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1.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 703-715, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001257

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: This retrospective study investigated the factors that affect cage obliquity angle despite orthogonal maneuvers performed during oblique lateral interbody fusion (OLIF) and assessed the relationship between cage obliquity angle and radiological outcomes post-surgery. @*Methods@#: Twenty-nine males who underwent L4-L5 OLIF for lumbar degenerative disease between 2019 and 2021 with a followup duration greater than 12 months were analyzed. Radiological parameters were measured including psoas muscle volume, total psoas area index (total psoas muscle area [cm2]/height squared [m2]), distance from the iliac artery to the origin of the psoas muscle (DIAPM), angle between the origin of the psoas muscle and the center of the vertebral disc (APCVD), iliac crest height, disc height, lumbar flexibility (lumbar flexion angle minus extension angle), cage location ratio, cage-induced segmental lumbar lordosis (LL) (postoperative index level segmental LL minus used cage angle), foraminal height changes, fusion grade. @*Results@#: DIAPM, APCVD, iliac crest height, postoperative index level segmental LL, and cage-induced segmental LL were significantly correlated with OLIF cage obliquity angle. However, other radiological parameters did not correlate with cage obliquity. Based on multiple regression analysis, the predictive equation for the OLIF cage obliquity angle was 13.062–0.318×DIAPM+0.325×A PCVD+0.174×iliac crest height. The greater the cage obliquity, the smaller the segmental LL compared to the cage angle used. @*Conclusion@#: At the L4-L5 level, OLIF cage obliquity was affected by DIAPM, APCVD, and iliac crest height, and as the cage obliquity angle increases, LL agnle achievable by the used cage could not be obtained.

2.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e59-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915510

ABSTRACT

Background@#Recent genomic studies identified four discrete molecular subgroups of medulloblastoma (MB), and the risk stratification of childhood MB in the context of subgroups was refined in 2015. In this study, we investigated the effect of molecular subgroups on the risk stratification of childhood MB. @*Methods@#The nCounter® system and a customized cancer panel were used for molecular subgrouping and risk stratification in archived tissues. @*Results@#A total of 44 patients were included in this study. In clinical risk stratification, based on the presence of residual tumor/metastasis and histological findings, 24 and 20 patients were classified into the average-risk and high-risk groups, respectively. Molecular subgroups were successfully defined in 37 patients using limited gene expression analysis, and DNA panel sequencing additionally classified the molecular subgroups in three patients. Collectively, 40 patients were classified into molecular subgroups as follows: WNT (n = 7), SHH (n = 4), Group 3 (n = 8), and Group 4 (n = 21). Excluding the four patients whose molecular subgroups could not be determined, among the 17 average-risk group patients in clinical risk stratification, one patient in the SHH group with the TP53 variant was reclassified as very-high-risk using the new risk classification system. In addition, 5 of 23 patients who were initially classified as high-risk group in clinical risk stratification were reclassified into the low- or standard-risk groups in the new risk classification system. @*Conclusion@#The new risk stratification incorporating integrated diagnosis showed some discrepancies with clinical risk stratification. Risk stratification based on precise molecular subgrouping is needed for the tailored treatment of MB patients.

3.
Korean Journal of Neurotrauma ; : 254-267, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969009

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) can progress even after cervical spine surgery and may cause neurological injury as a result of minor trauma. The purpose of this study was to investigate the preventive factors associated with OPLL progression after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), a procedure commonly performed in clinical practice. @*Methods@#We retrospectively investigated 295 male soldiers who underwent ACDF surgery between 2012 and 2017. Patients who were followed up for >12 months using dynamic radiography and computed tomography (CT) were included in the study. Radiological parameters investigated included OPLL progression, C2-C7 angles on dynamic radiography, segmental angles, C2-C7 cervical sagittal vertical axis (C2-C7 SVA), and the T1 slope. These parameters were measured preoperatively and 1 year postoperatively. @*Results@#A total of 49 patients were enrolled, and 10 patients were confirmed to have OPLL progression. Comparison between the OPLL progression and non-progression groups showed no statistically significant differences in pre- and postoperative cervical range of motion. However, statistically significant differences were observed in the postoperative neutral C2-C7 angle (progression −3.9°±6.4° vs. non-progression −13.4°±7.9°, p=0.001) and the SVA change (progression 5.8±7.9 mm vs. non-progression −3.7±6.3 mm, p=0.00). The cutoff values were −8.01° for the postoperative neutral C2-C7 angle and 1.4 mm for SVA changes. @*Conclusion@#Increased SVA (>1.4 mm) and a small postoperative neutral C2-C7 angle (>−8.01°) 1 year after ACDF were associated with OPLL progression. It is important to be mindful of these factors during follow-up after ACDF, because additional surgical treatment may be necessary for OPLL progression due to neurological injury caused by minor trauma.

