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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926974

ABSTRACT

Olmesartan, a recently introduced angiotensin II receptor blocker for hypertension, has been reported to cause drug-induced small bowel enteropathy. The diagnosis of olmesartan-associated enteropathy (OAE) needs clinical suspicion and the exclusion of coeliac disease, as it mimics coeliac sprue. Once diagnosed, it can be completely cured with the discontinuation of olmesartan. However, due to the extremely low incidence of OAE in Korea, clinical suspicion and diagnosis may be a challenge. The authors report the first case of OAE presenting with chronic diarrhea and acute kidney injury in Korea.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894103

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Rectal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) <10 mm are endoscopically resected, while those ≥20 mm are treated with radical surgical resection. The choice of treatment for 10–20 mm sized rectal NETs remains controversial. This study aimed to verify factors predicting lymph node metastasis (LNM) of 10–20 mm sized rectal NET and utilize them to decide upon the treatment strategy. @*Methods@#Twenty-eight patients with 10–20 mm sized rectal NETs treated at Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital from January 2009 to September 2020 were divided into LNM (+) and LNM (–) groups, and their respective data were analyzed. @*Results@#Seven patients (25%) had LNM while 21 patients (75%) did not. Endorectal ultrasound findings showed tumor size was significantly larger in the LNM (+) than in the LNM (–) group (15 mm vs. 10 mm, P=0.018); however, pathologically, there was no significant difference in tumor size (13 mm vs. 11 mm, P=0.109). The mitotic count (P=0.011), Ki-67 index (P=0.008), and proportion of tumor grade 2 patients (5 cases, 71% vs. 1 case, 5%; P=0.001) were significantly higher in the LNM (+) group. In multivariate analysis, tumor grade 2 was the independent factor predicting LNM (odds ratio, 61.32; 95% confidence interval, 3.17–1,188.64; P=0.010). @*Conclusion@#Tumor grade 2 was the independent factor predicting LNM in 10–20 mm sized rectal NETs. Therefore, it could be considered as the meaningful factor in determining whether radical resection is necessary.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903630

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The prediction of invasion depth is important to decide the treatment modality for undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer (EGC) less than 20 mm in size without ulceration. We aimed to identify the endoscopic features associated with submucosal invasion in undifferentiated-type EGC that meet the criteria of size and ulcer status. @*Methods@#A total of 120 patients with undifferentiated-type EGC who underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) or gastrectomy between August 2008 and December 2017 were enrolled and reviewed retrospectively. All lesions met the ESD indications except for the invasion depth. We analyzed the endoscopic features of the tumors before resection and invasion depth after resection. @*Results@#There were 97 mucosal and 23 submucosal cancer lesions. Multivariable analysis revealed that the polypoid (OR, 90.8; 95% CI, 3.5~2,346.2) or elevated (OR, 5.0; 95% CI, 1.2~21.3) types, deep depression (OR, 76.0; 95% CI, 4.5~1,284.6), and upper (OR, 22.7; 95% CI, 3.0~170.8) or middle location (OR, 10.3; 95% CI, 1.9~55.4) were significant risk factors of submucosal invasion. @*Conclusions@#The treatment modality for undifferentiated-type EGC of the polypoid/elevated type or with deep depression located in the upper two-thirds of the stomach should be carefully considered, even if the tumor size and ulcer status meet the ESD indications.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901807

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Rectal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) <10 mm are endoscopically resected, while those ≥20 mm are treated with radical surgical resection. The choice of treatment for 10–20 mm sized rectal NETs remains controversial. This study aimed to verify factors predicting lymph node metastasis (LNM) of 10–20 mm sized rectal NET and utilize them to decide upon the treatment strategy. @*Methods@#Twenty-eight patients with 10–20 mm sized rectal NETs treated at Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital from January 2009 to September 2020 were divided into LNM (+) and LNM (–) groups, and their respective data were analyzed. @*Results@#Seven patients (25%) had LNM while 21 patients (75%) did not. Endorectal ultrasound findings showed tumor size was significantly larger in the LNM (+) than in the LNM (–) group (15 mm vs. 10 mm, P=0.018); however, pathologically, there was no significant difference in tumor size (13 mm vs. 11 mm, P=0.109). The mitotic count (P=0.011), Ki-67 index (P=0.008), and proportion of tumor grade 2 patients (5 cases, 71% vs. 1 case, 5%; P=0.001) were significantly higher in the LNM (+) group. In multivariate analysis, tumor grade 2 was the independent factor predicting LNM (odds ratio, 61.32; 95% confidence interval, 3.17–1,188.64; P=0.010). @*Conclusion@#Tumor grade 2 was the independent factor predicting LNM in 10–20 mm sized rectal NETs. Therefore, it could be considered as the meaningful factor in determining whether radical resection is necessary.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895926

