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1.
Pediatric Emergency Medicine Journal ; : 60-67, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968474

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We investigated the current status of imaging studies for pediatric blunt cervical spine injury, and applied 3 clinical decision rules to children with blunt trauma of the head or neck in a pediatric emergency center in Korea. The rules included National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS) criteria, Canadian Cervical Spine Rule, and Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network risk factors. @*Methods@#This was a retrospective study conducted on 399 children aged 15 years or younger who visited the center after the blunt trauma, and underwent cervical spine radiographs from January 2020 through December 2021. We examined the clinical characteristics per age groups (0-1, 2-5, 6-12, and 13-15 years). Using the 3 rules, we selected children with a potential need for imaging studies (PNI). For this purpose, we analyzed the absence of low-risk variables and the presence of high-risk variables. Predictive performances of the rules were measured for the imaging-confirmed cervical spine injury. @*Results@#The study population (n = 399) had a median age of 5.0 years (interquartile range, 2.0-9.0) and a 64.2% boys’ proportion. Fall (36.6%) was the most common injury mechanism. Two children had the cervical spine injuries. As per NEXUS criteria, Canadian Cervical Spine Rule, and Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network risk factors, 72 (18.0%), 289 (72.4%), and 74 children (18.5%) were classified as those with PNI, respectively. Resultantly, 291 children (72.9%) were classified as having PNI whereas the other 108 (27.1%) were deemed to undergo unnecessary imaging. The 3 rules had nearly 100% sensitivity and negative predictive value, except a 50% sensitivity of NEXUS criteria. @*Conclusion@#Imaging studies can be minimized for children with blunt trauma of the head or neck who are deemed without PNI per the 3 current clinical decision rules. More elaborate criteria are needed to make a timely diagnosis.

2.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 115-120, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977118

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Pesticide poisoning is one of the leading causes of death, and it is important to classify high-risk patients. Lactate measurement could be used to assess the triage level and decide and prioritize treatment even within the same triage group. This study investigates whether point-of-care lactate measurement helps to triage pesticide poisoning patients in the emergency department (ED). @*Methods@#This retrospective study was done for pesticide poisoning patients between January 2018 to December 2021. Demographic data and laboratory results were collected by reviewing medical records. Statistical analysis was performed by dividing patients into death and survival groups. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were done. Receiver operating characteristic curves were obtained for variables with significant differences, and area under the curves (AUC) were calculated and compared. @*Results@#Among the 288 patients evaluated, there were 24 (8.33%) mortalities and 264 (91.67%) survivals during hospitalization. Age, the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE-II) score, pH and base excess, and lactate levels were analyzed via univariable and multivariable logistic regression tests. We found that old age and high lactate were independent factors in predicting mortality for pesticide poisoning patients. AUCs with 95% confidence interval for age and lactate were 0.784 (0.653-0.915) and 0.803 (0.674-0.932), respectively. @*Conclusion@#Lactate measurement may be useful during triage of alert and consciousness patients presenting with pesticide poisoning and having stable vital signs in ED. This study has several limitations, and it is necessary to reconfirm the results through a well-designed prospective study.

3.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 305-313, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001860

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Venom-induced coagulopathy (VIC) is a common snakebite complication that can cause life-threatening hemorrhage. Previous studies have shown that snake venom can cause a decrease in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), but this has not been investigated in actual clinical practice. This study evaluated the clinical utility of erythrocyte sedimentation rate as a predictive factor for VIC in patients with a poisonous snakebite. @*Methods@#From January 2012 to December 2021, this study performed a retrospective study of patients with venomous snakebites presenting to a tertiary emergency department. The demographic and laboratory data were collected through a chart review. The patients were divided into two groups, VIC and NoVIC groups. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the factors that predicted the presence of VIC, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn. @*Results@#One hundred and fifty-three patients were enrolled, and 31 patients (20.3%) developed VIC. The VIC group had significantly lower ESR than the NoVIC group (5.1±5.6 vs. 14.8±13.8; P<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that the decreased ESR was associated with the occurrence of coagulopathy (odds ratio, 0.957; 95% confidence interval, 0.917-0.999; P=0.045). The area under the curve was 0.701 in the ROC curve, and the cutoff value was set to 4.5 mm/hr. @*Conclusion@#ESR measured upon arrival at the emergency department was available to predict venom-induced coagulopathy in snakebite patients.