4.
Brain Tumor Research and Treatment ; : 183-189, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937256

ABSTRACT

Approximately two-thirds of glioblastoma (GBM) patients progress to leptomeningeal spread (LMS) within two years. While 90% of LMS cases are diagnosed during the progression and/or recurrence of GBM (defined as secondary LMS), LMS presentation at the time of GBM diagnosis (defined as primary LMS) is very rare. 18 F-fluorodeoxy glucose positron emission tomography computed tomography ( 18F-FDG PET/CT) study helps to diagnose the multifocal spread of the malignant primary brain tumor. Our patient was a 31-year-old man with a tumorous lesion located in the right temporal lobe, a wide area of the leptomeninges, and spinal cord (thoracic 5/6, and lumbar 1 level) involvement as a concurrent manifestation. After the removal of the right temporal tumor, the clinical status progressed rapidly, showing signs of increased intracranial pressure and hydrocephalus caused by LMS. He underwent a ventriculoperitoneal shunt a week after craniotomy. During management, progression of cord compression, paraplegia, bone marrow suppression related to radiochemotherapy, intercurrent infections, and persistent ascites due to peritoneal metastasis of the LMS through the shunt system was observed. The patient finally succumbed to the disease nine months after the diagnosis of simultaneous GBM and LMS. The overall survival of primary LMS with GBM in our case was nine months, which is shorter than that of secondary LMS with GBM. The survival period after the diagnosis of LMS did not seem to be significantly different between primary and secondary LMS. To determine the prognostic effect and difference between primary and secondary LMS, further cooperative studies with large-volume data analysis are warranted.

5.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 378-388, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897430

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a highly aggressive malignancy with peak incidence in children aged less than 3 years. Standard treatment for central nervous system ATRT in children under the age of 3 years have not been established yet. The objective of this study was to analyze characteristics and clinical outcomes of ATRT in children aged less than 3 years. @*Materials and Methods@#A search of medical records from seven centers was performed between January 2005 and December 2016. @*Results@#Forty-three patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 90 months, 27 patients (64.3%) showed at least one episode of disease progression (PD). The first date of PD was at 160 days after diagnosis. The 1- and 3-year progression-free survivals (PFS) were 51.2% and 28.5%, respectively. The 1- and 3-year overall survivals were 61.9% and 38.1%, respectively. The 3-year PFS was improved from 0% in pre-2011 to 47.4% in post-2011. Excluding one patient who did not receive any further therapy after surgery, 27 patients died due to PD (n=21), treatment-related toxicity (n=5), or unknown cause (n=1). In univariate analysis, factors associated with higher 3-year PFS were no metastases, diagnosis after 2011, early adjuvant radiotherapy, and high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT). In multivariate analysis, the use of HDCT and adjuvant radiotherapy remained significant prognostic factors for PFS (both p < 0.01). @*Conclusion@#Aggressive therapy including early adjuvant radiotherapy and HDCT could be considered to improve outcomes of ATRT in children under the age of 3 years.