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The prediction of invasion depth is important to decide the treatment modality for undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer (EGC) less than 20 mm in size without ulceration. We aimed to identify the endoscopic features associated with submucosal invasion in undifferentiated-type EGC that meet the criteria of size and ulcer status. @*Methods@#A total of 120 patients with undifferentiated-type EGC who underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) or gastrectomy between August 2008 and December 2017 were enrolled and reviewed retrospectively. All lesions met the ESD indications except for the invasion depth. We analyzed the endoscopic features of the tumors before resection and invasion depth after resection. @*Results@#There were 97 mucosal and 23 submucosal cancer lesions. Multivariable analysis revealed that the polypoid (OR, 90.8; 95% CI, 3.5~2,346.2) or elevated (OR, 5.0; 95% CI, 1.2~21.3) types, deep depression (OR, 76.0; 95% CI, 4.5~1,284.6), and upper (OR, 22.7; 95% CI, 3.0~170.8) or middle location (OR, 10.3; 95% CI, 1.9~55.4) were significant risk factors of submucosal invasion. @*Conclusions@#The treatment modality for undifferentiated-type EGC of the polypoid/elevated type or with deep depression located in the upper two-thirds of the stomach should be carefully considered, even if the tumor size and ulcer status meet the ESD indications.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919171

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Tacrolimus has been used as an immunosuppressive agent in organ transplantation. Despite the therapeutic benefits, tacrolimus’s use is limited due to its nephrotoxicity. To reduce tacrolimus nephrotoxicity, effective humanized experimental models may be helpful. Here, we modeled tacrolimus nephrotoxicity using kidney organoids derived from human inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in vitro. @*Methods@#Kidney organoids were differentiated from the CMC11 iPSC cell line, re-seeded in 96-well plates, and treated with tacrolimus at doses of 0, 30, or 60 μM for 24 hours. This in vitro model was compared to a mouse model of tacrolimus nephrotoxicity and the associated mechanisms were investigated. @*Results@#The size of the kidney organoids and cell viability decreased in dose-dependent manners after treatment with tacrolimus. The number of tubular cells decreased with a loss of polarity, similar to the effects seen in mouse tacrolimus nephrotoxicity. Ultrastructural analysis showed numerous vacuoles in the proximal tubular cells of the kidney organoids treated with tacrolimus. Tacrolimus treatment induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, and autophagic activity was enhanced in the kidney organoids. Rapamycin, an autophagy inducer, accelerated cell death in the kidney organoid model of tacrolimus nephrotoxicity, which was attenuated by treatment with 3-methyladenine, an autophagy inhibitor. These findings indicate that the augmentation of autophagy by rapamycin treatment accelerated tacrolimus nephrotoxicity. @*Conclusions@#Our data suggest that human kidney organoids are an effective in vitro model of tacrolimus nephrotoxicity and that autophagy plays a critical role in tacrolimus nephrotoxicity.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918945

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This multicenter study reviewed the clinical features and prognosis according to the primary site of involvement and the treatment modality in patients with B-cell primary intestinal lymphoma (PIL). @*Methods@#Among 125 consecutive patients diagnosed with PIL, 100 patients were analyzed. @*Results@#The median age was 59 years, and the male to female ratio was 1.86:1. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (66/100, 66.0%) was the most common histological subtype. The estimated 5-year survival rate (5-YSR) was 48.5%. The 5-YSR was similar regardless of the type of primary treatment (chemotherapy alone vs. surgery/chemotherapy, 50.7 vs. 45.3%, p=0.582). A comparison of the survival according to the primary site of involvement revealed a 5-YSR of 32.5% (p=0.027), 64.3% (reference), 46.5% (p=0.113), and 49.8% (p=0.024) for the small intestine, ileocecal region, large intestine, and multiple sites, respectively. Multivariate analysis, however, revealed a low hemoglobin level, advanced Ann Arbor stage, and aggressive histological type to be independent prognostic factors for shorter survival but not ileocecal region involvement. @*Conclusions@#The Ann Arbor stage, hemoglobin level, and histological type were independent prognostic factors for survival, while the primary site of involvement and treatment modality did not affect the prognosis in patients with B-cell PIL.