4.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 297-303, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938355

ABSTRACT

Objective@#After the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, there have been some changes in the way the medical system deals with suspected infectious diseases. These changes may also affect non-COVID-19 patients. Acute appendicitis is a common disease that requires emergent surgical intervention in pediatric patients, and delayed diagnosis and treatment may cause some complications. This study analyzed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the incidence of complicated appendicitis in pediatric patients presenting to emergency departments in South Korea. @*Methods@#The target group (post-COVID group) included patients aged under 15 years and diagnosed with acute appendicitis between February 23 and November 30, 2020. Patients diagnosed during the same period in 2019 were selected as the control group (pre-COVID group). The difference in the incidence of complicated appendicitis before and after the COVID-19 outbreak was investigated, and the association with various variables was analyzed using the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. @*Results@#The study enrolled a total of 94 patients: 54 in the pre-COVID group and 40 in the post-COVID group. There was no statistically significant variation in the incidence of complicated appendicitis (31.5% vs 35.0%, P=0.723) between the groups. In-hospital time was longer in the post-COVID group (7 hours vs. 10.5 hours, P=0.014), but pre-hospital time showed no significant difference (16 hours vs. 22 hours, P=0.768). In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, pre-hospital time (odds ratio [OR], 1.08; P=0.004), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (OR, 33.24; P<0.001), and the presence of fever (OR, 21.11, P=0.002) showed a significant correlation. @*Conclusion@#Post the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak, there was no difference in the incidence of pediatric complicated appendicitis in South Korea.

5.
Pediatric Emergency Medicine Journal ; : 81-86, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918667

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Fluid therapy for diarrhea-induced dehydration inadvertently increases emergency department length of stay (EDLOS). To prevent this delay, we investigated the usefulness of triage using point-of-care (POC) lactate in infants with diarrhea. @*Methods@#This study was performed on infants with diarrhea who visited the emergency department from January 2019 through December 2020. According to the POC lactate concentration and the Korean Triage and Acuity Scale (KTAS) level, the infants were separately divided into the low (< 2 mmol/L), moderate (2-3.9), and high (≥ 4) lactate groups and the mild (KTAS 4-5) and severe (1-3) groups, respectively. Using these 2 group designations, we compared variables regarding the emergency medicine resource use and outcomes. To predict the prolonged EDLOS (≥ median value) we performed logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic analyses. @*Results@#A total of 540 infants were included. The median of EDLOS was 169 minutes (interquartile range, 103-220). Fluid therapy was more frequently performed in the high lactate group than in the low-moderate lactate groups (85.0% vs. 60.4%-73.6%; P = 0.025). The high lactate and severe groups respectively showed higher rates of hospitalization (40.0% vs. 3.8%-7.6% [P < 0.001] and 10.9% vs. 1.4% [P = 0.015]), and longer median EDLOS (259 minutes vs. 147-178 [P < 0.001] and 185 vs. 131 [P = 0.001]) compared to the low-moderate lactate and mild groups. Compared to the KTAS, lactate is more strongly associated with the prolonged EDLOS (lactate, adjusted odds ratio, 4.80 [95% confidence interval, 1.87-15.34] vs. KTAS, 3.52 [1.90-6.54]). The areas under curve for lactate and for the KTAS were 0.66 (0.60-0.73) and 0.62 (0.55-0.69), respectively (P = 0.058). @*Conclusion@#In infants with diarrhea, POC lactate can be a predictor of emergency medicine resource use and outcomes.