6.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 378-388, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889726

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a highly aggressive malignancy with peak incidence in children aged less than 3 years. Standard treatment for central nervous system ATRT in children under the age of 3 years have not been established yet. The objective of this study was to analyze characteristics and clinical outcomes of ATRT in children aged less than 3 years. @*Materials and Methods@#A search of medical records from seven centers was performed between January 2005 and December 2016. @*Results@#Forty-three patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 90 months, 27 patients (64.3%) showed at least one episode of disease progression (PD). The first date of PD was at 160 days after diagnosis. The 1- and 3-year progression-free survivals (PFS) were 51.2% and 28.5%, respectively. The 1- and 3-year overall survivals were 61.9% and 38.1%, respectively. The 3-year PFS was improved from 0% in pre-2011 to 47.4% in post-2011. Excluding one patient who did not receive any further therapy after surgery, 27 patients died due to PD (n=21), treatment-related toxicity (n=5), or unknown cause (n=1). In univariate analysis, factors associated with higher 3-year PFS were no metastases, diagnosis after 2011, early adjuvant radiotherapy, and high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT). In multivariate analysis, the use of HDCT and adjuvant radiotherapy remained significant prognostic factors for PFS (both p < 0.01). @*Conclusion@#Aggressive therapy including early adjuvant radiotherapy and HDCT could be considered to improve outcomes of ATRT in children under the age of 3 years.

7.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e102-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899859

ABSTRACT

Background@#Intended subtotal resection (STR) followed by adjuvant gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has emerged as an effective treatment option for facial nerve (FN) preservation in vestibular schwannomas (VSs). This study aimed to identify the optimal cutoff volume of residual VS to predict favorable outcomes in terms of both tumor control and FN preservation. @*Methods@#This retrospective study assessed the patients who underwent adjuvant GKRS for residual VS after microsurgery. A total of 68 patients who had been followed up for ≥ 24 months after GKRS were included. Tumor progression was defined as an increase in tumor volume (TV) of ≥ 20%. House-Brackmann grades I and II were considered to indicate good FN function. @*Results@#The median residual TV was 2.5 cm3 (range: 0.3–27.4). The median follow-up period after the first adjuvant GKRS was 64 months (range: 25.7–152.4). Eight (12%) patients showed tumor progression. In multivariate analyses, residual TV was associated with tumor progression (P = 0.003; hazard ratio [HR], 1.229; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.075–1.405).A residual TV of 6.4 cm3 was identified as the cut-off volume for showing the greatest difference in progression-free survival (PFS). The 5-year PFS rates in the group with residual TVs of < 6.4 cm3 (54 patients) and that with residual TVs of ≥ 6.4 cm3 (14 patients) were 93.3% and 69.3%, respectively (P = 0.014). A good FN outcome was achieved in 57 (84%) patients.Residual TV was not associated with good FN function during the immediate postoperative period (P = 0.695; odds ratio [OR], 1.024; 95% CI, 0.908–1.156) or at the last follow-up (P = 0.755; OR, 0.980; 95% CI, 0.866–1.110). @*Conclusion@#In this study, residual TV was associated with tumor progression in VS after adjuvant GKRS following STR. As preservation of FN function is not correlated with the extent of resection, optimal volume reduction is imperative to achieve long-term tumor control. Our findings will help surgeons predict the prognosis of residual VS after FNpreserving surgery.

8.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e102-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892155

ABSTRACT

Background@#Intended subtotal resection (STR) followed by adjuvant gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has emerged as an effective treatment option for facial nerve (FN) preservation in vestibular schwannomas (VSs). This study aimed to identify the optimal cutoff volume of residual VS to predict favorable outcomes in terms of both tumor control and FN preservation. @*Methods@#This retrospective study assessed the patients who underwent adjuvant GKRS for residual VS after microsurgery. A total of 68 patients who had been followed up for ≥ 24 months after GKRS were included. Tumor progression was defined as an increase in tumor volume (TV) of ≥ 20%. House-Brackmann grades I and II were considered to indicate good FN function. @*Results@#The median residual TV was 2.5 cm3 (range: 0.3–27.4). The median follow-up period after the first adjuvant GKRS was 64 months (range: 25.7–152.4). Eight (12%) patients showed tumor progression. In multivariate analyses, residual TV was associated with tumor progression (P = 0.003; hazard ratio [HR], 1.229; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.075–1.405).A residual TV of 6.4 cm3 was identified as the cut-off volume for showing the greatest difference in progression-free survival (PFS). The 5-year PFS rates in the group with residual TVs of < 6.4 cm3 (54 patients) and that with residual TVs of ≥ 6.4 cm3 (14 patients) were 93.3% and 69.3%, respectively (P = 0.014). A good FN outcome was achieved in 57 (84%) patients.Residual TV was not associated with good FN function during the immediate postoperative period (P = 0.695; odds ratio [OR], 1.024; 95% CI, 0.908–1.156) or at the last follow-up (P = 0.755; OR, 0.980; 95% CI, 0.866–1.110). @*Conclusion@#In this study, residual TV was associated with tumor progression in VS after adjuvant GKRS following STR. As preservation of FN function is not correlated with the extent of resection, optimal volume reduction is imperative to achieve long-term tumor control. Our findings will help surgeons predict the prognosis of residual VS after FNpreserving surgery.

