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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915519

ABSTRACT

Background@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is generally asymptomatic or mild in otherwise healthy children, however, severe cases may occur. In this study, we report the clinical characteristics of children classified as critical COVID-19 in Korea to provide further insights into risk factors and management in children. @*Methods@#This study was a retrospective case series of children 97% for infant) and one was overweight (BMI 21.3). All patients had fever, six patients had dyspnea or cough and other accompanied symptoms included sore throat, headache, lethargy and myalgia. Radiologic findings showed pneumonia within 1–8 days after symptom onset. Pneumonia progressed in these children for 2–6 days and was improved within 5–32 days after diagnosis. Among the eight critical cases, remdesivir was administered in six cases.Steroids were provided for all cases. Inotropics were administered in one case. Six cases were treated with noninvasive mechanical ventilator and three required mechanical ventilator. One case required ECMO due to acute respiratory distress syndrome. All cases were admitted to the intensive care unit and admission period ranged from 9–39 days. Among all critical COVID-19 cases < 18 years of age, there were no fatal cases. @*Conclusion@#To develop appropriate policies for children in the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important to monitor and assess the clinical burden in this population.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925960

ABSTRACT

Background@#The epidemiology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has changed continuously throughout the pandemic. @*Methods@#We analyzed changes in the incidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection according to the age group in South Korea from February 2020 to December 2021. @*Results@#Since the COVID-19 pandemic, the incidence among adults aged ≥ 18 years was higher than all the other age groups in 2020; however, a shift toward younger ages occurred in June 2021. In addition, we found significant changes in epidemiology after the introduction of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in adults aged ≥ 18 and children 12–17 years. Until recently, children were not regarded as the drive for the pandemic; however, children aged 5–11 and 0–4 years had the highest incidence among all the age groups. @*Conclusion@#Therefore, policies for clinical support for an increase in COVID-19 cases among young children and age-specific preventive measures are needed.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874764

ABSTRACT

Background@#Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) is a skin disease characterized by blistering and desquamation caused by exfoliative toxins (ETs) of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus).Although many countries show predominance of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), cases of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have been reported. @*Methods@#Twenty-six children aged 0.05). @*Conclusion@#S. aureus isolated from children with SSSS in Korea demonstrated a high prevalence of methicillin-resistant ST89 clones that harbored theetb gene. The predominance of MRSA suggests that antibiotics to which MRSA are susceptible may be considered for empirical antibiotic treatment in children with SSSS in Korea. Further studies on the role and effectiveness of systemic antibiotics in SSSS are warranted.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875439

ABSTRACT

Recently, the number of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who have tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2), via the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test, after recovery has increased; this has caused a dilemma regarding the medical measures and policies. We evaluated the dynamics of viral load and anti-SARSCoV-2 antibodies in four patients with positive RT-PCR results after recovery. In all patients, the highest levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies were reached after about a month of the onset of the initial symptoms. Then, the IgG titers plateaued, and the IgM titers decreased, regardless of RT-PCR results.The IgG and IgM levels did not increase after the post-negative positive RT-PCR results in any of the patients. Our results reinforced that the post-negative positive RT-PCR results may be due to the detection of RNA particles rather than reinfection in individuals who have recovered from COVID-19.

5.
Asian Oncology Nursing ; : 42-51, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889511

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to investigate the levels of compliance with safe handling of antineoplastic agents, time pressure, knowledge of safe handling of antineoplastic agents, and workplace safety climate, and to identify factors influencing compliance with the safe handling of antineoplastic agents among clinical nurses. @*Methods@#For this cross-sectional study, anonymous written surveys were conducted on a convenience sample of 130 clinical nurses at a university-affiliated hospital between July 10 and 20, 2020. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, t-tests, analyses of variance, Pearson’s correlation, and hierarchical multiple regression analysis using SPSS. @*Results@#The average level of compliance with safe handling of antineoplastic agents was 120.81 out of 175. The significant correlates for compliance with safe handling of antineoplastic agents were clinical experience, knowledge of safe handling of antineoplastic agents, and workplace safety climate. These accounted for 38% of the total variance in compliance with the safe handling of antineoplastic agents. @*Conclusion@#The findings suggest that to increase compliance with safe handling of antineoplastic agents, workplace safety climate and knowledge of safe handling of antineoplastic agents should be improved. The development and application of an effective training program on the safe handling of antineoplastic agents would lead to improvements in this area.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903142