6.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 408-415, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916550

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Although accurate diagnosis in neurologic emergencies is critical, the emergency department (ED) suffers from a shortage of neurologists. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a dedicated neurologist on the competence in the management of ED physicians on patients with neurologic abnormalities. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with neurologic abnormalities between 1 March 2016 and 30 September 2019. Two periods, including control and intervention periods, were assigned. Neurology consultations were routinely performed by an ED physician in the control period and by a physician of the ED working with a dedicated neurologist in the intervention period. @*Results@#In the control period, the most frequent chief complaints were dizziness (22.45%), focal motor weakness (except the face, 19.62%), altered mental status (9.98%), dysarthria (9.62%), seizures (8.57%), and headaches (6.87%). In the intervention period, the rate of final disposition by the ED physician was significantly increased in patients with dizziness (P<0.001), altered mental status (P=0.003), dysarthria (P<0.001), seizure (P<0.001), headaches (P<0.001), facial palsy (P<0.001), and memory impairment (P=0.043). @*Conclusion@#ED physicians who were educated by a dedicated neurologist could effectively enhance the competence in the management of the patient with neurologic abnormalities. We suggest that the method implemented in this study can be a good alternative for solving the gap in neurology department consultation.

7.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 611-619, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916526

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the CRB-65 score as a prognostic predictor in acute heart failure (HF) patients who visited the emergency department (ED). @*Methods@#This study was performed retrospectively on HF patients over the age of 19 years admitted to the ED between August 2018 and July 2020. The patients who met the Framingham criteria, including acute pulmonary edema, were classified by the CRB-65 score and compared with previous HF prognostic predictors (Acute Decompensated Heart Failure National Registry, Get with The Guidelines-Heart Failure and Enhanced Feedback for Effective Cardiac Treatment). We defined the primary outcome as 30-day mortality and secondary outcomes as hospitalization days (HD), admission to intensive care unit (ICU), length of stay (LOS) in the ICU and mechanical ventilation (MV). We conducted linear regression and logistic regression with these outcomes and obtained the area under the receiver-operating characteristics (AUROC) curve to compare the predictive power of the primary outcome. @*Results@#A total of 462 patients were included in the study, and their mean age was 80 years. According to the linear and logistic regression analysis results, the CRB-65 score was significantly correlated with HD (P<0.001), admission to ICU (P=0.014), LOS in ICU (P<0.001) and MV (P=0.004). The AUROC curve of CRB-65 was not higher than the other previous prognostic predictors (AUROC, 0.69), but the result was not different from the predictors. @*Conclusion@#The CRB-65 score is one of the prognostic indicators of acute HF in the ED. However, its prognostic predictive power remains limited.

8.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 371-376, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893487

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Triage in the emergency department is important as mistriage leads to inefficient use of resources. The Korean Triage and Acuity Scale (KTAS) was developed in 2012 and has been implemented in emergency departments nationwide since January 2016. The purpose of this study was to determine whether KTAS can predict resource use in a pediatric emergency center. @*Methods@#From October to December 2019, a retrospective analysis was conducted by a review of medical records. Demographic data, KTAS grades, Emergency Severity Index (ESI) as an indicator of resource utilization and details of the use of each resource were collected. Patients were divided into non-trauma and trauma groups. KTAS grades 1 and 2 were defined as the severe group, grade 3 was the moderate group, and grades 4 and 5 were defined as the mild group. We investigated whether triage using KTAS is related to resource utilization. @*Results@#In the non-trauma group, ESI, length of stay in the emergency department, and hospitalization were significantly correlated with the KTAS groups. In the trauma group, there was no significant difference between the moderate and mild groups in the above variables except for hospitalization. This was because there was no significant difference in sedation, procedure, and intravenous injection, in the trauma group. @*Conclusion@#The KTAS triage helped predict resource utilization in the non-trauma group, but not in the trauma group especially between the moderate and mild groups. Additional research will be needed to predict resource utilization in children with trauma.