9.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e405-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899724

ABSTRACT

Background@#Infants and very young children with malignant brain tumors have a poorer survival and a higher risk for neurologic deficits. The present study evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of multimodal treatment including tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/auto-SCT) in minimizing use of radiotherapy (RT) in very young children with non-metastatic malignant brain tumors. @*Methods@#Twenty consecutive patients younger than 3 years were enrolled between 2004 and 2017. Tandem HDCT/auto-SCT was performed after six cycles of induction chemotherapy.Local RT was administered only to patients with post-operative gross residual tumor at older than 3 years. Since September 2015, early post-operative local RT for patients with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor or primitive neuroectodermal tumor was administered. @*Results@#All 20 enrolled patients underwent the first HDCT/auto-SCT, and 18 proceeded to the second. Two patients died from toxicity during the second HDCT/auto-SCT, and four patients experienced relapse/progression (one localized and three metastatic), three of whom remained alive after salvage treatment including RT. A total of 17 patients remained alive at a median 7.8 (range, 2.5−15.7) years from diagnosis. Nine survivors received no RT, six survivors received local RT alone, and two survivors who experienced metastatic relapse after tandem HDCT/auto-SCT received both local and craniospinal RT. The 5-year overall, eventfree, and craniospinal RT-free survival rates were 85.0% ± 8.0%, 70.0% ± 10.2%, and 75.0% ± 9.7%, respectively. Neuroendocrine and neurocognitive functions evaluated 5 years after tandem HDCT/auto-SCT were acceptable. @*Conclusion@#Our results suggest that non-metastatic malignant brain tumors in very young children could be treated with multimodal therapy including tandem HDCT/auto-SCT while minimizing RT, particularly craniospinal RT.

10.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e405-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892020

ABSTRACT

Background@#Infants and very young children with malignant brain tumors have a poorer survival and a higher risk for neurologic deficits. The present study evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of multimodal treatment including tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/auto-SCT) in minimizing use of radiotherapy (RT) in very young children with non-metastatic malignant brain tumors. @*Methods@#Twenty consecutive patients younger than 3 years were enrolled between 2004 and 2017. Tandem HDCT/auto-SCT was performed after six cycles of induction chemotherapy.Local RT was administered only to patients with post-operative gross residual tumor at older than 3 years. Since September 2015, early post-operative local RT for patients with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor or primitive neuroectodermal tumor was administered. @*Results@#All 20 enrolled patients underwent the first HDCT/auto-SCT, and 18 proceeded to the second. Two patients died from toxicity during the second HDCT/auto-SCT, and four patients experienced relapse/progression (one localized and three metastatic), three of whom remained alive after salvage treatment including RT. A total of 17 patients remained alive at a median 7.8 (range, 2.5−15.7) years from diagnosis. Nine survivors received no RT, six survivors received local RT alone, and two survivors who experienced metastatic relapse after tandem HDCT/auto-SCT received both local and craniospinal RT. The 5-year overall, eventfree, and craniospinal RT-free survival rates were 85.0% ± 8.0%, 70.0% ± 10.2%, and 75.0% ± 9.7%, respectively. Neuroendocrine and neurocognitive functions evaluated 5 years after tandem HDCT/auto-SCT were acceptable. @*Conclusion@#Our results suggest that non-metastatic malignant brain tumors in very young children could be treated with multimodal therapy including tandem HDCT/auto-SCT while minimizing RT, particularly craniospinal RT.

