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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1041-1051, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763175

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We compared the oncologic outcomes of breast-conserving surgery plus radiation therapy (BCS+RT) and modified radical mastectomy (MRM) under anthracycline plus taxane-based (AT) regimens and investigated the role of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) in patients with pathologic N1 (pN1) breast cancer treated by mastectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 2,011 patients with pN1 breast cancer who underwent BCS+RT or MRM alone at 12 institutions between January 2006 and December 2010. Two-to-one propensity score matching was performed for balances in variables between the groups. RESULTS: The median follow-up duration for the total cohort was 69 months (range, 1 to 114 months). After propensity score matching, 1,074 patients (676 in the BCS+RT group and 398 in the MRM-alone group) were analyzed finally. The overall survival, disease-free survival, locoregional failure-free survival, and regional failure-free survival (RFFS) curves of the BCS+RT group vs. MRM-alone group were not significantly different. The subgroup analysis revealed that in the group with both lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and histologic grade (HG) III, the BCS+RT showed significantly superior RFFS (p=0.008). Lymphedema (p=0.007) and radiation pneumonitis (p=0.031) occurred more frequently in the BCS+RT group than in the MRM-alone group, significantly. CONCLUSION: There are no differences in oncologic outcomes between BCS+RT and MRM-alone groups under the AT chemotherapy regimens for pN1 breast cancer. However, BCS+RT group showed superior RFFS to MRM-alone group in the patients with LVI and HG III. Adjuvant RT might be considerable for pN1 breast cancer patients with LVI and HG III.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anthracyclines , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Cohort Studies , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Lymphedema , Mastectomy , Mastectomy, Modified Radical , Mastectomy, Segmental , Medical Records , Propensity Score , Radiation Pneumonitis , Retrospective Studies
2.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 207-214, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761008

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To identify the prognostic factors that could influence survival and to compare prognoses of the patients with the number of the risk factors that might assist in the adequate management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with bone metastases that showed a heterogeneous range of survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 41 patients, treated with radiotherapy (RT) for bone metastases from HCC from 2014 to 2017, were enrolled retrospectively. Survival was determined by the Kaplan–Meier method from the start of the RT for metastatic bone lesions. Pre-RT clinical features were evaluated and their influences on survival were analyzed. The significant factors were considered to compare survivals according to the number of prognostic factors. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 6.0 months (range, 0.5 to 47.0 months). The median overall survival was 6.5 months, and the 1-year and 2-year survival rates were 35.5% and 13.5%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that the Child-Pugh class A group, alpha-fetoprotein increased more than 30 ng/mL, and HCC size of more than 5 cm were associated with worse overall survival. The median survivals in HCC with none, 1, 2, and 3 of the aforementioned risk factors were 19.5, 9.0, 2.5, and 1.0 months, respectively (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our results show that the overall survivals were significantly different according to the number of the risk factors among HCC patients with bone metastases who showed various lengths of survival.


Subject(s)
Humans , alpha-Fetoproteins , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Follow-Up Studies , Methods , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Rate , Triage
3.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 114-121, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741942

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To explore the feasibility of maximum diameter as a response assessment method for vestibular schwannomas (VS) after stereotactic radiosurgery or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (RT), we analyzed the concordance of RT responses between maximum diameters and volumetric measurements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two patients receiving curative stereotactic radiosurgery or fractionated stereotactic RT for VS were analyzed retrospectively. Twelve patients were excluded: 4 did not receive follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and 8 had initial MRI scans with a slice thickness >3 mm. The maximum diameter, tumor volume (TV), and enhanced tumor volume (ETV) were measured in each MRI study. The percent change after RT was evaluated according to the measurement methods and their concordances were calculated with the Pearson correlation. The response classifications were determined by the assessment modalities, and their agreement was analyzed with Cohen kappa statistics. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 31.0 months (range, 3.5 to 86.5 months), and 90 follow-up MRI studies were analyzed. The percent change of maximum diameter correlated strongly with TV and ETV (r(p) = 0.85, 0.63, p = 0.000, respectively). Concordance of responses between the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) using the maximum diameters and either TV or ETV were moderate (kappa = 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.85) or fair (kappa = 0.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.05-0.59), respectively. CONCLUSION: The percent changes in maximum diameter and the responses in RECIST were significantly concordant with those in the volumetric measurements. Therefore, the maximum diameters can be used for the response evaluation of VS following stereotactic RT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Classification , Follow-Up Studies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methods , Neuroma, Acoustic , Radiosurgery , Radiotherapy , Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors , Retrospective Studies , Tumor Burden
4.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 927-936, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160279

