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1.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 213-218, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967548

ABSTRACT

Recently, the efficacy of immuno-oncologic agents for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been proven in several trials. In particular, atezolizumab with bevacizumab (AteBeva), as a first-line therapy for advanced HCC, has shown tremendous advances in the IMBrave150 study. However, second or third-line therapy after treatment failure with AteBeva has not been firmly established. Moreover, clinicians have continued their attempts at multidisciplinary treatment that includes other systemic therapy and radiotherapy (RT). Here, we report a case that showed a near complete response (CR) of lung metastasis to nivolumab with ipilimumab therapy after achieving a near CR of intrahepatic tumor using sorafenib and RT in a patient with advanced HCC who had experienced treatment failure of AteBeva.

2.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e75-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967462

ABSTRACT

Background@#Administration of adequate antibiotics is crucial for better outcomes in sepsis. Because no uniform tool can accurately assess the risk of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens, a local antibiogram is necessary. We aimed to describe the antibiogram of MDR bacteria based on locations of sepsis onset in South Korea. @*Methods@#We performed a prospective observational study of adult patients diagnosed with sepsis according to Sepsis-3 from 19 institutions (13 tertiary referral and 6 universityaffiliated general hospitals) in South Korea. Patients were divided into four groups based on the respective location of sepsis onset: community, nursing home, long-term-care hospital, and hospital. Along with the antibiogram, risk factors of MDR bacteria and drug-bug match of empirical antibiotics were analyzed. @*Results@#MDR bacteria were detected in 1,596 (22.7%) of 7,024 patients with gram-negative predominance. MDR gram-negative bacteria were more commonly detected in long-termcare hospital- (30.4%) and nursing home-acquired (26.3%) sepsis, whereas MDR grampositive bacteria were more prevalent in hospital-acquired (10.9%) sepsis. Such findings were consistent regardless of the location and tier of hospitals throughout South Korea. Patients with long-term-care hospital-acquired sepsis had the highest risk of MDR pathogen, which was even higher than those with hospital-acquired sepsis (adjusted odds ratio, 1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.15–1.75) after adjustment of risk factors. The drug-bug match was lowest in patients with long-term-care hospital-acquired sepsis (66.8%). @*Conclusion@#Gram-negative MDR bacteria were more common in nursing home- and long-term-care hospital-acquired sepsis, whereas gram-positive MDR bacteria were more common in hospital-acquired settings in South Korea. Patients with long-term-care hospitalacquired sepsis had the highest the risk of MDR bacteria but lowest drug-bug match of initial antibiotics. We suggest that initial antibiotics be carefully selected according to the onset location in each patient.

3.
Genomics & Informatics ; : e29-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000715

ABSTRACT

Preterm birth (PTB), a pregnancy-related disease, is defined as a birth before 37 weeks of gestation. It is a major cause of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide, and its incidence rate is steadily increasing. Various genetic factors can contribute to the etiology of PTB. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) gene is an important angiogenic gene and its polymorphisms have been reported to be associated with PTB development. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to evaluate the association between VEGFA rs699947, rs2010963, and rs3025039 polymorphisms and PTB in Korean women. A total of 271 subjects (116 patients with PTB and 155 women at ≥38 weeks of gestation) were analyzed in this study. The genotyping of VEGFA gene polymorphisms was performed using polymerase chain reaction– restriction fragment length polymorphism. No significant association between the patients with PTB and the control groups was confirmed. In the combination analysis, we found a significant association between PTB and VEGFA rs699947 CC-rs2010963 GG-rs3025039 CC combination (odds ratio, 3.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.091 to 13.032; p = 0.031). The VEGFA rs699947, rs2010963, and rs3025039 polymorphisms might have no genetic association with the pathogenesis of PTB in Korean women. However, the combination analysis indicates the possibility that VEGFA acts in PTB pathophysiology. Therefore, larger sample sets and replication studies are required to further elucidate our findings.