11.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e232-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765072

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A randomized trial of unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (ARUBA) reported superior outcomes in conservative management compared to interventional treatment. There were numerous limitations to the study. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) for patients with brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) by comparing its outcomes to those of the ARUBA study. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed ARUBA-eligible patients treated with GKS from June 2002 to September 2017 and compared against those in the ARUBA study. AVM obliteration and hemorrhage rates, and clinical outcomes following GKS were also evaluated. RESULTS: The ARUBA-eligible cohort comprised 264 patients. The Spetzler-Martin grade was Grade I to II in 52.7% and III to IV in 47.3% of the patients. The mean AVM nidus volume, marginal dose, and follow-up period were 4.8 cm³, 20.8 Gy, and 55.5 months, respectively. AVM obliteration was achieved in 62.1%. The annual hemorrhage rate after GKS was 3.4%. A stroke or death occurred in 14.0%. The overall stroke or death rate of the ARUBA-eligible cohort was significantly lower than that of the interventional arm of the ARUBA study (P < 0.001) and did not significantly differ from that of the medical arm in the ARUBA study (P = 0.601). CONCLUSION: GKS was shown to achieve a favorable outcome with low procedure-related morbidity in majority of the ARUBA-eligible patients. The outcome after GKS in our patients was not inferior to that of medical care alone in the ARUBA study. It is suggested that GKS is rather superior to medical care considering the short follow-up duration of the ARUBA study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arm , Arteriovenous Malformations , Brain , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Hemorrhage , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Mortality , Netherlands , Radiosurgery , Retrospective Studies , Stroke
12.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 393-401, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788682

ABSTRACT

The prognosis of brain tumors in children has improved for last a few decades. However, the prognosis remains dismal in patients with recurrent brain tumors. The outcome for infants and young children in whom the use of radiotherapy (RT) is very limited because of unacceptable long-term adverse effect of RT remains poor. The prognosis is also not satisfactory when a large residual tumor remains after surgery or when leptomeningeal seeding is present at diagnosis. In this context, a strategy using high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/auto-SCT) has been explored to improve the prognosis of recurrent or high-risk brain tumors. This strategy is based on the hypothesis that chemotherapy dose escalation might result in improvement in survival rates. Recently, the efficacy of tandem HDCT/auto-SCT has been evaluated in further improving the outcome. This strategy is based on the hypothesis that further dose escalation might result in further improvement in survival rates. At present, the number of studies employing tandem HDCT/auto-SCT for brain tumors is limited. However, results of these pilot studies suggest that tandem HDCT/auto-SCT may further improve the outcome. In this review, we will summarize our single center experience with tandem HDCT/auto-SCT for recurrent or high-risk brain tumors.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Infant , Brain Neoplasms , Brain , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Neoplasm, Residual , Pilot Projects , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , Stem Cell Transplantation , Stem Cells , Survival Rate
13.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 393-401, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765252

ABSTRACT

The prognosis of brain tumors in children has improved for last a few decades. However, the prognosis remains dismal in patients with recurrent brain tumors. The outcome for infants and young children in whom the use of radiotherapy (RT) is very limited because of unacceptable long-term adverse effect of RT remains poor. The prognosis is also not satisfactory when a large residual tumor remains after surgery or when leptomeningeal seeding is present at diagnosis. In this context, a strategy using high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/auto-SCT) has been explored to improve the prognosis of recurrent or high-risk brain tumors. This strategy is based on the hypothesis that chemotherapy dose escalation might result in improvement in survival rates. Recently, the efficacy of tandem HDCT/auto-SCT has been evaluated in further improving the outcome. This strategy is based on the hypothesis that further dose escalation might result in further improvement in survival rates. At present, the number of studies employing tandem HDCT/auto-SCT for brain tumors is limited. However, results of these pilot studies suggest that tandem HDCT/auto-SCT may further improve the outcome. In this review, we will summarize our single center experience with tandem HDCT/auto-SCT for recurrent or high-risk brain tumors.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Infant , Brain Neoplasms , Brain , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Neoplasm, Residual , Pilot Projects , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , Stem Cell Transplantation , Stem Cells , Survival Rate
14.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 195-203, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-115137