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) on loco-regional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) in pT1-2N1 patients treated with taxane-based chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical data of pathological N1 patients who were treated with modified radical mastectomy and adjuvant taxane-based chemotherapy in 12 hospitals between January 2006 and December 2010. RESULTS: We identified 714 consecutive patients. The median follow-up duration was 69 months (range, 1 to 114 months) and the 5-year LRRFS, DFS, and OS rates were 97%, 94%, and 98%, respectively, in patients who received PMRT (PMRT [+]). The corresponding figures were 96%, 90%, and 96%, respectively, in patients who did not receive PMRT (PMRT [–]). PMRT had no significant impact on survival. Upon multivariable analysis, only the histological grade (HG) was statistically significant as a prognostic factor for LRRFS and DFS. In a subgroup analysis of HG 3 patients, PMRT (+) showed better DFS (p=0.081). CONCLUSION: PMRT had no significant impact on LRRFS, DFS, or OS in pT1-2N1 patients treated with taxane-based chemotherapy. PMRT showed a marginal benefit for DFS in HG 3 patients. Randomized studies are needed to confirm the benefit of PMRT in high risk patients, such as those with HG 3.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Mastectomy, Modified Radical , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
5.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 970-980, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160275

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of supraclavicular lymph node radiotherapy (SCNRT) on N1 breast cancer patients receiving post-lumpectomy whole-breast irradiation (WBI) and anthracycline plus taxane-based (AT) chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a case-control analysis to compare the outcomes of WBI and WBI plus SCNRT (WBI+SCNRT). Among 1,147 patients with N1 breast cancer who received post-lumpectomy radiotherapy and AT-based chemotherapy in 12 hospitals, 542 were selected after propensity score matching. Patterns of failure, disease-free survival (DFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and treatment-related toxicity were compared between groups. RESULTS: A total of 41 patients (7.6%) were found to have recurrence. Supraclavicular lymph node (SCN) failure was detected in three patients, two in WBI and one in WBI+SCNRT. All SCN failures were found simultaneously with distant metastasis. There was no significant difference in patterns of failure or survival between groups. The 5-year DFS and DMFS for patients with WBI and WBI+SCNRT were 94.4% versus 92.6% (p=0.50) and 95.1% versus 94.5% (p=0.99), respectively. The rates of lymphedema and radiation pneumonitis were significantly higher in the WBI+SCNRT than in the WBI. CONCLUSION: We did not find a benefit of SCNRT for N1 breast cancer patients receiving AT-based chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Case-Control Studies , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Irradiation , Lymphedema , Mastectomy, Segmental , Neoplasm Metastasis , Propensity Score , Radiation Pneumonitis , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Recurrence
6.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 275-282, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126242

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to present the incidence of radiation pneumonitis (RP) reported within 6 months after treatment for breast cancer with or without internal mammary node irradiation (IMNI). METHODS: In the Korean Radiation Oncology Group (KROG) 08-06 phase III randomized trial, patients who were node-positive after surgery were randomly assigned to receive radiotherapy either with or without IMNI. A total of 747 patients were enrolled, and three-dimensional treatment planning with computed tomography simulation was performed for all patients. Of the 747 patients, 722 underwent chest X-rays before and within 6 months after radiotherapy. These 722 patients underwent evaluation, and RP was diagnosed on the basis of chest radiography findings and clinical symptoms. The relationship between the incidence of RP and clinical/dosimetric parameters was analyzed. RESULTS: RP developed in 35 patients (4.8%), including grade 1 RP in 26 patients (3.6%), grade 2 RP in nine patients (1.2%); there was no incidence of grade 3 or higher RP. Grade 2 RP cases were observed in only the IMNI group. The risk of developing RP was influenced by IMNI treatment; pneumonitis occurred in 6.5% of patients (n=23/356) who underwent IMNI and in 3.3% of patients (n=12/366) who did not (p=0.047). The differences in lung dosimetric parameters (mean lung dose, V10–40) were statistically significant between the two groups. CONCLUSION: IMNI treatment resulted in increased radiation exposure to the lung and a higher rate of RP, but the incidence and severity of RP was minimal and acceptable. This minor impact on morbidity should be balanced with the impact on survival outcome in future analyses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Incidence , Lung , Lymphatic Irradiation , Pneumonia , Radiation Exposure , Radiation Oncology , Radiation Pneumonitis , Radiography , Radiotherapy , Thorax
7.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 23-28, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-82406