9.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 371-376, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901191

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Triage in the emergency department is important as mistriage leads to inefficient use of resources. The Korean Triage and Acuity Scale (KTAS) was developed in 2012 and has been implemented in emergency departments nationwide since January 2016. The purpose of this study was to determine whether KTAS can predict resource use in a pediatric emergency center. @*Methods@#From October to December 2019, a retrospective analysis was conducted by a review of medical records. Demographic data, KTAS grades, Emergency Severity Index (ESI) as an indicator of resource utilization and details of the use of each resource were collected. Patients were divided into non-trauma and trauma groups. KTAS grades 1 and 2 were defined as the severe group, grade 3 was the moderate group, and grades 4 and 5 were defined as the mild group. We investigated whether triage using KTAS is related to resource utilization. @*Results@#In the non-trauma group, ESI, length of stay in the emergency department, and hospitalization were significantly correlated with the KTAS groups. In the trauma group, there was no significant difference between the moderate and mild groups in the above variables except for hospitalization. This was because there was no significant difference in sedation, procedure, and intravenous injection, in the trauma group. @*Conclusion@#The KTAS triage helped predict resource utilization in the non-trauma group, but not in the trauma group especially between the moderate and mild groups. Additional research will be needed to predict resource utilization in children with trauma.

10.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 99-104, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834906

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Tsutsugamushi disease is a febrile illness caused by tick bites. Delay in making the diagnosis and treatment cause an increase of the frequency of complications and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine quick sequential organ failure assessment (qSOFA) to predict the clinical outcome of scrub typhus patients in emergency departments. @*Methods@#This was a retrospective, observational study of patients with tsutsugamushi disease and who presented to the emergency department of an urban hospital and a rural tertiary hospital between January 2013 and December 2018. The demographic and laboratory data was collected through a chart review. Statistical analysis was performed by dividing the patients into the general ward admission group (general ward) and the intensive care unit admission group (ICU). @*Results@#Age, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE) II score and laboratory tests such as pH, leukocyte count, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin also showed significant differences between the general ward and ICU groups on the univariable logistic regression analysis, but only the qSOFA score among the variables showed a significant difference on the multivariate logistic regression analysis (P=0.014). @*Conclusion@#The qSOFA score will be a prompt and useful tool for predicting the prognosis of patients with tsutsugamushi disease in the emergency department.

11.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 105-110, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834905

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Serious bacterial infection (SBI) is a common disease among infants, and it is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Making the diagnosis of SBI is challenging and measurement of various biomarkers is useful. This study examined the utility of lactate at an emergency department for diagnosing SBI patients. @*Methods@#This was a retrospective, observational study of febrile infants less than 90 days old presenting to the emergency department of a tertiary hospital between September 2014 and August 2017. The demographic and laboratory data was collected through a chart review. @*Results@#Laboratory tests such as the white blood cell count, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin, and lactate showed significant differences on the Student-T test and the Mann Whitney-U test. Multivariabe logistic regression test was done using the variables with significant differences. CRP (P=0.037; odds ratio, 1.01), procalcitonin (P=0.011; odds ratio, 1.02) and lactate (P=0.001; odds ratio, 2.38) shows significant correlation. @*Conclusion@#For febrile infants at the emergency department, the measurement of lactate is expected to be a useful tool to diagnose serious bacterial infection.

12.
Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine ; (4): 225-233, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831267

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the differences in characteristics and outcomes between public bath (PB)- related and non-PB-related out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients in South Korea. @*Methods@#We performed a retrospective observational analysis of collected data from the Smart Advanced Cardiac Life Support (SALS) registry between September 2015 and December 2018. We included adult OHCA patients (aged >18 years) with presumed OHCA of non-traumatic etiology who were attended by dispatched emergency medical services. SALS is a field advanced life support with smartphone-based direct medical direction. The primary outcome was the survival to discharge rate measured at the time of discharge. @*Results@#Of 38,995 cardiac arrest patients enrolled in the SALS registry, 11,889 were included in the final analysis. In total, 263 OHCAs occurred in PBs. Male sex and bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation proportions appeared to be higher among PB patients than among non-PB patients. Percentages for shockable rhythm, witnessed rate, and number of underlying disease were lower in the PB group than in the non-PB group. Prehospital return of spontaneous circulation (11.4% vs. 19.5%, P=0.001), survival to discharge (2.3% vs. 9.9%, P<0.001), and favorable neurologic outcome (1.9% vs. 5.8%, P=0.007) in PB patients were significantly poorer than those in non-PB patients. @*Conclusion@#Patient characteristics and emergency medical services factors differed between PB and non-PB patients. All outcomes of PB-related OHCA were poorer than those of non-PB-related OHCA. Further treatment strategies should be developed to improve the outcomes of PBrelated cardiac arrest.