ABSTRACT

With the aim to investigate the outcome of tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/auto-SCT) for high-grade gliomas (HGGs), we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 30 patients with HGGs (16 glioblastomas, 7 anaplastic astrocytomas, and 7 other HGGs) between 2006 and 2015. Gross or near total resection was possible in 11 patients. Front-line treatment after surgery was radiotherapy (RT) in 14 patients and chemotherapy in the remaining 16 patients including 3 patients less than 3 years of age. Eight of 12 patients who remained progression free and 5 of the remaining 18 patients who experienced progression during induction treatment underwent the first HDCT/auto-SCT with carboplatin + thiotepa + etoposide (CTE) regimen and 11 of them proceeded to the second HDCT/auto-SCT with cyclophosphamide + melphalan (CyM) regimen. One patient died from hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) during the second HDCT/auto-SCT; otherwise, toxicities were manageable. Four patients in complete response (CR) and 3 of 7 patients in partial response (PR) or second PR at the first HDCT/auto-SCT remained event free: however, 2 patients with progressive tumor experienced progression again. The probabilities of 3-year overall survival (OS) after the first HDCT/auto-SCT in 11 patients in CR, PR, or second PR was 58.2% ± 16.9%. Tumor status at the first HDCT/auto-SCT was the only significant factor for outcome after HDCT/auto-SCT. There was no difference in survival between glioblastoma and other HGGs. This study suggests that the outcome of HGGs in children and adolescents after HDCT/auto-SCT is encouraging if the patient could achieve CR or PR before HDCT/auto-SCT.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Humans , Astrocytoma , Brain Neoplasms , Carboplatin , Cyclophosphamide , Drug Therapy , Etoposide , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease , Medical Records , Melphalan , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies , Stem Cell Transplantation , Stem Cells , Thiotepa
15.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 197-203, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-42457

ABSTRACT

Craniosynostosis is defined as the premature fusion of one or more cranial sutures resulting in skull deformity. Characteristically, this disorder can cause diverse neurosurgical problems, as well as abnormal skull shape. Intracranial hypertension, hydrocephalus, Chiari malformation and neuropsychological dysfunction are the major neurosurgical concerns in children with craniosynostosis. In this review article, we investigate pathophysiology, characteristics and proper neurosurgical management of these neurosurgical issues, respectively.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Congenital Abnormalities , Cranial Sutures , Craniosynostoses , Hydrocephalus , Intracranial Hypertension , Skull
16.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1408-1419, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-205895

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We prospectively evaluated the effectiveness of tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/auto-SCT) in improving the survival of patients with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors while reducing the risks of late adverse effects from radiotherapy (RT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: For young children ( 3 years old), RT including reduced-dose craniospinal RT (23.4 or 30.6 Gy) was administered either after two cycles of induction chemotherapy or after surgery, and tandem HDCT/auto-SCT was administered after six cycles of induction chemotherapy. RESULTS: A total of 13 patients (five young and eight older) were enrolled from November 2004 to June 2012. Eight patients, including all five young patients, had metastatic disease at diagnosis. Six patients (four young and two older) experienced progression before initiation of RT, and seven were able to proceed to HDCT/auto-SCT without progression during induction treatment. Three of six patients who experienced progression during induction treatment underwent HDCT/auto-SCT as salvage treatment. All five young patients died from disease progression. However, four of the eight older patients remain progression-freewith a median follow-up period of 64 months (range, 39 to 108 months). Treatment-related late toxicities were acceptable. CONCLUSION: The required dose of craniospinal RT might be reduced in older patients if the intensity of chemotherapy is increased. However, early administration of RT should be considered to prevent early progression in young patients.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Brain Neoplasms , Diagnosis , Disease Progression , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Induction Chemotherapy , Prospective Studies , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Salvage Therapy , Stem Cell Transplantation , Stem Cells
17.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 401-407, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-73376