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the effect of a rectal enema on interfraction prostate movement in bone alignment (BA) for prostate radiotherapy (RT), we analyzed the spatial difference in prostates in a bone-matched setup. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed BA retrospectively with data from prostate cancer patients who underwent image-guided RT (IGRT). The prostate was identified with implanted fiducial markers. The setup for the IGRT was conducted with the matching of three fiducial markers on RT planning computed tomography images and those on two oblique kV x-ray images. Offline BA was performed at the same position. The coordinates of a virtual prostate in BA and a real prostate were obtained by use of the ExaxTrac/NovalisBody system, and the distance between them was calculated as the spatial difference. Interfraction prostate displacement was drawn from the comparison of the spatial differences. RESULTS: A total of 15 patients with localized prostate cancer treated with curative hypofractionated IGRT were enrolled. A total of 420 fractions were analyzed. The mean of the interfraction prostate displacements after BA was 3.12+/-2.00 mm (range, 0.20-10.53 mm). The directional difference was profound in the anterior-posterior and supero-inferior directions (2.14+/-1.73 mm and 1.97+/-1.44 mm, respectively) compared with the right-left direction (0.26+/-0.22 mm, p<0.05). The required margin around the clinical target volume was 4.97 mm with the formula of van Herk et al. CONCLUSIONS: The interfraction prostate displacement was less frequent when a rectal enema was performed before the procedure. A rectal enema can be used to reduce interfraction prostate displacement and resulting clinical target volume-to-planning target volume margin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Enema , Fiducial Markers , Prostate , Prostatic Neoplasms , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies
8.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 57-65, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-117271

ABSTRACT

Beta-lapachone (beta-Lap; 3,4-dihydro-2, 2-dimethyl-2H-naphthol[1, 2-b]pyran-5,6-dione) is a novel anti-cancer drug under phase I/II clinical trials. beta-Lap has been demonstrated to cause apoptotic and necrotic death in a variety of human cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The mechanisms underlying the beta-Lap toxicity against cancer cells has been controversial. The most recent view is that beta-Lap, which is a quinone compound, undergoes two-electron reduction to hydroquinone form utilizing NAD(P)H or NADH as electron source. This two-electron reduction of beta-Lap is mediated by NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), which is known to mediate the reduction of many quinone compounds. The hydroquinone forms of beta-Lap then spontaneously oxidizes back to the original oxidized beta-Lap, creating futile cycling between the oxidized and reduced forms of beta-Lap. It is proposed that the futile recycling between oxidized and reduced forms of beta-Lap leads to two distinct cell death pathways. First one is that the two-electron reduced beta-Lap is converted first to one-electron reduced beta-Lap, i.e., semiquinone beta-Lap (SQ).- causing production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which then causes apoptotic cell death. The second mechanism is that severe depletion of NAD(P)H and NADH as a result of futile cycling between the quinone and hydroquinone forms of beta-Lap causes severe disturbance in cellular metabolism leading to apoptosis and necrosis. The relative importance of the aforementioned two mechanisms, i.e., generation of ROS or depletion of NAD(P)H/NADH, may vary depending on cell type and environment. Importantly, the NQO1 level in cancer cells has been found to be higher than that in normal cells indicating that beta-Lap may be preferentially toxic to cancer cells relative to non-cancer cells. The cellular level of NQO1 has been found to be significantly increased by divergent physical and chemical stresses including ionizing radiation. Recent reports clearly demonstrated that beta-Lap and ionizing radiation kill cancer cells in a synergistic manner. Indications are that irradiation of cancer cells causes long-lasting elevation of NQO1, thereby sensitizing the cells to beta-Lap. In addition, beta-Lap has been shown to inhibit the repair of sublethal radiation damage. Treating experimental tumors growing in the legs of mice with irradiation and intraperitoneal injection of beta-Lap suppressed the growth of the tumors in a manner more than additive. Collectively, beta-Lap is a potentially useful anti-cancer drug, particularly in combination with radiotherapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Apoptosis , Benzoquinones , Cell Death , Electrons , Hydroquinones , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Leg , NAD , Naphthoquinones , Necrosis , Radiation Tolerance , Radiation, Ionizing , Reactive Oxygen Species , Recycling , Substrate Cycling
9.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 101-107, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-66235

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There are conflicting results surrounding the prognostic significance of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) status in glioblastoma (GBM) patients. Accordingly, we attempted to assess the influence of EGFR expression on the survival of GBM patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty three GBM patients who had received surgery and postoperative radiotherapy at our institute, between March 1997 and February 2006, were included. The evaluation of EGFR expression with immunohistochemistry was available for 30 patients. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: EGFR was expressed in 23 patients (76.7%), and not expressed in seven (23.3%). Survival in EGFR expressing GBM patients was significantly less than that in non-expressing patients (median survival: 12.5 versus 17.5 months, p=0.013). Patients who received more than 60 Gy showed improved survival over those who received up to 60 Gy (median survival: 17.0 versus 9.0 months, p=0.000). Negative EGFR expression and a higher radiation dose were significantly correlated with improved survival on multivariate analysis. Survival rates showed no differences according to age, sex, and surgical extent. CONCLUSION: The expression of EGFR demonstrated a significantly deleterious effect on the survival of GBM patients. Therefore, approaches targeting EGFR should be considered in potential treatment methods for GBM patients, in addition to current management strategies.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Brain Neoplasms/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Glioblastoma/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Proportional Hazards Models , Radiotherapy , ErbB Receptors/metabolism , Treatment Outcome
10.
Archives of Plastic Surgery ; : 497-503, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110862