8.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 398-403, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894519

ABSTRACT

Most upper gastrointestinal lipomas occur in the duodenal second portion, and gastric lipomas are rare. Most lipomas are usually asymptomatic, but symptoms such as abdominal pain, intussusception, ulceration, and intestinal obstruction may occur depending on the size and location and, rarely, can cause bleeding. Endoscopic polypectomy, endoscopic mucosal resection, and surgical resection are the treatments of choice for lipomas with intestinal obstruction or bleeding. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding from lipoma is mostly of duodenal origin and very rarely from the stomach. Here, we report a case of successful treatment of gastric lipoma with massive bleeding by endoscopic resection.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893804

ABSTRACT

Background@#Infection is the second leading cause of death in patients undergoing long-term dialysis. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is associated with an increased risk of infection-related hospitalization (IRH) when compared with hemodialysis. In this study, we investigated the influence of IRH on clinical outcomes in incident PD patients. @*Methods@#In total, 583 incident PD patients were selected from the Clinical Research Center Registry for End-Stage Renal Disease, a nationwide multicenter prospective observational cohort study in Korea. Incident PD patients who had been hospitalized for infection-related diseases were defined as the IRH group. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality and the secondary outcome was technical failure. The median follow-up period was 29 months. @*Results@#Seventy-three PD patients (12.5%) were categorized in the IRH group. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that diabetes mellitus was a significant independent predictor for IRH (odds ratio, 2.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12 to 5.29; P = 0.007). The most common causes of IRH were peritonitis (63.0%) and respiratory tract infection (9.6%). Multivariable Cox proportional hazard model analysis showed that IRH was a significant independent risk factor for all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 2.51; 95% CI, 1.12 to 5.62; P = 0.026) and for the technical failure of PD (HR, 3.23; 95% CI, 1.90 to 5.51; P < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#Our data showed that after initiation of PD, IRH was significantly associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality and technical failure.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836654

ABSTRACT

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare acquired disorder of hematopoietic stem cells characterized by chronic intravascular hemolysis, nocturnal hemoglobinuria, thromboembolic events and secondary bone marrow failure caused by uncontrolled complement activation. Generally, chronic abdominal pain and iron deficiency anemia are considered typical symptoms of gastrointestinal diseases, but are also common in PNH. We report a case of PNH presenting with chronic abdominal pain and iron deficiency anemia, along with a relevant literature review.

11.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834077

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Needle knife fistulotomy (NKF) is a technique to facilitate pancreatic and biliary duct access during ERCP. The double-guidewire technique (DGT) is also used in cases of difficult cannulation, but it can increase the incidence of post-ERCP-pancreatitis (PEP). This study examined the success and complication rates of NKF after unsuccessful standard cannulation or DGT in patients with pancreaticobiliary disease. @*Methods@#The data of 209 patients who received NKF as a rescue procedure between January 2009 and December 2016 were reviewed retrospectively. The cannulation success and complication rates were assessed. @*Results@#The overall cannulation success rate was 90.4%. The success rates of patients who received NKF after standard cannulation or DGT were similar (82.6% [142/172] and 73.0% [27/37], respectively, p=0.179). Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the incidence of procedure-related adverse events between the two groups (10.5% [18/172] and 16.2% [6/37], respectively, p=0.391). Endoscopic retrograde pancreatic drainage (ERPD) insertion decreased the incidence of PEP (0% [0/16] in ERPD and 14.6% [19/130] in non-ERPD, p=0.132) among patients who received PD cannulation. @*Conclusions@#NKF is an effective and safe method that can be considered for rescue management after the initial failure of standard cannulation or DGT. NKF following standard cannulation can be preferred over NKF following DGT because of the higher success rate and the lower rate of pancreatitis, but the difference was not significant. PD stenting in patients at high risk of PEP can be considered to decrease pancreatitis.