ABSTRACT

The nonprogressive unilateral intracranial arteriopathy known as transient (focal) cerebral arteriopathy is not a well-recognized arteriopathy among practitioners of Korea and Japan, although it cannot be easily differentiated from early moyamoya disease. This review summarizes the nomenclature, pathophysiology, diagnostic evaluation, clinico-radiological features, and management of nonprogressive (reversible or stable) unilateral arteriopathy based on the relevant literature and our own experiences. Nonprogressive unilateral arteriopathy should be strongly suspected in children presenting with basal ganglia infarction and arterial beading. The early identification of patients likely to have nonprogressive or progressive arteriopathy would ensure proper management and guide further research for secondary stroke prevention.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Basal Ganglia , Infarction , Japan , Korea , Moyamoya Disease , Stroke
18.
Korean Journal of Pathology ; : 302-306, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70527

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Humans , Meningioma , Tuberous Sclerosis
19.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 356-360, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23631

ABSTRACT

The coexistence of moyamoya disease (MMD) with an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is exceedingly rare. We report two cases of AVM associated with MMD. The first case was an incidental AVM diagnosed simultaneously with MMD. This AVM was managed expectantly after encephalo-duro-arterio-synangiosis (EDAS) as the main feeders stemmed from the internal carotid artery, which we believed would be obliterated with the progression of MMD. However, the AVM persisted with replacement of the internal carotid artery feeders by new external carotid artery feeders from the EDAS site. The AVM was eventually treated with gamma knife radiosurgery considering an increasing steal effect. The second case was a de novo AVM case. The patient was initially diagnosed with MMD, and acquired an AVM eight years later that was slowly fed by the reconstituted anterior cerebral artery. Because the patient remained asymptomatic, the AVM is currently being closely followed for more than 2 years without further surgical intervention. Possible differences in the pathogenesis and the radiologic presentation of these AVMs are discussed with a literature review. No solid consensus exists on the optimal treatment of MMD-associated AVMs. Gamma knife radiosurgery appears to be an effective treatment option for an incidental AVM. However, a de novo AVM may be managed expectantly considering the possible risks of damaging established collaterals, low flow characteristics, and probably low risks of rupture.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Anterior Cerebral Artery , Arteriovenous Malformations , Carotid Artery, External , Carotid Artery, Internal , Consensus , Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations , Moyamoya Disease , Radiosurgery , Rupture
20.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 194-199, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76402

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Meningioma is the second most common primary central nervous system neoplasm. In contrast, chordoid meningioma is rare; due to the paucity of cases, little is known about its clinical features or treatment outcomes. The objectives of this study were to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes for patients with chordoid meningioma. METHODS: In total, 16 patients, with newly diagnosed chordoid meningioma who underwent surgical excision between 1999 and 2012 were included. We retrospectively evaluated the medical records, radiological findings, and pathological findings. The median follow-up period was 56.5 (range, 3-170) months. The MIB-1 labeling index ranged from 1 to 26.60% (median, 5.04). RESULTS: Simpson grade I, II, and III resections were performed in four, nine, and three patients, respectively. The overall recurrence rate was 37.5%. Overall progression-free survival (PFS) after resection was 94.7 months (95% CI=62.9-126.6). Of the 4 patients with Simpson grade I resection, recurrence occurred in one patient. Among the Simpson grade II and III resection groups, eight patients underwent adjuvant radiation therapy and they showed significantly longer PFS (121 months, 95% CI=82.1-159.9) than the patients who underwent surgery alone (40.5 months, 95% CI=9.6-71.3) by the log-rank test (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Chordoid meningiomas are difficult to manage and have a high rate of recurrence. Complete resection of the tumor is a key determinant of better outcomes. Adjuvant radiation therapy is recommended, eparticulary when Simpson grade I resection was not achieved.


Subject(s)
Humans , Central Nervous System , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Medical Records , Meningioma , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
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