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Postmastectomy adjuvant therapy is used to prevent locoregional recurrence and improve overall breast cancer specific survival rates. However, it can adversely affect the cosmetic results of reconstruction. Therefore, the authors examined flap stability and patients' satisfaction with immediate breast reconstruction after adjuvant therapy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 204 patients from January 2006 to November 2011. For complication rates, the authors categorized the patients who underwent the immediate breast reconstruction into 4 groups: adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy group, adjuvant chemotherapy only group, adjuvant radiotherapy only group, and the group that did not undergo adjuvant therapy. For comparison of patients' satisfaction, the study was performed with an additional 16 patients who had undergone delayed breast reconstruction. RESULTS: Regarding complication rates, the group that had undergone adjuvant therapy showed no significant difference compared to the group that did not undergo adjuvant therapy. In evaluating the patients' satisfaction, there was no significant difference. CONCLUSIONS: Even after adjuvant therapy, immediate breast reconstruction showed good results with respect to flap stability and patients' satisfaction. Immediate breast reconstruction and adjuvant therapy is a safe and useful option for breast cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Cosmetics , Mammaplasty , Medical Records , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Surgical Flaps , Survival Rate
11.
Journal of the Korean Surgical Society ; : 260-266, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126285

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of the ratio between metastatic and examined lymph nodes (LNs) in patients with stage III rectal cancer. METHODS: A review was made of 175 (male, 98) patients with stage III rectal cancer of R0 resection. LN disease was stratified both by the American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer nodal classification (pN) and by quartiles of the lymph node ratio (LNR). Disease-free survivals (DFS) were made using Kaplan-Meier curves and assessed by the log rank test and multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: Patients ranged in age from 29 to 83 (median, 60) years with median follow-up of 47 months (range, 13 to 181 months). months. There was a significant correlation between the number of metastatic LNs and the LNR (r = 0.8681, P < 0.0001). Cut-off points of LNR quartiles best to separate patients with regard to 5-year DFS were between quartile 2 and 3, and between 3 and 4 (LNR1, 2, and 3); the 5-year DFS according to such stratification was 89.6%, 55.8%, and 18.2% in LNR1, 2, and 3, respectively (P < 0.0001). Cox model identified the LNR as the most significant independent prognostic covariate; LNR2 showed 3.6 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.682 to 7.584; P = 0.0009) and LNR3, 18.7 times (95% CI, 6.872 to 50.664; P < 0.0001) more risky than LNR1. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that ratio-based LN staging, which reflects the number of LNs examined and the quality of LN dissection, is a simple and reliable system for prognostic LN stratification in patients with stage III rectal cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Joints , Lymph Nodes , Multivariate Analysis , Rectal Neoplasms
12.
The Journal of the Korean Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology ; : 91-98, 2011.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-64854

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the usefulness of implanted fiducial markers in the setup of hypofractionated radiotherapy for prostate cancer patients by comparing a fiducial marker matched setup with a pelvic bone match. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four prostate cancer patients treated with definitive hypofractionated radiotherapy between September 2009 and August 2010 were enrolled in this study. Three gold fiducial markers were implanted into the prostate and through the rectum under ultrasound guidance around a week before radiotherapy. Glycerin enemas were given prior to each radiotherapy planning CT and every radiotherapy session. Hypofractionated radiotherapy was planned for a total dose of 59.5 Gy in daily 3.5 Gy with using the Novalis system. Orthogonal kV X-rays were taken before radiotherapy. Treatment positions were adjusted according to the results from the fusion of the fiducial markers on digitally reconstructed radiographs of a radiotherapy plan with those on orthogonal kV X-rays. When the difference in the coordinates from the fiducial marker fusion was less than 1 mm, the patient position was approved for radiotherapy. A virtual bone matching was carried out at the fiducial marker matched position, and then a setup difference between the fiducial marker matching and bone matching was evaluated. RESULTS: Three patients received a planned 17-fractionated radiotherapy and the rest underwent 16 fractionations. The setup error of the fiducial marker matching was 0.94+/-0.62 mm (range, 0.09 to 3.01 mm; median, 0.81 mm), and the means of the lateral, craniocaudal, and anteroposterior errors were 0.39+/-0.34 mm, 0.46+/-0.34 mm, and 0.57+/-0.59 mm, respectively. The setup error of the pelvic bony matching was 3.15+/-2.03 mm (range, 0.25 to 8.23 mm; median, 2.95 mm), and the error of craniocaudal direction (2.29+/-1.95 mm) was significantly larger than those of anteroposterior (1.73+/-1.31 mm) and lateral directions (0.45+/-0.37 mm), respectively (p<0.05). Incidences of over 3 mm and 5 mm in setup difference among the fractionations were 1.5% and 0% in the fiducial marker matching, respectively, and 49.3% and 17.9% in the pelvic bone matching, respectively. CONCLUSION: The more precise setup of hypofractionated radiotherapy for prostate cancer patients is feasible with the implanted fiducial marker matching compared with the pelvic bony matching. Therefore, a less marginal expansion of planning target volume produces less radiation exposure to adjacent normal tissues, which could ultimately make hypofractionated radiotherapy safer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Enema , Fiducial Markers , Glycerol , Incidence , Pelvic Bones , Prostate , Prostatic Neoplasms , Rectum
13.
Journal of the Korean Society of Coloproctology ; : 137-144, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-117564