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has been continuously spreading throughout the world. As of July 15, 2021, there have been more than 188 million confirmed cases and more than 4.06 million deaths. Although the incidence of severe infections is relatively low in children and adolescents compared to adults, a complication called multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) may occur in some cases at approximately 2–6 weeks after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. MIS-C can be seen in patients of various ages, from young infants to adolescents, and may present with diverse clinical manifestations. While fever present in a great majority of patients, symptoms suggesting the involvement of the digestive or nervous system and the skin and mucous membranes (Kawasaki disease-like symptoms) also appear in many cases. Cardiac involvement may also be observed, including left ventricular dysfunction, myocarditis, coronary artery dilatation, and coronary aneurysm. In some cases, hypotension or shock can occur, and mechanical ventilation or treatment in the intensive care unit may be necessary.Fortunately, recovery is generally reported after appropriate treatment. MIS-C is a rare but important complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and adolescents. As such, it is important to recognize the clinical symptoms and provide appropriate treatment at an early stage. In this review, the epidemiology, clinical symptoms, suggested pathophysiology, diagnostic approach, and treatment of MIS-C will be discussed.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903090

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We investigated the association of effector memory (EM) CD8 + T cell and CD4 + T cell immunity with metabolic syndrome (MS). @*Methods@#Surface and intracellular staining of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was performed. Anti-interleukin-7 receptor-alpha (IL-7Rα) and CX3CR1 antibodies were used to stain the subsets of EM CD8 + T cells, while anti-interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-17 (IL-17), and forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) antibodies were used for CD4 + T cell subsets. @*Results@#Of the 47 obese children, 11 were female. Children with MS had significantly higher levels of serum insulin (34.8±13.8 vs. 16.4±6.3 μU/mL, p<0.001) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (8.9±4.1 vs. 3.9±1.5, p<0.001) than children without MS.Children with MS revealed significantly higher frequencies of IL-7Rα low CD8+ T cells (60.1 ±19.1% vs. 48.4±11.5%, p=0.047) and IL-7Rα low CX3CR1 + CD8 + T cells (53.8±20.1% vs. 41.5 ±11.9%, p=0.036) than children without MS. As the serum triglyceride levels increased, the frequency of IL-7Rα low CX3CR1 + and IL-7Rα high CX3CR1 – CD8 + T cells increased and decreased, respectively (r=0.335, p=0.014 and r=−0.350, p=0.010, respectively), in 47 children. However, no CD4 + T cell subset parameters were significantly different between children with and without MS. @*Conclusion@#In obese children with MS, the changes in immunity due to changes in EM CD8 + T cells might be related to the morbidity of obesity.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900089

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study investigated the effectiveness of the intervention program for elementary school students with reading disorders. @*Methods@#The intervention program focused on phonological awareness, phonics, and decoding training applied individually to 25 children with a reading disorder by the teachers in charge for four months. To measure the efficacy, this study evaluated the word reading accuracy, fluency, and the related cognitive functions, including phonemic awareness, phonics, and rapid automatized naming using the Computerized Comprehensive Learning Test-Reading before and after the program. @*Results@#After the intervention, improvements were observed in the following: the reading fluency score and fluency percentile in the word attack test; reading accuracy rate, fluency score, and fluency percentile in the nonword decoding test; fluency score and fluency percentile in the rapid automatized naming tests; accuracy rate in the letter-sound matching test; accuracy rate in the nonword repetition test. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in the paragraph reading fluency test. According to the subtypes of reading disabilities, children with dyslexic or mixed types improved after the intervention. @*Conclusion@#Reading accuracy and fluency of school-aged children with reading disorders improved through the intervention program by the schoolteachers.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899891

ABSTRACT

Considering the mild degree of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children and the enormous stress caused by isolation in unfamiliar places, policies requiring mandatory isolation at medical facilities should be reevaluated especially given the impact of the pandemic on the availability of hospital beds. In this study, we assessed the usefulness of facility isolation and the transmissibility of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 by infected children to uninfected caregivers in isolation units at a hospital and a residential treatment center in Seoul during August-November 2020. Fifty-three children were included and median age was 4 years (range, 0–18). All were mildly ill or asymptomatic and isolated for a median duration of 12 days. Thirty percent stayed home longer than 2 days before entering isolation units from symptom onset. Among 15 uninfected caregivers, none became infected when they used facemasks and practiced hand hygiene. The results suggest children with mild COVID-19 may be cared safely at home by a caregiver in conditions with adherence to the preventive measures of wearing facemasks and practicing hand hygiene.

