluorobutane microbubbles (Sonazoid®, GE Healthcare) on steam popping duringradiofrequency (RF) ablation for treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and to assess whether popping affects treatmentoutcomes. @*Materials and Methods@#The institutional review board approved this retrospective study, which included 90 consecutivepatients with single HCC, who received percutaneous RF ablation as the first-line treatment. The patients were divided intotwo groups, based on the presence or absence of the popping phenomenon, which was defined as an audible sound with asimultaneous sudden explosion within the ablation zone as detected via ultrasonography during the procedure. The factorscontributing to the popping phenomenon were identified using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Local tumor progression(LTP) and disease-free survival (DFS) were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method with the log-rank test for performingcomparisons between the two groups. @*Results@#The overall incidence of the popping phenomenon was 25.8% (24/93). Sonazoid® was used in 1 patient (4.2%) inthe popping group (n = 24), while it was used in 15 patients (21.7%) in the non-popping group (n = 69). Multivariableanalysis revealed that the use of Sonazoid® was the only significant factor for absence of the popping phenomenon (oddsratio = 0.10, p= 0.048). There were no significant differences in cumulative LTP and DFS between the two groups (p= 0.479and p= 0.424, respectively). @*Conclusion@#The use of Sonazoid® has a suppressive effect on the popping phenomenon during RF ablation in patients withHCC. However, the presence of the popping phenomenon may not affect clinical outcomes.

14.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 173-179, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-208827

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the in vivo efficiency of the biopsy tract radiofrequency ablation for hemostasis after core biopsy of the liver in a porcine liver model, including situations with bleeding tendency and a larger (16-gauge) core needle. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A preliminary study was performed using one pig to determine optimal ablation parameters. For the main experiment, four pigs were assigned to different groups according to heparinization use and biopsy needle caliber. In each pig, 14 control (without tract ablation) and 14 experimental (tract ablation) ultrasound-guided core biopsies were performed using either an 18- or 16-gauge needle. Post-biopsy bleeding amounts were measured by soaking up the blood for five minutes. The results were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: The optimal parameters for biopsy tract ablation were determined as a 2-cm active tip electrode set at 40-watt with a tip temperature of 70–80℃. The bleeding amounts in all experimental groups were smaller than those in the controls; however they were significant in the non-heparinized pig biopsied with an 18-gauge needle and in two heparinized pigs (p < 0.001). In the heparinized pigs, the mean blood loss in the experimental group was 3.5% and 13.5% of the controls biopsied with an 18- and 16-gauge needle, respectively. CONCLUSION: Radiofrequency ablation of hepatic core biopsy tract ablation may reduce post-biopsy bleeding even under bleeding tendency and using a larger core needle, according to the result from in vivo porcine model experiments.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Biopsy, Large-Core Needle , Catheter Ablation , Electrodes , Hemorrhage , Hemostasis , Heparin , Liver , Needles , Pulsed Radiofrequency Treatment , Swine
15.
Gut and Liver ; : 784-790, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-67325

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: We experimented with different ablation methods and two types of microwave antennas to determine whether microwave ablation (MWA) increases intrahepatic pressure and to identify an MWA protocol that avoids increasing intrahepatic pressure. METHODS: MWA was performed using either a single-step standard ablation or a stepwise increment ablation paired with either a 16-gauge (G) 2-cm antenna or a 14G 4-cm antenna. We compared the maximum pressures and total ablation volumes. RESULTS: The mean maximum intrahepatic pressures and ablation volumes were as follows: 16G single-step: 37+/-33.4 mm Hg and 4.63 cm3; 16G multistep: 31+/-18.7 mm Hg and 3.75 cm3; 14G single-step: 114+/-45.4 mm Hg and 15.33 cm3; and 14G multistep: 106+/-43.8 mm Hg and 10.98 cm3. The intrahepatic pressure rose during MWA, but there were no statistically significant differences between the single and multistep methods when the same gauge antennae were used. The total ablation volume was different only in the 14G groups (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated an increase in intrahepatic pressure during MWA. The multistep method may be used to prevent increased intrahepatic pressure after applying the proper power.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Ablation Techniques/instrumentation , Liver/physiology , Medical Illustration , Microwaves , Models, Animal , Pressure
16.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 95-107, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114851