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and the toxicity of preoperative treatment with capecitabine in combination with radiation therapy (RT) in patients with locally-advanced, resectable rectal cancer. METHODS: Thirty-five patients with locally-advanced rectal cancer (cT3/4, N-/+) were treated with capecitabine (825 mg/m2, twice daily for 7 days/wk) and concomitant RT (50.4 Gy/28 fractions). Surgery was performed 6-8 wk after completion of the chemoradiation followed by 4-6 cycles of adjuvant capecitabine monotherapy (1,250 mg/m2, twice daily for 14 days every 3 wk). RESULTS: The chemoradiation program was completed in all but 2 patients, for whom both capecitabine and RT were interrupted for 2 wk because of grade-3 diarrhea. A R0 resection under the principle of total mesorectal excision (low anterior resection, 26; intersphincteric resection, 6; abdominoperineal resection, 2) was performed in all but one patient with a low anterior resection with positive circumferential margin (R1). Primary tumor and node downstaging occurred in 57% and 60% of patients, respectively. The overall rate of downstaging, including both the primary tumor and node, was 77% (27 patients). A pathological complete response of the primary tumor was achieved in 4 patients (11%). No patient had grade-4 toxicity, and the only grade-3 toxicity developed was diarrhea in 2 patients (6%) during chemoradiation. During a median follow-up of 38 mo, distant metastases developed in 4 patients (multiple lung metastases, 2; aortocaval nodal metastases, 2), and another 2 patients showed local recurrence. The three-year disease-free survival was 83%. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that preoperative capecitabine-based chemoradiation therapy is an effective and safe treatment modality for the tratment of locally-advanced, resectable rectal cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Capecitabine , Deoxycytidine , Diarrhea , Disease-Free Survival , Fluorouracil , Follow-Up Studies , Lung , Neoplasm Metastasis , Rectal Neoplasms , Recurrence
14.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 278-284, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-101502

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The patients with metastatic breast cancer are routinely exposed to taxane and anthracycline as neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and palliative chemotherapeutic agents. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of using a vinorelbine and ifosfamide (VI) combination treatment in patients with taxane-resistant metastatic breast cancer. METHODS: We evaluated the use of a VI regimen (25 mg/m2 vinorelbine administered on days 1 and 8 plus 2,000 mg/m2 ifosfamide administered on day 1-3 every 3 weeks) for breast cancer patients who evidenced tumor progression after palliative taxane treatment. RESULTS: Overall, 35 patients were enrolled in this study: Their median age was 50 years (range, 38-72 years). The overall response rate was 40.0% (14 patients; 95% confidence interval [CI], 23-57%). The median time to progression was 4.5 months (95% CI, 3.5-5.4 months). The median overall survival was 18.3 months (95% CI, 12.9-23.6 months). In the 190 cycle of treatment, the incidence of grade > or =3 neutropenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia was 29.3%, 4.2%, and 2.0%, respectively. Neutropenic fever was noted in 6 cycles (3.1%). The non-hematological toxicities were not severe: grade 1 or 2 vomiting was observed in 22.8% of the patients. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the use of vinorelbine and ifosfamide (VI) combination chemotherapy appears to be effective and it showed an acceptable toxicity profile in the patients with taxane-resistant metastatic breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anemia , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Bridged-Ring Compounds , Drug Therapy, Combination , Fever , Ifosfamide , Incidence , Neutropenia , Taxoids , Thrombocytopenia , Vinblastine , Vomiting
15.
The Journal of the Korean Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology ; : 210-217, 2009.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-21052