10.
Asian Oncology Nursing ; : 42-51, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897215

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to investigate the levels of compliance with safe handling of antineoplastic agents, time pressure, knowledge of safe handling of antineoplastic agents, and workplace safety climate, and to identify factors influencing compliance with the safe handling of antineoplastic agents among clinical nurses. @*Methods@#For this cross-sectional study, anonymous written surveys were conducted on a convenience sample of 130 clinical nurses at a university-affiliated hospital between July 10 and 20, 2020. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, t-tests, analyses of variance, Pearson’s correlation, and hierarchical multiple regression analysis using SPSS. @*Results@#The average level of compliance with safe handling of antineoplastic agents was 120.81 out of 175. The significant correlates for compliance with safe handling of antineoplastic agents were clinical experience, knowledge of safe handling of antineoplastic agents, and workplace safety climate. These accounted for 38% of the total variance in compliance with the safe handling of antineoplastic agents. @*Conclusion@#The findings suggest that to increase compliance with safe handling of antineoplastic agents, workplace safety climate and knowledge of safe handling of antineoplastic agents should be improved. The development and application of an effective training program on the safe handling of antineoplastic agents would lead to improvements in this area.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895438

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has been continuously spreading throughout the world. As of July 15, 2021, there have been more than 188 million confirmed cases and more than 4.06 million deaths. Although the incidence of severe infections is relatively low in children and adolescents compared to adults, a complication called multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) may occur in some cases at approximately 2–6 weeks after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. MIS-C can be seen in patients of various ages, from young infants to adolescents, and may present with diverse clinical manifestations. While fever present in a great majority of patients, symptoms suggesting the involvement of the digestive or nervous system and the skin and mucous membranes (Kawasaki disease-like symptoms) also appear in many cases. Cardiac involvement may also be observed, including left ventricular dysfunction, myocarditis, coronary artery dilatation, and coronary aneurysm. In some cases, hypotension or shock can occur, and mechanical ventilation or treatment in the intensive care unit may be necessary.Fortunately, recovery is generally reported after appropriate treatment. MIS-C is a rare but important complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and adolescents. As such, it is important to recognize the clinical symptoms and provide appropriate treatment at an early stage. In this review, the epidemiology, clinical symptoms, suggested pathophysiology, diagnostic approach, and treatment of MIS-C will be discussed.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895386

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We investigated the association of effector memory (EM) CD8 + T cell and CD4 + T cell immunity with metabolic syndrome (MS). @*Methods@#Surface and intracellular staining of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was performed. Anti-interleukin-7 receptor-alpha (IL-7Rα) and CX3CR1 antibodies were used to stain the subsets of EM CD8 + T cells, while anti-interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-17 (IL-17), and forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) antibodies were used for CD4 + T cell subsets. @*Results@#Of the 47 obese children, 11 were female. Children with MS had significantly higher levels of serum insulin (34.8±13.8 vs. 16.4±6.3 μU/mL, p<0.001) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (8.9±4.1 vs. 3.9±1.5, p<0.001) than children without MS.Children with MS revealed significantly higher frequencies of IL-7Rα low CD8+ T cells (60.1 ±19.1% vs. 48.4±11.5%, p=0.047) and IL-7Rα low CX3CR1 + CD8 + T cells (53.8±20.1% vs. 41.5 ±11.9%, p=0.036) than children without MS. As the serum triglyceride levels increased, the frequency of IL-7Rα low CX3CR1 + and IL-7Rα high CX3CR1 – CD8 + T cells increased and decreased, respectively (r=0.335, p=0.014 and r=−0.350, p=0.010, respectively), in 47 children. However, no CD4 + T cell subset parameters were significantly different between children with and without MS. @*Conclusion@#In obese children with MS, the changes in immunity due to changes in EM CD8 + T cells might be related to the morbidity of obesity.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892385