4.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e206-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938038

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the association between Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination and nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD). Patients in the prospective NTM-PD cohort were matched to healthy controls to measure the association between BCG and NTM-PD development. The clinical course of NTM-PD patients was also evaluated to investigate the association between BCG and NTM-PD progression. BCG scars were not associated with NTM-PD development (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96–4.34) or progression (adjusted OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 0.92–2.81).In conclusion, BCG vaccination was not associated with the development or progression of NTM-PD.

5.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 422-429, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927171

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We previously developed learning models for predicting the need for intensive care and oxygen among patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Here, we aimed to prospectively validate the accuracy of these models. @*Materials and Methods@#Probabilities of the need for intensive care [intensive care unit (ICU) score] and oxygen (oxygen score) were calculated from information provided by hospitalized COVID-19 patients (n=44) via a web-based application. The performance of baseline scores to predict 30-day outcomes was assessed. @*Results@#Among 44 patients, 5 and 15 patients needed intensive care and oxygen, respectively. The area under the curve of ICU score and oxygen score to predict 30-day outcomes were 0.774 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.614–0.934] and 0.728 (95% CI:0.559–0.898), respectively. The ICU scores of patients needing intensive care increased daily by 0.71 points (95% CI: 0.20–1.22) after hospitalization and by 0.85 points (95% CI: 0.36–1.35) after symptom onset, which were significantly different from those in individuals not needing intensive care (p=0.002 and <0.001, respectively). Trends in daily oxygen scores overall were not markedly different; however, when the scores were evaluated within <7 days after symptom onset, the patients needing oxygen showed a higher daily increase in oxygen scores [1.81 (95% CI: 0.48–3.14) vs. -0.28 (95% CI: 1.00–0.43), p=0.007]. @*Conclusion@#Our machine learning models showed good performance for predicting the outcomes of COVID-19 patients and could thus be useful for patient triage and monitoring.

6.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 377-386, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926998

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) is common among military smokers; however, bronchoscopy is required for the diagnosis. We aimed to derive and validate a scoring system to diagnose AEP without bronchoscopy. @*Methods@#We conducted a retrospective study including patients diagnosed with AEP or any other pneumonia among military smokers hospitalized in the Armed Forces Capital Hospital from 15 November 2016 through 25 December 2019. The patients were divided into derivation and validation groups according to their admission day. Patient symptoms, laboratory findings, and computed tomography findings were candidate variables. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression was used to calculate the scores for each variable. @*Results@#Among 414 patients, AEP was confirmed in 54 of 279 patients (19.4%) in the derivation group and in 18 of 135 patients (13.3%) in the validation group. Ten variables were selected using LASSO regression: new-onset or a recently increased smoking (≤ 4 weeks) (8 points), interlobular septal thickening (5 points), absence of sputum (3 points), ground glass opacity (3 points), acute onset (≤ 3 days) (2 points), dyspnea (2 points), chest pain (2 points), leukocytosis (2 points), bronchovascular bundle thickening (2 points), and bilateral involvement (2 points). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of the score to diagnose AEP was 0.997 (95% confidence interval, 0.992 to 1.000) in the derivation group and 0.985 (95% confidence interval, 0.965 to 1.000) in the validation group. @*Conclusions@#We introduce a scoring system that can distinguish AEP from other types of pneumonia in military smokers without the need for bronchoscopy.

7.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 323-333, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925217