12.
Gut and Liver ; : 611-618, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833188

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Endoscopic diagnosis of dysplasia or colitic cancer in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) is more challenging than that of colorectal neoplasia in non-colitic patients. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the endo-scopic diagnosis of “nonpedunculated” dysplasia or colitic cancer in UC patients. @*Methods@#Ten endoscopists from four countries were surveyed using photographs of 61 histologi-cally confirmed dysplastic or non-dysplastic lesions retrieved from the UC registry database of Asan Medical Center. The participants provided their assessment based on the given photographs and their intention to perform biopsy. @*Results@#The overall diagnostic performance of the 10 participants is summarized as follows: sensitivity of 88.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.3% to 91.5%), specificity of 34.8% (95% CI, 29.1% to 40.8%), positive predictive value of 63.0% (95% CI, 60.8% to 65.2%), negative predictive value of 70.2% (95% CI, 62.7% to 76.6%), and accuracy of 64.6% (95% CI, 60.7% to 68.4%). The interobserver agreement on the inten-tion to perform a biopsy was poor (Fleiss kappa=0.169). Of the three endoscopic characteristics of the lesions, includ-ing ulceration, distinctness of the borders, and pit patterns, only neoplastic pit patterns were significantly predictive of dysplasia (odds ratio, 3.710; 95% CI, 2.001 to 6.881). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of neoplastic pit patterns were 68.2% (95% CI, 63.0% to 73.2%) and 63.3% (95% CI,57.3% to 69.1%), respectively. @*Conclusions@#Diagnostic per-formance based on the endoscopist’s intention to perform a biopsy for nonpedunculated potentially dysplastic lesions in UC patients was suboptimal according to this survey-based study.

13.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 398-403, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902223

ABSTRACT

Most upper gastrointestinal lipomas occur in the duodenal second portion, and gastric lipomas are rare. Most lipomas are usually asymptomatic, but symptoms such as abdominal pain, intussusception, ulceration, and intestinal obstruction may occur depending on the size and location and, rarely, can cause bleeding. Endoscopic polypectomy, endoscopic mucosal resection, and surgical resection are the treatments of choice for lipomas with intestinal obstruction or bleeding. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding from lipoma is mostly of duodenal origin and very rarely from the stomach. Here, we report a case of successful treatment of gastric lipoma with massive bleeding by endoscopic resection.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901508

ABSTRACT

Background@#Infection is the second leading cause of death in patients undergoing long-term dialysis. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is associated with an increased risk of infection-related hospitalization (IRH) when compared with hemodialysis. In this study, we investigated the influence of IRH on clinical outcomes in incident PD patients. @*Methods@#In total, 583 incident PD patients were selected from the Clinical Research Center Registry for End-Stage Renal Disease, a nationwide multicenter prospective observational cohort study in Korea. Incident PD patients who had been hospitalized for infection-related diseases were defined as the IRH group. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality and the secondary outcome was technical failure. The median follow-up period was 29 months. @*Results@#Seventy-three PD patients (12.5%) were categorized in the IRH group. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that diabetes mellitus was a significant independent predictor for IRH (odds ratio, 2.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12 to 5.29; P = 0.007). The most common causes of IRH were peritonitis (63.0%) and respiratory tract infection (9.6%). Multivariable Cox proportional hazard model analysis showed that IRH was a significant independent risk factor for all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 2.51; 95% CI, 1.12 to 5.62; P = 0.026) and for the technical failure of PD (HR, 3.23; 95% CI, 1.90 to 5.51; P < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#Our data showed that after initiation of PD, IRH was significantly associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality and technical failure.

15.
Intestinal Research ; : 413-418, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764149

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study compared the efficacy, compliance, and safety of bowel preparation between sodium picosulfate with magnesium citrate (SPMC) and oral sulfate solution (OSS). METHODS: A prospective randomized multicenter study was performed. Split preparation methods were performed in both groups; the SPMC group, 2 sachets on the day before, and 1 sachet on the day of the procedure, the OSS group, half of the OSS with 1 L of water on both the day before and the day of the procedure. The adenoma detection rate (ADR), adequacy of bowel preparation using the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale (BBPS) score, patient satisfaction on a visual analog scale (VAS), and safety were compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS: This study analyzed 229 patients (121 in the SPMC group and 108 in the OSS group). ADR showed no differences between 2 groups (51.7% vs. 41.7%, P>0.05). The mean total BBPS score (7.95 vs. 8.11, P>0.05) and adequate bowel preparation rate (94.9% vs. 96.3%, P>0.05) were similar between the 2 groups. The mean VAS score for taste (7.62 vs. 6.87, P=0.006) was significantly higher in the SPMC group than in the OSS group. There were no significant differences in any other safety variables between the 2 groups except nausea symptom (36.1% vs. 20.3%, P=0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Bowel preparation for colonoscopy using low volume OSS and SPMC yielded similar ADRs and levels of efficacy. SPMC had higher levels of satisfaction for taste and feeling than did OSS.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Citric Acid , Colonoscopy , Compliance , Humans , Magnesium , Nausea , Patient Satisfaction , Prospective Studies , Sodium , Visual Analog Scale , Water
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739532