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study investigated the effectiveness of the intervention program for elementary school students with reading disorders. @*Methods@#The intervention program focused on phonological awareness, phonics, and decoding training applied individually to 25 children with a reading disorder by the teachers in charge for four months. To measure the efficacy, this study evaluated the word reading accuracy, fluency, and the related cognitive functions, including phonemic awareness, phonics, and rapid automatized naming using the Computerized Comprehensive Learning Test-Reading before and after the program. @*Results@#After the intervention, improvements were observed in the following: the reading fluency score and fluency percentile in the word attack test; reading accuracy rate, fluency score, and fluency percentile in the nonword decoding test; fluency score and fluency percentile in the rapid automatized naming tests; accuracy rate in the letter-sound matching test; accuracy rate in the nonword repetition test. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in the paragraph reading fluency test. According to the subtypes of reading disabilities, children with dyslexic or mixed types improved after the intervention. @*Conclusion@#Reading accuracy and fluency of school-aged children with reading disorders improved through the intervention program by the schoolteachers.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892187

ABSTRACT

Considering the mild degree of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children and the enormous stress caused by isolation in unfamiliar places, policies requiring mandatory isolation at medical facilities should be reevaluated especially given the impact of the pandemic on the availability of hospital beds. In this study, we assessed the usefulness of facility isolation and the transmissibility of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 by infected children to uninfected caregivers in isolation units at a hospital and a residential treatment center in Seoul during August-November 2020. Fifty-three children were included and median age was 4 years (range, 0–18). All were mildly ill or asymptomatic and isolated for a median duration of 12 days. Thirty percent stayed home longer than 2 days before entering isolation units from symptom onset. Among 15 uninfected caregivers, none became infected when they used facemasks and practiced hand hygiene. The results suggest children with mild COVID-19 may be cared safely at home by a caregiver in conditions with adherence to the preventive measures of wearing facemasks and practicing hand hygiene.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915441

ABSTRACT

As hospitals cater to elderly and vulnerable patients, a high mortality rate is expected if a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak occurs. Consequently, policies to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in hospital settings are essential. This study was conducted to investigate how effectively national and international guidelines provide recommendations for infection control issues in hospitals. After selecting important issues in infection control, we performed a systematic review and analysis of recommendations and guidelines for preventing COVID-19 transmission within medical institutions at national and international levels. We analyzed guidelines from the World Health Organization, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, and Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency. Recent guidelines do not provide specific solutions to infection control issues. Therefore, efforts need to be made to devise consistent advice and guidelines for COVID-19 control.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892010

ABSTRACT

Background@#Korea is one of the countries with the highest rate of suicide, while suicidality is known to be closely related to mental illnesses. The study aimed to evaluate the suicide rates in psychiatric patients, to compare it to that of the general population, and to investigate the differences among psychiatric diagnoses and comorbidities. @*Methods@#Medical records and mortality statistics of psychiatric patients at Seoul National University Hospital from 2003 to 2017 were reviewed. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for suicide was calculated to compare the psychiatric patients with the general population. The diagnosis-specific standardized mortality rate and hazard ratio (HR) were adjusted by age, sex, and psychiatric comorbidity (i.e., personality disorder and/or pain disorder). @*Results@#A total of 40,692 survivors or non-suicidal deaths and 597 suicidal death were included. The suicide rate among psychiatric patients was 5.13-fold higher than that of the general population. Psychotic disorder had the highest SMR (13.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 11.23–15.03), followed by bipolar disorder (10.26; 95% CI, 7.97–13.00) and substancerelated disorder (6.78; 95% CI, 4.14–10.47). In survival analysis, psychotic disorder had the highest HR (4.16; 95% CI, 2.86–6.05), which was further increased with younger age, male sex, and comorbidity of personality disorder. @*Conclusion@#All psychiatric patients are at a higher risk of suicide compared to the general population, and the risk is highest for those diagnosed with psychotic disorder.