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Migraine is reportedly associated with several cardio-cerebrovascular diseases (CCDs), but some of these diseases have not received sufficient attention. We thus attempted to determine the associations of migraine with peripheral arterial disease (PAD), ischemic heart disease (IHD), atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF), ischemic stroke (IS), and hemorrhagic stroke (HS). @*Methods@#The study population was recruited by applying International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes to the database of the Korean National Health Insurance Service from 2002 to 2018. Cumulative incidence curves were plotted to compare the incidence rates of CCDs between the migraine (ICD-10 code G43; n=130,050) and nonmigraine (n=130,050) groups determined using 1:1 propensity-score matching. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used to obtain adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CCDs in patients with any migraine, migraine with aura (n=99,751), and migraine without aura (n=19,562) compared with nonmigraine controls. @*Results@#For all CCDs, the cumulative incidence rates were higher in the migraine group than the nonmigraine group (p<0.001 in log-rank test). Any migraine, irrespective of the presence of aura, was associated with PAD (aHR 2.29, 95% CI 2.06–2.53), IHD (aHR 2.17, 95% CI 2.12– 2.23), AF (aHR 1.84, 95% CI 1.70–1.99), IS (aHR 2.91, 95% CI 2.67–3.16), and HS (aHR 2.46, 95% CI 2.23–2.71). aHR was higher in female than in male migraineurs for all of the CCDs. @*Conclusions@#Associations of migraine with CCDs have been demonstrated, which are stronger in females than in males.

8.
Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery ; : 16-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918478

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aim of this study was to conduct epidemiologic investigations on the pattern of the lesion and differences between treatment modalities in terms of recurrence by reviewing follow-up records to form a basis for planning patient follow-up visits. @*Materials and methods@#In this retrospective, single-center cohort study, 266 patients diagnosed with odontogenic keratocyst between 1993 and 2013 were included. Medical records and radiographic images were analyzed for age distribution, occurrence site and size, treatment modalities, and recurrence. @*Results@#The average age at first diagnosis was 33.1 years, and the male to female ratio was 1.33:1.00. The highest rate of incidence was in the third decade followed by the fourth, second, and fifth decades. The incidence in the maxilla was 34%, and 66% in the mandible. Mandibular ramus was most commonly involved. Lesions between 3 and 6 crowns were the most common, and the rate of recurrence increased with size. Enucleation after decompression had higher rate of recurrence (35.8%) than enucleation (27.1%), but there was no statistical significance. @*Conclusion@#The recurrence of odontogenic kerotocyst (OKC) was significantly associated with large size, multilocular form, and surgical procedure. A 10-year follow-up period is recommended to determine any recurrence of OKC.

9.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 341-355, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914314

ABSTRACT

Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), a well-known mitochondrial deacetylase, is involved in mitochondrial function and metabolism under various stress conditions. In this study, we found that the expression of SIRT3 was markedly increased by oxidative stress in dopaminergic neuronal cells. In addition, SIRT3 overexpression enhanced mitochondrial activity in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. We also showed that SIRT3 overexpression attenuated rotenoneor H2 O2 -induced toxicity in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells (human dopaminergic cell line). We further found that knockdown of SIRT3 enhanced rotenone- or H2 O2 -induced toxicity in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, overexpression of SIRT3 mitigated cell death caused by LPS/IFN-γ stimulation in astrocytes. We also found that the rotenone treatment increases the level of SIRT3 in Drosophila brain. We observed that downregulation of sirt2 (Drosophila homologue of SIRT3) significantly accelerated the rotenone-induced toxicity in flies. Taken together, these findings suggest that the overexpression of SIRT3 mitigates oxidative stress-induced cell death and mitochondrial dysfunction in dopaminergic neurons and astrocytes.

10.
Anesthesia and Pain Medicine ; : 248-257, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913365

ABSTRACT

Background@#Robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is an advanced and popular surgical technique. However, increased intracranial pressure which is caused by CO2 pneumoperitoneum and Trendelenburg position is the main cerebrovascular effect. Measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter using ocular ultrasound is a noninvasive and reliable method for the assessment of intracranial pressure. The primary endpoint of this study was to identify whether low blood pressure regulation has any benefit in attenuating an increase of optic nerve sheath diameter during robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. @*Methods@#Optic nerve sheath diameter and cerebral oxygen saturation were measured at baseline (supine position), one and two hours after pneumoperitoneum and Trendelenburg position respectively, and after return to supine position in normal (n = 27) and low blood pressure groups (n = 24). @*Results@#Mean optic nerve sheath diameter values measured at one and two hours after pneumoperitoneum and Trendelenburg position were significantly increased compared to the baseline value (P < 0.001 in normal blood pressure group; P = 0.003 in low blood pressure group). However, the mean optic nerve sheath diameter and cerebral oxygen saturation measured at any of the time points as well as degrees of change between the two groups did not show any significant changes. The peak values of optic nerve sheath diameter in normal and low blood pressure groups demonstrated 14.9% and 9.2% increases, respectively. @*Conclusions@#Low blood pressure group demonstrated an effect in maintaining an increase of optic nerve sheath diameter less than 10% during CO2 pneumoperitoneum and Trendelenburg position.