13.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 126-135, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759695

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the epidemiology of anaphylaxis is imperative for appropriate diagnosis and treatment, but the prevalence reportedly varies and only a few studies have compared the clinical features of anaphylaxis with the underlying causes in Korea. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the etiology and clinical features of anaphylaxis. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 319 anaphylaxis patients who visited our emergency room and extracted information on the causes, clinical characteristics, and subsequent outpatient visits. RESULTS: Food, drugs, and environmental factors were common causes of anaphylaxis. Statistically significant differences (p<0.001) were observed between children (<18 years of age) and adults (≥18 years of age), with food and drugs identified as the most common causes, respectively. Clinical characteristics of the patients were compared according to the common causes of anaphylaxis. Cutaneous symptoms were observed more frequently in food-induced cases (n=137, 95.1%) compared to drug-induced (n=73, 77.7%) and bee sting-induced (n=18, 78.3%) cases (p<0.001), whereas neurological symptoms were observed more frequently in drug-induced (n=37, 39.4%) and bee sting-induced (n=11, 47.8%) cases than in food-induced (n=18, 12.5%) cases (p<0.01). Drug-induced (n=44, 46.8%) and bee sting-induced (n=11, 47.8%) cases were more severe than food-induced cases (n=32, 22.2%). Out of the 319 assessed patients, only 25, 14, and 14 patients were referred to the pediatrics, allergy, and dermatology departments, respectively, after visiting the emergency room. CONCLUSION: Clinical characteristics of anaphylactic patients differed according to the underlying cause, but these findings are presumably influenced by factors determining the severity of anaphylaxis. We found that subsequent follow-up care in other departments to identify the cause of anaphylaxis was inadequate for most patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Humans , Anaphylaxis , Bees , Dermatology , Diagnosis , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , Hypersensitivity , Korea , Medical Records , Outpatients , Pediatrics , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
14.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 37-43, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758428

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute, self-limited, febrile disease. For cases of KD in which the first symptom is cervical lymphadenopathy (node-first presentations of KD, NFKD), it is frequently misdiagnosed as bacterial cervical lymphadenitis (BCL). Therefore, we evaluated the usefulness of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) to differentiate between NFKD and BCL. METHODS: This is a retrospective, observational study. Patients were divided into three groups, KD as 1st diagnosis, NFKD, and BCL. The laboratory and demographic data, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) administration time and total febrile duration, length of hospital stay, and number of coronary artery complications were then compared for each group. RESULTS: A total of 451 patients were diagnosed as KD and 45 patients as BCL. Of the 451 KD patients, 417 (92.5%) were KD as 1st diagnosis, and 34 (7.5%) were NFKD. White blood cell count, absolute neutrophil count, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and NT-proBNP differed significantly between NFKD and BCL. Variables that differed significantly were analyzed using a receiver operating characteristic curve, which revealed that NT-proBNP had the largest area under curve (0.944). Additionally, IVIG administration time, total febrile duration and length of hospital stay differed between KD as 1st diagnosis and NFKD. CONCLUSION: It is difficult to differentiate NFKD from BCL, so proper treatment and length of hospital stay were delayed. NT-proBNP is very useful for differentiating NFKD and BCL. Therefore, in cases of BCL with a long febrile period without reacting general treatments, the NT-proBNP test can be considered.