17.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836525

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death in the elderly in Korea. Increased arterial stiffness is linked to risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between arterial stiffness and physical activity in the elderly. @*Methods@#A total of 209 older adults (110 men and 99 women) participated in this study. Arterial stiffness of subjects such as brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and ankle brachial pressure index (ABI) was measured using a non-invasive vascular screening device (VP-1000 Plus, Omron, Kyoto, Japan). The interviewed Korean version of the international physical activity questionnaire short form (IPAQ-SF) was used to evaluate subject’s physical activity level and classify subjects as active or inactive group based on the time spent doing moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). @*Results@#The mean age of total subjects was 75.3 ± 5.6 years. There was no significant difference in sex distribution between the active group (39.7%) and inactive group (60.3%). The baPWV (1,758.1 ± 375.2cm /sec) of the active group was significantly lower than that (1,969.7 ± 372.3 cm/sec) of the inactive group (P < 0.05). There was a significant inverse association between time spent in MVPA and baPWV (r = -0.245, P < 0.01). @*Conclusions@#This study suggests that physical activity programs for older adults are needed to prevent arteriosclerosis.

18.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834358

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease that affects the central nerve system, resulting in cumulative loss of motor function. Multiple sclerosis is induced through multiple mechanisms and is caused by inflammation and demyelination. This study aims to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of swimming exercise in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) rats, an animal model of multiple sclerosis. @*Methods@#EAE was induced by an intradermal injection of 50-μg purified myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 33–55 (MOG33-55) dissolved in 200-μL saline at the base of the tail. The rats in the swimming exercise group were made to swim for 30 minutes once pert a day for 26 consecutive days, starting 5 days after induction of EAE. To compare the effect of swimming exercise with interferon-β, a drug for multiple sclerosis, interferon-β was injected intraperitoneally into rats of the EAE-induced and interferon-β-treated group during the exercise period. @*Results@#Injection of MOG33-55 caused weight loss, decreased clinical disability score, and increased level of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory mediators in the lumbar spinal cord. Loss of motor function and weakness increased demyelination score. Swimming exercise suppressed demyelination and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory mediators. These changes promoted recovery of EAE symptoms such as body weight loss, motor dysfunction, and weakness. Swimming exercise caused the same level of improvement as interferon-β treatment. @*Conclusions@#The results of this experiment suggest the possibility of swimming exercise in urological diseases that are difficult to treat. Swimming exercises can be considered for relief of symptom in incurable multiple sclerosis.

19.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834199

ABSTRACT

Chronic diseases as well as a growing population of older adults are currently the leading cause of ill health and economic burden worldwide. Managing those diseases in one-on-one medical consultations poses substantial challenges due to limited time and resources in the current health care system. Various approaches have been taken to manage these conditions, most with limited success. Shared medical appointments (SMAs) are an innovative care delivery option to make the testing of alternative care modalities a prime concern. SMAs are individual medical consultations carried out in a group of patients with similar diseases by providing education, medication management, and disease monitoring. SMAs, since their initial conceptualization in 1998, have gained much popularity and adopted as one of the standard processes in many countries. Accumulated evidence-based studies show outcomes for increasing access to care, behavioral change facilitated through self-management education, maintained/better outcomes, physician productivity, and enhanced resource management. This review summarizes current evidence regarding the existing status of SMAs abroad. An extensive literature search was conducted on major electronic databases including PubMed and Google Scholar. This study suggests to explore and exploit the SMAs which have unique potential as a healthcare delivery innovation in Korea.

20.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831784

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Current evidence supports lung ultrasound as a point-ofcare alternative diagnostic tool for various respiratory diseases. We sought to determine the utility of lung ultrasound for early detection of pneumonia and for assessment of respiratory failure among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). @*Methods@#Six patients with confirmed COVID-19 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were enrolled. All had undergone chest X-ray and chest computed tomography (CT) on the day of admission and underwent multiple point-of-care lung ultrasound scans over the course of their hospitalization. @*Results@#Lung ultrasound detected early abnormal findings of representative B-lines in a patient with a normal chest X-ray, corresponding to ground-glass opacities on the chest CT scan. The ultrasound findings improved as her clinical condition improved and her viral load decreased. In another minimally symptomatic patient without significant chest X-ray findings, the ultrasound showed B-lines, an early sign of pneumonia before abnormalities were detected on the chest CT scan. In two critically ill patients, ultrasound was performed to assess for evaluation of disease severity. In both patients, the clinicians conducted emergency rapid sequence intubation based on the ultrasound findings without awaiting the laboratory results and radiological reports. In two children, ultrasound was used to assess the improvement in their pneumonia, thus avoiding further imaging tests such as chest CT. @*Conclusions@#Lung ultrasound is feasible and useful as a rapid, sensitive, and affordable point-of-care screening tool to detect pneumonia and assess the severity of respiratory failure in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.

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