11.
Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons ; : 315-320, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893045

ABSTRACT

Carbon-ion radiotherapy (CIRT) is on the rise as a treatment choice for malignant tumor. Compared to conventional radiotherapy, particle beams have different physical and biological properties. Particle beam provides a low entry dose, deposits most of the energy at the endpoint of the flight path, and forms an asymptotic dose peak (the “Bragg peak”). Compared to protons, carbon with its larger mass decreases beam scattering, resulting in a sharper dose distribution border. We report a 50-year-old male who underwent CIRT without surgical resection on osteosarcoma of the mandible. After CIRT, the patient’s pain was gone, and the malignant mass remained stable with accompanying necrosis. Nine months later, however, magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated progression of the left mandibular osteosarcoma with pulmonary metastases. After multidisciplinary discussion, concurrent chemoradiotherapy was conducted. While necrotic bone segments came out of the mandible during subsequent periodic outpatient visits, the tumor itself was stable. Thirty months after his first visit and diagnosis, the patient is waiting for chemotherapy. Although CIRT is superior in treating radioresistant hypoxic disease, CIRT is in its infancy, so care must be taken for its indications and complications.

12.
Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons ; : 76-81, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893038

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#We aimed to collect and report data from all patients who have been diagnosed with mucosal malignant melanoma to obtain the epidemiology and principles of current treatments. @*Materials and Methods@#Between January 2008 and December 2018, 20 patients underwent surgery or follow-up observations at Yonsei University Dental Hospital. The patients’ clinical information was reviewed retrospectively. @*Results@#Seventeen of 20 patients had undergone definitive surgery, while only 6 patients received adjuvant radiotherapy or systemic therapy. Eight of 20 patients, including those that had recurrent lesions, were provided immunotherapy. The 3-year survival for all stages was 50%, with a local recurrence rate of 75% and a metastasis rate of 65%. @*Conclusion@#The overall survival of patients receiving surgical treatment was longer than that of patients who did not undergo surgical resection.Eight of 20 patients received immunotherapy as the first-line regimen at our clinic, and those patients exhibited longer overall survival compared to patients in reported keynote studies.

13.
Journal of Stroke ; : 213-222, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892943

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Previous studies have assessed the relationship between cerebral vessel tortuosity and intracranial aneurysm (IA) based on two-dimensional brain image analysis. We evaluated the relationship between cerebral vessel tortuosity and IA according to the hemodynamic location using three-dimensional (3D) analysis and studied the effect of tortuosity on the recurrence of treated IA. @*Methods@#We collected clinical and imaging data from patients with IA and disease-free controls. IAs were categorized into outer curvature and bifurcation types. Computerized analysis of the images provided information on the length of the arterial segment and tortuosity of the cerebral arteries in 3D space. @*Results@#Data from 95 patients with IA and 95 controls were analyzed. Regarding parent vessel tortuosity index (TI; P<0.01), average TI (P<0.01), basilar artery (BA; P=0.02), left posterior cerebral artery (P=0.03), both vertebral arteries (VAs; P<0.01), and right internal carotid artery (P<0.01), there was a significant difference only in the outer curvature type compared with the control group. The outer curvature type was analyzed, and the occurrence of an IA was associated with increased TI of the parent vessel, average, BA, right middle cerebral artery, and both VAs in the logistic regression analysis. However, in all aneurysm cases, recanalization of the treated aneurysm was inversely associated with increased TI of the parent vessels. @*Conclusions@#TIs of intracranial arteries are associated with the occurrence of IA, especially in the outer curvature type. IAs with a high TI in the parent vessel showed good outcomes with endovascular treatment.