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the influence of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression on the survival of patients with a combination of rectal cancer and lymph node metastasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included rectal cancer patients treated by radical surgery and postoperative radiotherapy at the Dong-A university hospital from 1998 to 2004. A retrospective analysis was performed on a subset of patients that also had lymph node metastasis. After excluding eight of 86 patients, due to missing tissue samples in three, malignant melanoma in one, treatment of gastric cancer around one year before diagnosis in one, detection of lung cancer after one year of diagnosis in one, liver metastasis in one, and refusal of radiotherapy after 720 cGy in one, 78 patients were analyzed. The immunohistochemistry for COX-2 was conducted with an autostainer (BenchMark; Ventana, Tucson, AZ, USA). An image analyzer (TissueMine; Bioimagene, Cupertino, CA, USA) was used for analysis after scanning (ScanScope; Aperio, Vista, CA, USA). A survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan Meier method and significance was evaluated using the log rank test. RESULTS: COX-2 was stained positively in 62 patients (79.5%) and negatively in 16 (20.5%). A total of 6 (7.7%), 15 (19.2%), and 41 (52.6%) patients were of grades 1, 2, and 3, respectively for COX-2 expression. No correlation was found between being positive of COX-2 patient characteristics, which include age ( or =60), sex, operation methods (abdominoperineal resection vs. lower anterior resection), degrees of differentiation, tumor size ( or =5 cm), T stages, N stages, and stages (IIIa, IIIb, IIIc). The 5-year overall and 5-year disease free survival rates for the entire patient population were 57.0% and 51.6%, respectively. The 5-year overall survival rates for the COX-2 positive and negative patients were 53.0% and 72.9%, respectively (p=0.146). Further, the 5-year disease free survival rates for the COX-2 positive and negative patients were 46.3% and 72.7%, respectively (p=0.118). The 5-year overall survival rates were significantly different (p<0.05) for the degree of differentiation, N stage, and stage, whereas the 5-year disease free survival rates were significant for N stage and stage. CONCLUSION: Being positive for and the degree of COX-2 expression did not have a significant influence on the survival of rectal cancer patients with lymph node metastasis. However, N stage and stage did significantly influence the rateof survival. Further analysis of a greater sample size is necessary for the verification of the effect of COX-2 expression on the survival of rectal cancer patients with lymph node involvement.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Disease-Free Survival , Disulfiram , Immunohistochemistry , Liver , Lung Neoplasms , Lymph Nodes , Melanoma , Neoplasm Metastasis , Rectal Neoplasms , Retrospective Studies , Sample Size , Stomach Neoplasms , Survival Rate
16.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 101-105, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-199996

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Metastatic breast cancer patients are usually exposed to taxane and anthracycline as neoadjuvant, adjuvant and palliative chemotherapeutic agents. This study was designed to determine the efficacy and safety of the use of a gemcitabine and cisplatin (GP) combination treatment in patients with metastatic breast cancer that were pretreated with anthracycline and taxane. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the use of a GP regimen (1,000 mg/m2 gemcitabine administered on days 1 and 8 plus 60 mg/m2 cisplatin administered on day 1 every 3 weeks) in 38 breast cancer patients who had received prior chemotherapy with anthracycline and taxane as an adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapy, or as a palliative therapy. RESULTS: The median patient age was 49 years (age range, 35~69 years). The overall response rate was 28.9% in 11 patients (95% confidence interval [CI], 14~44%). The median time to progression was 5.2 months (95% CI, 3.6~6.8 months). Median survival was 19.5 months (95% CI, 11.2~27.8 months). Major grade 3/4 hematological toxicity was due to leukopenia (36 of 157 cycles, 23.1%). Non-hematological toxicity was rarely severe; grade1/2 nausea and vomiting were observed in 37.8% of the patients. There were no treatment related deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the use of gemcitabine plus cisplatin appears to be effective and has an acceptable toxicity profile in patients with advanced breast cancer that have been pretreated with anthracycline and taxane.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Bridged-Ring Compounds , Cisplatin , Deoxycytidine , Leukopenia , Nausea , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Taxoids , Vomiting
17.
The Journal of the Korean Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology ; : 83-90, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-82398