Subject(s)
Humans , Area Under Curve , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein , Coronary Vessels , Diagnosis , Immunoglobulins , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Length of Stay , Leukocyte Count , Lymphadenitis , Lymphatic Diseases , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Neutrophils , Observational Study , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve
15.
Health Communication ; (2): 125-132, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788091

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to investigate the quality of basic life support (BLS) information for primary Korean-speaking individuals on the internet.METHODS: Using the Google © search engine, we searched for the terms ‘CPR’, ‘cardiopulmonary resuscitation (in Korean)’ and ‘cardiac arrest (in Korean)’. The accuracy, reliability and accessibility of web pages was evaluated based on the 2015 American heart association(AHA) guidelines for CPR & emergency cardiovascular care, the health on the net foundation code of conduct and Korean web content accessibility guidelines 2.1, respectively.RESULTS: Of the 178 web pages screened, 50 met criteria for inclusion. The overall quality of BLS information was not enough (median 5/7, IQR 4.75-6). 23(36%) pages were created in accordance with 2010 AHA guidelines. Only 24(48%) web pages educated on how to use the automated electrical defibrillator. The attribution and transparency of the reliability of pages was relatively low, 20(40%) and 16(32%). The web accessibility score was relatively high.CONCLUSION: A small of proportion of internet web pages searched by Google have high quality BLS information for a Korean-speaking population. Web pages based on past guideline were still being searched. The notation of the source of CPR information and the transparency of the author should be improved. The verification and evaluation of the quality of BLS information exposed to the Internet are continuously needed.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Defibrillators , Education , Emergencies , Heart , Heart Arrest , Internet , Resuscitation , Search Engine
16.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 17-25, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-222542

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In this single-center, prospective, randomized, cross-over study, we compared the efficiency of oxygen supply between OxyMask and non-rebreather mask (NRM), depending on the position of the mask. METHODS: Either OxyMask or NRM was applied to 33 healthy volunteers, in a random manner, on the upper (that 1 cm upper to it), lower (that 1 cm inferior to it) and lateral malposition (that 1 cm lateral to it). After a 3-minute oxygenation, at a flow rate of 15 L/min, we measured the fractional expired oxygen concentration (F(E)O₂), fractional expired carbon dioxide concentration (F(E)CO₂), and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores for the degree-of-wearing sensation. RESULTS: OxyMask showed a lower level of F(E)O₂ as compared with NRM in all positions. Moreover, OxyMask showed no significant difference between F(E)O₂ and the position of the mask. However, NRM showed a significantly lower F(E)O₂ in the upper and lateral malposition. F(E)CO₂ had no significant difference with the types and position of the mask. The mean VAS scores for the degree-of-wearing sensation were 2.2±1.5 in the OxyMask and 4.3±1.5 in the NRM (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: OxyMask may offer greater benefit in maintaining the concentration of supplied oxygen and provide greater comfort than NRM in patients with difficulty applying the mask on an adequate location and maintaining the seal.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Carbon Dioxide , Cross-Over Studies , Healthy Volunteers , Masks , Oxygen , Prospective Studies , Sensation
17.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 643-649, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-53382

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to confirm the necessity of lumbar puncture to identify the cause of fever in febrile infants aged less than 3 months who visited an emergency department. METHODS: This was a retrospective study conducted on 399 infants aged 31 days to 90 days who visited the emergency department with fever from March 2014 to February 2016. RESULTS: Of the 399 patients, 49 patients had serious bacterial infections (SBI), and were finally diagnosed with urinary tract infection (UTI), sepsis, and bacterial meningitis. Of these, only one case was diagnosed with bacterial meningitis, and this patient was accompanied by sepsis. UTIs were present in 47 patients, and only 1 case was diagnosed with sepsis without bacterial meningitis or UTI. The Boston criteria and Philadelphia criteria included the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) results for predicting SBI. In this study, the modified Philadelphia criteria was used, which does not include the CSF results, and there was no factor that showed a significant correlation as a result of statistical analysis. Rather, a C-reactive protein ≥50 mg/L, procalcitonin ≥2 ng/mL, and fever over 39℃C showed statistical significance with SBI. In this study, the 1 patient diagnosed with bacterial meningitis also met all three factors (C-reactive protein, 106 mg/L; procalcitonin, 40.25 ng/mL; peak body temperature, >39℃). CONCLUSION: Because the incidence of bacterial meningitis has decreased recently, when an infant under 3 months of age visits the emergency room with fever, lumbar puncture should be performed selectively to identify the cause.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Bacterial Infections , Body Temperature , C-Reactive Protein , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Fever , Incidence , Meningitis , Meningitis, Bacterial , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis , Spinal Puncture , Urinary Tract Infections
18.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 659-664, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-53380