14.
Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons ; : 315-320, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900749

ABSTRACT

Carbon-ion radiotherapy (CIRT) is on the rise as a treatment choice for malignant tumor. Compared to conventional radiotherapy, particle beams have different physical and biological properties. Particle beam provides a low entry dose, deposits most of the energy at the endpoint of the flight path, and forms an asymptotic dose peak (the “Bragg peak”). Compared to protons, carbon with its larger mass decreases beam scattering, resulting in a sharper dose distribution border. We report a 50-year-old male who underwent CIRT without surgical resection on osteosarcoma of the mandible. After CIRT, the patient’s pain was gone, and the malignant mass remained stable with accompanying necrosis. Nine months later, however, magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated progression of the left mandibular osteosarcoma with pulmonary metastases. After multidisciplinary discussion, concurrent chemoradiotherapy was conducted. While necrotic bone segments came out of the mandible during subsequent periodic outpatient visits, the tumor itself was stable. Thirty months after his first visit and diagnosis, the patient is waiting for chemotherapy. Although CIRT is superior in treating radioresistant hypoxic disease, CIRT is in its infancy, so care must be taken for its indications and complications.

15.
Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons ; : 76-81, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900742

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#We aimed to collect and report data from all patients who have been diagnosed with mucosal malignant melanoma to obtain the epidemiology and principles of current treatments. @*Materials and Methods@#Between January 2008 and December 2018, 20 patients underwent surgery or follow-up observations at Yonsei University Dental Hospital. The patients’ clinical information was reviewed retrospectively. @*Results@#Seventeen of 20 patients had undergone definitive surgery, while only 6 patients received adjuvant radiotherapy or systemic therapy. Eight of 20 patients, including those that had recurrent lesions, were provided immunotherapy. The 3-year survival for all stages was 50%, with a local recurrence rate of 75% and a metastasis rate of 65%. @*Conclusion@#The overall survival of patients receiving surgical treatment was longer than that of patients who did not undergo surgical resection.Eight of 20 patients received immunotherapy as the first-line regimen at our clinic, and those patients exhibited longer overall survival compared to patients in reported keynote studies.

16.
Journal of Stroke ; : 213-222, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900647

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Previous studies have assessed the relationship between cerebral vessel tortuosity and intracranial aneurysm (IA) based on two-dimensional brain image analysis. We evaluated the relationship between cerebral vessel tortuosity and IA according to the hemodynamic location using three-dimensional (3D) analysis and studied the effect of tortuosity on the recurrence of treated IA. @*Methods@#We collected clinical and imaging data from patients with IA and disease-free controls. IAs were categorized into outer curvature and bifurcation types. Computerized analysis of the images provided information on the length of the arterial segment and tortuosity of the cerebral arteries in 3D space. @*Results@#Data from 95 patients with IA and 95 controls were analyzed. Regarding parent vessel tortuosity index (TI; P<0.01), average TI (P<0.01), basilar artery (BA; P=0.02), left posterior cerebral artery (P=0.03), both vertebral arteries (VAs; P<0.01), and right internal carotid artery (P<0.01), there was a significant difference only in the outer curvature type compared with the control group. The outer curvature type was analyzed, and the occurrence of an IA was associated with increased TI of the parent vessel, average, BA, right middle cerebral artery, and both VAs in the logistic regression analysis. However, in all aneurysm cases, recanalization of the treated aneurysm was inversely associated with increased TI of the parent vessels. @*Conclusions@#TIs of intracranial arteries are associated with the occurrence of IA, especially in the outer curvature type. IAs with a high TI in the parent vessel showed good outcomes with endovascular treatment.