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: For the first time, a nationwide survey of the Patterns of Care Study (PCS) for the various radiotherapy treatments of esophageal cancer was carried out in South Korea. In order to observe the different parameters, as well as offer a solid cooperative system, we compared the Korean results with those observed in the United States (US) and Japan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundreds forty-six esophageal cancer patients from 21 institutions were enrolled in the South Korean study. The patients received radiation theraphy (RT) from 1998 to 1999. In order to compare these results with those from the United States, a published study by Suntharalingam, which included 414 patients [treated by Radiotherapy (RT)] from 59 institutions between 1996 and 1999 was chosen. In order to compare the South Korean with the Japanese data, we choose two different studies. The results published by Gomi were selected as the surgery group, in which 220 esophageal cancer patients were analyzed from 76 facilities. The patients underwent surgery and received RT with or without chemotherapy between 1998 and 2001. The non-surgery group originated from a study by Murakami, in which 385 patients were treated either by RT alone or RT with chemotherapy, but no surgery, between 1999 and 2001. RESULTS: The median age of enrolled patients was highest in the Japanese non-surgery group (71 years old). The gender ratio was approximately 9:1 (male:female) in both the Korean and Japanese studies, whereas females made up 23.1% of the study population in the US study. Adenocarcinoma outnumbered squamous cell carcinoma in the US study, whereas squamous cell carcinoma was more prevalent both the Korean and Japanese studies (Korea 96.3%, Japan 98%). An esophagogram, endoscopy, and chest CT scan were the main modalities of diagnostic evaluation used in all three countries. The US and Japan used the abdominal CT scan more frequently than the abdominal ultrasonography. Radiotherapy alone treatment was most rarely used in the US study (9.5%), compared to the Korean (23.2%) and Japanese (39%) studies. The combination of the three modalities (Surgery+RT+Chemotherapy) was performed least often in Korea (11.8%) compared to the Japanese (49.5%) and US (32.8%) studies. Chemotherapy (89%) and chemotherapy with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (97%) was most frequently used in the US study. Fluorouracil (5-FU) and Cisplatin were the most preferred drug treatments used in all three countries. The median radiation dose was 50.4 Gy in the US study, as compared to 55.8 Gy in the Korean study regardless of whether an operation was performed. However, in Japan, different median doses were delivered for the surgery (48 Gy) and non-surgery groups (60 Gy). CONCLUSION: Although some aspects of the evaluation of esophageal cancer and its various treatment modalities were heterogeneous among the three countries surveyed, we found no remarkable differences in the RT dose or technique, which includes the number of portals and energy beams.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Adenocarcinoma , Asian People , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Chemoradiotherapy , Cisplatin , Endoscopy , Esophageal Neoplasms , Fluorouracil , Japan , Korea , Republic of Korea , Thorax , United States
18.
The Journal of the Korean Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology ; : 104-112, 2008.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-82395

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the toxicity and tumor response induced by DCVac/IR(R) dendritic cell (DC) immunotherapy combined with irradiation for refractory colorectal cancer patients with multiple liver metastases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between May 2004 and November 2006, applicants from a pool of refractory colorectal cancer patients with multiple liver metastases were enrolled. The patients were registered after having signed the informed consent form, which had been approved by the Institutional Review Board from the Dong-A University and Busan National University Hospital. DCs were obtained from peripheral blood of each patient, and then cultured in vitro. A total of 6x10(6) DCs were packed into a vial (DCVac/IR(R), 0.5 ml) at the convenience of each patient's schedule. On the day before and on the day of each vaccination, each patient received a 4 Gy radiation dose to the target tumor. On the day of vaccination, the indicated dose of autologous DCs was injected into the irradiated tumor using ultrasound-guided needle injection procedures. A total of four vaccinations were scheduled at three 2-week intervals and one 4 week interval at the Dong-A University and Busan National University Hospital. If the tumor status was deemed to be stable or responding to therapy, an additional vaccination dose or two was approved at 4 week intervals beyond the fourth immunization. A tolerance test for DCs was conducted by injecting a range of doses (3x10(6) to 12x10(6) DCs) after the 3rd injection. Moreover, the maximal tolerable dose was applied to additional patients. Treatment safety was evaluated in all patients who had at least one injection. Treatment feasibility was evaluated by the 10th week by assessing the response of patients having at least 4 injections. For systemic toxicities, the evaluation was performed using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria, whereas adverse effects were recorded using common WHO toxicity criteria. RESULTS: Of the 24 registered patients, 22 received the DCs injections. Moreover, of the 14 patients that applied for the tolerance test, only 11 patients completed it because 3 patients withdrew their testing agreement. A grade 3 or more side effect, which was possibly related to the DC injection, did not occur in additional patients. The 12x10(6) DC injection was identified as the maximum tolerable dose, and was then injected in an additional 8 patients. Patients tolerated the injection fairly well, with no fatal side effects. In order to assess the feasibility of DC immunotherapy, the response was evaluated in other hepatic lesions outside of the targeted hepatic lesion. The response evaluation was performed in 15 of the 17 patients who received at least 4 injections. Stable and progressive disease was found in 4 and 11 patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: The DC-based immunotherapy and radiotherapy is theoretically synergistic for the local control and systemic control. The DCVac/IR(R) immunotherapy combined with irradiation was tolerable and safe in the evaluated cases of refractory colorectal cancer with multiple liver metastases. Future work should include well designed a phase II clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Humans , Appointments and Schedules , Colorectal Neoplasms , Consent Forms , Dendritic Cells , Ethics Committees, Research , Immunization , Immunotherapy , Liver , Needles , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiation Dosage , Vaccination
19.
The Journal of the Korean Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology ; : 7-15, 2007.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-202577