ABSTRACT

14-3-3γ plays diverse roles in different aspects of cellular processes. Especially in the brain where 14-3-3γ is enriched, it has been reported to be involved in neurological and psychiatric diseases (e.g. Williams-Beuren syndrome and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease). However, behavioral abnormalities related to 14-3-3γ deficiency are largely unknown. Here, by using 14-3-3γ deficient mice, we found that homozygous knockout mice were prenatally lethal, and heterozygous mice showed developmental delay relative to wild-type littermate mice. In addition, in behavioral analyses, we found that 14-3-3γ heterozygote mice display hyperactive and depressive-like behavior along with more sensitive responses to acute stress than littermate control mice. These results suggest that 14-3-3γ levels may be involved in the developmental manifestation of related neuropsychiatric diseases. In addition, 14-3-3γ heterozygote mice may be a potential model to study the molecular pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric symptoms.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anxiety , Brain , Heterozygote , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Williams Syndrome
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714519

ABSTRACT

Duodenal perforation is a complication of endoscopic mucosal resection. Liver abscess secondary to iatrogenic perforation is extremely rare. A 43-year-old female visited the hospital to remove a sub-epithelial tumor on the duodenal bulb. After endoscopic mucosal resection with band ligation, duodenal perforation occurred. Endoscopic closure was performed successfully using a clipping device to manage duodenal perforation. After 4 weeks, the patient visited our outpatient clinic due to abdominal pain and fever. Abdominal computed tomography showed liver abscess that involved segment three. Liver abscess was resolved with a 10-week antibiotic treatment. To the best of our knowledge, no case of liver abscess secondary to duodenal perforation by endoscopic resection was reported to date in Korea. Here, we report a case of liver abscess caused by a duodenal perforation after endoscopic mucosal resection.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Adult , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Duodenum , Female , Fever , Humans , Intestinal Perforation , Korea , Ligation , Liver Abscess , Liver
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-199022

ABSTRACT

Intramural hematoma of the esophagus is a rare condition that can be spontaneous or secondary to trauma, toxic ingestion, or intervention. If it is the spontaneous type, it usually presents initially with epigastric pain, hematemesis or dysphagia. We present a case of intramural hematoma of the esophagus mimicking acute coronary syndrome. A 63-year-old man presented with severe acute chest pain. He has four coronary stents that were inserted five years ago, from a different hospital, and is on dual antiplatelet agents. Coronary angiography was performed immediately under the suspicion of acute coronary syndrome, and we found that there was no obvious clogging of the coronary arteries. Next, chest computed tomography was performed due to suspected aortic dissection, and the result was also negative. Four days later, endoscopy was performed and intramural hematoma covered with large ulcers was diagnosed.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , Chest Pain , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Vessels , Deglutition Disorders , Eating , Endoscopy , Esophagus , Hematemesis , Hematoma , Humans , Middle Aged , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Stents , Thorax , Ulcer
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-155812

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Benign esophageal stricture after esophagectomy is not an infrequent complication. Anastomotic esophageal stricture requires frequent multiple dilations. We aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of dilation therapies using an endoscopic balloon or bougie dilator and analyzed the risk factors associated with refractory stricture. METHODS: Between January 2009 and May 2016, the medical records of 21 patients treated with endoscopic balloon dilation or bougie dilation for esophageal anastomotic strictures were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: During the study periods, a total of 21 patients were diagnosed with esophageal anastomotic stricture and included for analysis (17 male; mean age, 68.2±7.2 years at the first procedure). The mean stricture length was 6.4±8.1 mm. The refractory stricture was found in 28.6% of patients, and successful relief of dysphagia was achieved in 71.4% of patients. The major complication associated with dilations was absent. Factors associated with refractory stricture were stricture length (> 10 mm, p<0.049) and diabetes mellitus (p=0.035). Additive bougie dilations achieved clinical success in 4 out of 7 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Dilation with endoscopic balloon or bougie dilator was an effective and safe procedure for benign anastomotic esophageal strictures of less than 10 mm in length.


Subject(s)
Constriction, Pathologic , Deglutition Disorders , Diabetes Mellitus , Esophageal Stenosis , Esophagectomy , Esophagus , Humans , Male , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
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