17.
Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery ; : 40-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894980

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hyaluronic acid (HA) is well known to exert an anti-inflammatory effect during oral wound healing and is commonly applied after tooth extraction. However, no double-blind randomized controlled study comparing two hyaluronate mouthwash products has been conducted so far. The aim of this study was to comparatively analyze the efficacy of Mucobarrier® and Aloclair® in terms of clinical symptoms. @*Results@#A total of 112 patients were randomly assigned to assess the degree of discomfort, pain reduction, redness, burning sensation, and swelling between two groups on the day of surgery and 7 days later in a double blind test, with a total 56 Aloclair patients and 56 Mucobarrier patients. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall discomfort, degree of pain reduction, redness, burning sensation, and swelling between the Mucobarrier and Aloclair groups. @*Conclusion@#The local application of hyaluronic acid mouth wash after wisdom tooth extraction is beneficial in reducing overall discomfort and pain reduction, and the clinical utility of Mucobarrier® is no different from Aloclair®.Trial registrationInstitutional Review Board of Yonsei University College of Dentistry, 2-2018-0036. Registered 10 September 2018—prospectively registered, https://eirb.yuhs.ac/

18.
Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery ; : 40-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902684

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hyaluronic acid (HA) is well known to exert an anti-inflammatory effect during oral wound healing and is commonly applied after tooth extraction. However, no double-blind randomized controlled study comparing two hyaluronate mouthwash products has been conducted so far. The aim of this study was to comparatively analyze the efficacy of Mucobarrier® and Aloclair® in terms of clinical symptoms. @*Results@#A total of 112 patients were randomly assigned to assess the degree of discomfort, pain reduction, redness, burning sensation, and swelling between two groups on the day of surgery and 7 days later in a double blind test, with a total 56 Aloclair patients and 56 Mucobarrier patients. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall discomfort, degree of pain reduction, redness, burning sensation, and swelling between the Mucobarrier and Aloclair groups. @*Conclusion@#The local application of hyaluronic acid mouth wash after wisdom tooth extraction is beneficial in reducing overall discomfort and pain reduction, and the clinical utility of Mucobarrier® is no different from Aloclair®.Trial registrationInstitutional Review Board of Yonsei University College of Dentistry, 2-2018-0036. Registered 10 September 2018—prospectively registered, https://eirb.yuhs.ac/

19.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 148-158, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836029

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study surveyed the quality of the residency training program and clinical competence of Korean psychiatry residents and psychiatrists. @*Methods@#Questionnaires regarding the quality of residency training and clinical competence were administered to Korean psychiatry residents (n=102) and psychiatrists (n=157). The authors analyzed the quality of training education according to the training environment and the correlation between the quality of training and the self-assessment competence level. @*Results@#The average score of the quality of training evaluated by the residents (n=102) was 3.57 (±1.00). Groups with more than or equal to three residents (annual) scored higher (3.69±1.03) than the groups with less than or equal to two residents (3.52±0.99). Groups with more than or equal to seven teaching psychiatrists scored higher (3.42±1.03) than the groups with less than or equal to six teaching psychiatrists (3.42±1.03). The quality of training and self-assessment competence showed a significant static correlation in the residents (R2=0.488, p<0.01) and psychiatrists (R2=0.508, p<0.01). @*Conclusion@#This study shows that the quality of residency education varies according to the clinical area and the environment. The importance of training education is emphasized by the static correlation between the quality of education and clinical competence.

20.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 164-175, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832437

ABSTRACT

The activation of neurotrophic signaling pathways following the upregulation of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a member of the transforming growth factor-β family, has a potential neuroprotective effect in the adult brain. Herein, we report that hippocampal transduction of adeno-associated virus serotype 1 (AAV1) with a constitutively active form of ras homolog enriched in brain [Rheb(S16H)], which can stimulate the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in hippocampal neurons, induces the increases in expression of GDNF and GDNF family receptor α-1 (GFRα-1), in neurons and astrocytes in the hippocampus of rat brain in vivo . Moreover, upregulation of GDNF and GFRα-1 contributes to neuroprotection against thrombin-induced neurotoxicity in the hippocampus. These results suggest that AAV1-Rheb(S16H) transduction of hippocampal neurons, resulting in neurotrophic interactions between neurons and astrocytes, may be useful for neuroprotection in the adult hippocampus.

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