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review of compliance with standardized terminology and reporting criteria for radiofrequency (RF) tumor ablation, proposed by the International Working Group on Image-Guided Tumor Ablation in 2003, in the published reports. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Literature search in the PubMed database was performed using index keywords, PubMed limit system, and eligibility criteria. The entire content of each article was reviewed to assess the terminology used for procedure terms, imaging findings, therapeutic efficacy, follow-up, and complications. Accuracy of the terminology and the use of alternative terms instead of standard terminology were analyzed. In addition, disparities in accuracy of terminology in articles according to the medical specialty and the type of radiology journal were evaluated. RESULTS: Among the articles (n = 308) included in this study, the accuracy of the terms 'procedure or session', 'treatment', 'index tumor', 'ablation zone', 'technical success', 'primary technique effectiveness rate', 'secondary technique effectiveness rate', 'local tumor progression', 'major complication', and 'minor complication' was 97% (298/307), 97% (291/300), 8% (25/307), 65% (103/159), 55% (52/94), 33% (42/129), 94% (17/18), 45% (88/195), 99% (79/80), and 100% (77/77), respectively. The overall accuracy of each term showed a tendency to improve over the years. The most commonly used alternative terms for 'technical success' and 'local tumor progression' were 'complete ablation' and 'local (tumor) recurrence', respectively. The accuracy of terminology in articles published in radiology journals was significantly greater than that of terminology in articles published in non-radiology journals, especially in Radiology and The Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology. CONCLUSION: The proposal for standardization of terminology and reporting criteria for RF tumor ablation has been gaining support according to the recently published scientific reports, especially in the field of radiology. However, more work is still needed for the complete standardization of terminology.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Catheter Ablation , Guideline Adherence , Neoplasms/surgery , Terminology as Topic , Writing/standards
17.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 61-70, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-18374

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To determine the value of fusion imaging with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) and computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance (MR) images for percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of very-early-stage hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) that are inconspicuous on fusion imaging with B-mode ultrasound (US) and CT/MR images. METHODS: This retrospective study was approved by our institutional review board and the requirement for informed consent was waived. Fusion imaging with CEUS using Sonazoid contrast agent and CT/MR imaging was performed on HCCs (<2 cm) that were inconspicuous on fusion imaging with B-mode US. We evaluated the number of cases that became conspicuous on fusion imaging with CEUS. Percutaneous RFA was performed under the guidance of fusion imaging with CEUS. Technical success and major complication rates were assessed. RESULTS: In total, 30 patients with 30 HCCs (mean, 1.2 cm; range, 0.6-1.7 cm) were included, among which 25 (83.3%) became conspicuous on fusion imaging with CEUS at the time of the planning US and/or RFA procedure. Of those 25 HCCs, RFA was considered feasible for 23 (92.0%), which were thus treated. The technical success and major complication rates were 91.3% (21/23) and 4.3% (1/23), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Fusion imaging with CEUS and CT/MR imaging is highly effective for percutaneous RFA of very-early-stage HCCs inconspicuous on fusion imaging with B-mode US and CT/MR imaging.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnosis , Catheter Ablation , Contrast Media , Ferric Compounds , Iron , Liver Neoplasms/diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neoplasm Staging , Oxides , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
18.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 240-247, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-15363