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the patterns of evaluation and treatment in patients with breast cancer after mastectomy and treated with radiotherapy. A nationwide study was performed with the goal of improving radiotherapy treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A web-based database system for the Korean Patterns of Care Study (PCS) for 6 common cancers was developed. Randomly selected records of 286 eligible patients treated between 1998 and 1999 from 17 hospitals were reviewed. RESULTS: The ages of the study patients ranged from 20 to 80 years (median age 44 years). The pathologic T stage by the AJCC was T1 in 9.7% of the cases, T2 in 59.2% of the cases, T3 in 25.6% of the cases, and T4 in 5.3% of the cases. For analysis of nodal involvement, N0 was 7.3%, N1 was 14%, N2 was 38.8%, and N3 was 38.5% of the cases. The AJCC stage was stage I in 0.7% of the cases, stage IIa in 3.8% of the cases, stage IIb in 9.8% of the cases, stage IIIa in 43% of the cases, stage IIIb in 2.8% of the cases, and IIIc in 38.5% of the cases. There were various sequences of chemotherapy and radiotherapy after mastectomy. Mastectomy and chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy was the most commonly performed sequence in 47% of the cases. Mastectomy, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy followed by additional chemotherapy was performed in 35% of the cases, and neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy was performed in 12.5% of the cases. The radiotherapy volume was chest wall only in 5.6% of the cases. The volume was chest wall and supraclavicular fossa (SCL) in 20.3% of the cases; chest wall, SCL and internal mammary lymph node (IMN) in 27.6% of the cases; chest wall, SCL and posterior axillary lymph node in 25.9% of the cases; chest wall, SCL, IMN, and posterior axillary lymph node in 19.9% of the cases. Two patients received IMN only. The method of chest wall irradiation was tangential field in 57.3% of the cases and electron beam in 42% of the cases. A bolus for the chest wall was used in 54.8% of the tangential field cases and 52.5% of the electron beam cases. The radiation dose to the chest wall was 45~59.4 Gy (median 50.4 Gy), to the SCL was 45~59.4 Gy (median 50.4 Gy), and to the PAB was 4.8~38.8 Gy, (median 9 Gy) CONCLUSION: Different and various treatment methods were used for radiotherapy of the breast cancer patients after mastectomy in each hospital. Most of treatment methods varied in the irradiation of the chest wall. A separate analysis for the details of radiotherapy planning also needs to be followed and the outcome of treatment is needed in order to evaluate the different processes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Chemoradiotherapy , Drug Therapy , Korea , Lymph Nodes , Mastectomy , Mastectomy, Radical , Radiotherapy , Thoracic Wall
20.
Journal of the Korean Society of Coloproctology ; : 87-92, 2007.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160008

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to review the outcome of local control after the local excision for T1/T2 rectal cancers and, thus, to assess its effectiveness as an alternative to a more radical resection. METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed 23 patients with T1/T2 rectal cancer treated by local excision (LE), and their results were compared with the results for 22 patients with rectal cancer of the same stage treated by a radical resection (RR). All patients with pT2 lesions in the LE group received postoperative adjuvant chemoradiation. The outcomes were defined as 5-year local-recurrence-free survival (LRFS). The median follow-up was 72 (range, 40~92) months. RESULTS: Recurrence occurred in 4 patients (pT1, 1; pT2, 3) in the LE group and in 3 patients (all pT2) in the the RR group. One patient with vascular invasion (T2N1M0) in the RR group showed multiple liver metastases at 23 months postoperatively. The difference in 5-year LRFS was not statistically significant between the two groups. In the LE group, the 5-year LRFS for pT2 lesions was significantly less favorable than that for pT1 lesions (40% vs. 94%; P= 0.005). The 5-year LRFS for pT2 in the RR group was more favorable than that in the LE group, although the difference was not statistically significant (76.9% vs. 40%, P=0.138). CONSLUSIONS: Local excision provides a favorable local control for pT1 rectal cancers. A more radical resection, however, remains an effective surgical option for pT2 lesions because local excision, even combined with adjuvant chemoradiation, showed substantial local recurrences.


Subject(s)
Humans , Follow-Up Studies , Liver , Neoplasm Metastasis , Rectal Neoplasms , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
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