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a fatal complication caused by unregulated diabetes. Lactate is used as a prognostic indicator for a range of serious illnesses and its level is higher in DKA patients. This study examined the utility of lactate and lactate clearance measurements at an emergency department for predicting the prognosis of DKA patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational study of patients with DKA presenting to the emergency department of an urban and rural tertiary hospital between January, 2013 and December, 2016. The demographic and laboratory data were collected through a chart review. RESULTS: Seventy-six patients with DKA were included. Of these 76 patients, 46 (56.8%) had lactic acidosis (lactate >2.5 mmol/L) and 24 (29.6%) had a high lactate level (>4 mmol/L). Lactate and lactate clearance showed a significant difference in terms of the intensive care unit length of stay and mortality. CONCLUSION: Lactate and lactate clearance measurements in DKA patients are favorable and significant prognostic factors. In DKA patients, serial measurements of lactate should be considered.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acidosis, Lactic , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Intensive Care Units , Lactic Acid , Length of Stay , Mortality , Observational Study , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
19.
Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology ; : 107-114, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-219084

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The incidence of glufosinate poisoning is gradually increasing, and it can be fatal if severe poisoning occurs. However, factors useful for predicting the post-discharge neurological prognosis of patients who have ingested glufosinate have yet to be identified. Our objective was to evaluate the utility of the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II score measured in the emergency department for predicting the neurological prognosis. METHODS: From April 2012 to August 2014, we conducted a retrospective study of patients who had ingested glufosinate. The outcome of the patients at discharge was defined by the Cerebral Performance Category Score (CPC). The patients were divided into a good prognosis group (CPC 1, 2) and a poor prognosis group (CPC 3, 4, 5), after which the APACHE II scores were compared. The Hosmer-Lemeshow test and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve from patients determined calibration and discrimination. RESULTS: A total of 76 patients were enrolled (good prognosis group: 67 vs poor prognosis group: 9). The cut-off value for the APACHE II score was 12 and the area under the curve value was 0.891. The Hosmer and Lemeshow C statistic χ2 was 7.414 (p=0.387), indicating good calibration for APACHE II. CONCLUSION: The APACHE II score is useful at predicting the neurological prognosis of patients who have ingested glufosinate.


Subject(s)
Humans , APACHE , Calibration , Discrimination, Psychological , Emergency Service, Hospital , Herbicides , Incidence , Poisoning , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve
20.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 52-60, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-98044

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Glufosinate-containing herbicides intoxication causes mild to severe complication, depending on patients' factors. However, it is not clearly known whether there are factors affecting glufosinate-containing herbicides intoxicated patients who develop complications. Thus, we sought to identify independent factors comparing the complicated group with the non-complicated group and to predict which patients will develop subsequent medical complication. METHODS: The medical records of patients with exposure to Glufosinate-containing herbicides at a tertiary academic university hospital in Korea from January 2012 to April 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. Demographic and clinical data of 75 patients were then analyzed by univariate and multivariate stepwise logistic regression analyses to identify potential predictors of significant complications following acute Glufosinate-containing herbicides poisoning for comparison of complicated patients with non-complicated patients. RESULTS: Of 75 patients, 44 (58.6%) had medical complications and 6 (8%) were dead. Neurologic complications (n=26, 35%) were the most common including seizure (n=18), delirium tremens (n=5), and amnesia (n=4). The results of univariate analysis showed that an advanced age (>60 years old), higher ingested amount of the herbicide (>100 mL), vomiting at arrival, medical history of hypertension, metabolic acidosis, and systemic inflammatory response score (SIRS)> or =2 were significant factors. However, the results of multivariate analysis showed that an advanced age (p60 years, and amount ingested>100 mL were significant predictive factors for significant medical complications in patients with Glufosinate-containing herbicides poisoning.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acidosis , Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium , Amnesia , Herbicides , Hypertension , Korea , Logistic Models , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Poisoning , Retrospective Studies , Seizures , Vomiting
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