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and safety of percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) alone and combined with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) in high risk locations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed PEI for HCCs in RFA-high risk locations, either alone or in combination with RFA. There were 20 HCCs (1.7 +/- 0.9 cm) in 20 patients (PEI group: n = 12; PEI + RFA group: n = 8). We evaluated technical success, local tumor progression and complications in both groups. RESULTS: Technical success was achieved in all HCCs in both groups. During follow-up, local tumor progression was found in 41.7% (5/12) in the PEI group, whereas 12.5% (1/8) for the PEI + RFA group (p = 0.32). Bile duct dilatation was the most common complication, especially when the tumors were in periportal locations; 55% (5/9) in the PEI group and 50% (2/4) in the PEI + RFA group (p = 1.00). One patient in the PEI group developed severe biliary stricture and upstream dilatation that resulted in atrophy of the left hepatic lobe. One patient treated with PEI + RFA developed cholangitis and an abscess. CONCLUSION: Combined PEI and RFA treatment has a tendency to be more effective than PEI alone for managing HCCs in high risk locations, although the difference is not statistically significant. Even though PEI is generally accepted as a safe procedure, it may cause major biliary complications for managing HCCs adjacent to the portal vein.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Catheter Ablation/methods , Chemoembolization, Therapeutic/methods , Disease Progression , Ethanol/administration & dosage , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Postoperative Complications , Retrospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
19.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 248-258, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-15362

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the technical feasibility and local efficacy of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for an intermediate-sized (3-5 cm in diameter) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) under the dual guidance of biplane fluoroscopy and ultrasonography (US). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with intermediate-sized HCCs were treated with percutaneous RFA combined with TACE. RFA was performed under the dual guidance of biplane fluoroscopy and US within 14 days after TACE. We evaluated the rate of major complications on immediate post-RFA CT images. Primary technique effectiveness rate was determined on one month follow-up CT images. The cumulative rate of local tumor progression was estimated with the use of Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Twenty-one consecutive patients with 21 HCCs (mean size: 3.6 cm; range: 3-4.5 cm) were included. After TACE (mean: 6.7 d; range: 1-14 d), 20 (95.2%) of 21 HCCs were visible on fluoroscopy and were ablated under dual guidance of biplane fluoroscopy and US. The other HCC that was poorly visible by fluoroscopy was ablated under US guidance alone. Major complications were observed in only one patient (pneumothorax). Primary technique effectiveness was achieved for all 21 HCCs in a single RFA session. Cumulative rates of local tumor progression were estimated as 9.5% and 19.0% at one and three years, respectively. CONCLUSION: RFA combined with TACE under dual guidance of biplane fluoroscopy and US is technically feasible and effective for intermediate-sized HCC treatment.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Antibiotics, Antineoplastic/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Catheter Ablation/methods , Chemoembolization, Therapeutic/methods , Combined Modality Therapy , Disease Progression , Doxorubicin/administration & dosage , Ethiodized Oil/administration & dosage , Feasibility Studies , Fluoroscopy , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Postoperative Complications , Radiography, Interventional , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Ultrasonography, Interventional
20.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 754-763, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-209700

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether pretreatment evaluation with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is effective for percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with poor conspicuity on conventional ultrasonography (US). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board and informed consent was waived. From June 2008 to July 2011, 82 patients having HCCs (1.2 +/- 0.4 cm) with poor conspicuity on planning US for RFA were evaluated with CEUS prior to percutaneous RFA. We analyzed our database, radiologic reports, and US images in order to determine whether the location of HCC candidates on planning US coincide with that on CEUS. To avoid incomplete ablation, percutaneous RFA was performed only when HCC nodules were identified on CEUS. The rate of technical success was assessed. The cumulative rate of local tumor progression was estimated with the use of the Kaplan-Meier method (mean follow-up: 24.0 +/- 13.0 months). RESULTS: Among 82 patients, 73 (89%) HCCs were identified on CEUS, whereas 9 (11%) were not. Of 73 identifiable HCCs on CEUS, the location of HCC on planning US corresponded with that on CEUS in 64 (87.7%), whereas the location did not correspond in 9 (12.3%) HCCs. Technical success was achieved for all 73 identifiable HCCs on CEUS in a single (n = 72) or two (n = 1) RFA sessions. Cumulative rates of local tumor progression were estimated as 1.9% and 15.4% at 1 and 3 years, respectively. CONCLUSION: Pretreatment evaluation with CEUS is effective for percutaneous RFA of HCCs with poor conspicuity on conventional US.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/surgery , Catheter Ablation/methods , Contrast Media , Follow-Up Studies , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Neoplasm Staging , Preoperative Period , Retrospective Studies
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