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1.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 235-249, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903886

ABSTRACT

Leptin is a type of adipokine mainly produced by adipocytes and reported to be overproduced in prostate cancer. However, it is not known whether it stimulates the proliferation of prostate cells. In this study, we investigated whether benign prostatic hyperplasia epithelial cells (BPH-1 cells) infected with Trichomonas vaginalis induced the proliferation of prostate cells via a leptin signaling pathway. To investigate the effect of crosstalk between adipocyte leptin and inflamed epithelial cell in proliferation of prostate cells, adipocytes 3T3-L1 cells were incubated in conditioned medium of BPH-1 cells infected with T. vaginalis (T. vaginalis-conditioned medium, TCM), and then the adipocyte-conditioned medium (ATCM) was identified to cause proliferation of prostate cells. BPH-1 cells incubated with live T. vaginalis released pro-inflammatory cytokines, and conditioned medium of these cells caused migration of adipocytes. When prostate stromal cells and BPH-1 cells were incubated with adipocyte conditioned medium containing leptin, their growth rates increased as did expression of the leptin receptor (known as OBR) and signaling molecules such as JAK2/STAT3, Notch and survivin. Moreover, blocking the OBR reduced this proliferation and the expression of leptin signaling molecules in response to ATCM. In conclusion, our findings show that inflamed BPH-1 cells infected with T. vaginalis induce the proliferation of prostate cells through leptin-OBR signaling. Therefore, it is likely that T. vaginalis contributes to prostate enlargement in BPH via adipocyte leptin released as a result of inflammation of the prostate.

2.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 235-249, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896182

ABSTRACT

Leptin is a type of adipokine mainly produced by adipocytes and reported to be overproduced in prostate cancer. However, it is not known whether it stimulates the proliferation of prostate cells. In this study, we investigated whether benign prostatic hyperplasia epithelial cells (BPH-1 cells) infected with Trichomonas vaginalis induced the proliferation of prostate cells via a leptin signaling pathway. To investigate the effect of crosstalk between adipocyte leptin and inflamed epithelial cell in proliferation of prostate cells, adipocytes 3T3-L1 cells were incubated in conditioned medium of BPH-1 cells infected with T. vaginalis (T. vaginalis-conditioned medium, TCM), and then the adipocyte-conditioned medium (ATCM) was identified to cause proliferation of prostate cells. BPH-1 cells incubated with live T. vaginalis released pro-inflammatory cytokines, and conditioned medium of these cells caused migration of adipocytes. When prostate stromal cells and BPH-1 cells were incubated with adipocyte conditioned medium containing leptin, their growth rates increased as did expression of the leptin receptor (known as OBR) and signaling molecules such as JAK2/STAT3, Notch and survivin. Moreover, blocking the OBR reduced this proliferation and the expression of leptin signaling molecules in response to ATCM. In conclusion, our findings show that inflamed BPH-1 cells infected with T. vaginalis induce the proliferation of prostate cells through leptin-OBR signaling. Therefore, it is likely that T. vaginalis contributes to prostate enlargement in BPH via adipocyte leptin released as a result of inflammation of the prostate.

3.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 547-556, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919307

ABSTRACT

Our objective was to investigate whether inflammatory microenvironment induced by Trichomonas vaginalis infection can stimulate proliferation of prostate cancer (PCa) cells in vitro and in vivo mouse experiments. The production of CXCL1 and CCL2 increased when cells of the mouse PCa cells (TRAMP-C2 cell line) were infected with live T. vaginalis. T. vaginalis-conditioned medium (TCM) prepared from co-culture of PCa cells and T. vaginalis increased PCa cells migration, proliferation and invasion. The cytokine receptors (CXCR2, CCR2, gp130) were expressed higher on the PCa cells treated with TCM. Pretreatment of PCa cells with antibodies to these cytokine receptors significantly reduced the proliferation, mobility and invasiveness of PCa cells, indicating that TCM has its effect through cytokine-cytokine receptor signaling. In C57BL/6 mice, the prostates injected with T. vaginalis mixed PCa cells were larger than those injected with PCa cells alone after 4 weeks. Expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers and cyclin D1 in the prostate tissue injected with T. vaginalis mixed PCa cells increased than those of PCa cells alone. Collectively, it was suggested that inflammatory reactions by T. vaginalis-stimulated PCa cells increase the proliferation and invasion of PCa cells through cytokine-cytokine receptor signaling pathways.

4.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 217-227, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833810

ABSTRACT

Trichomonas vaginalis causes inflammation of the prostate and has been detected in tissues of prostate cancers (PCa), prostatitis and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Obesity is a risk factor for PCa and causes a chronic subclinical inflammation. This chronic inflammation further exacerbates adipose tissue inflammation as results of migration and activation of macrophages. Macrophages are the most abundant immune cells in the PCa microenvironment. M2 macrophages, known as Tumor-Associated Macrophages, are involved in increasing cancer malignancy. In this study, conditioned medium (TCM) of PCa cells infected with live trichomonads contained chemokines that stimulated migration of the mouse preadipocytes (3T3-L1 cells). Conditioned medium of adipocytes incubated with TCM (ATCM) contained Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-13). Macrophage migration was stimulated by ATCM. In macrophages treated with ATCM, expression of M2 markers increased, while M1 markers decreased. Therefore, it is suggested that ATCM induces polarization of M0 to M2 macrophages. In addition, conditioned medium from the macrophages incubated with ATCM stimulates the proliferation and invasiveness of PCa. Our findings suggest that interaction between inflamed PCa treated with T. vaginalis and adipocytes causes M2 macrophage polarization, so contributing to the progression of PCa.

5.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 201-206, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761718

ABSTRACT

The roles of mast cells in allergic diseases and helminth infections are well known. However, the roles of mast cells in T. gondii infection is poorly understood. This study was focused on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-4), chemokines (CXCL8, MCP-1) and nitric oxide (NO) by mast cells in response to soluble lysate of T. gondii tachyzoites. Production of CXCL8 (IL-8), MCP-1, TNF-α and IL-4 were measured by RT-PCR and ELISA. Western blot were used for detection of CXCR-1 and CXCR2. Our results showed that T. gondii lysates triggered mast cells to release CXCL8, MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-4 and to produce NO. This suggests that mast cells play an important role in inflammatory responses to T. gondii.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blotting, Western , Chemokines , Cytokines , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Helminths , Interleukin-4 , Mast Cells , Nitric Oxide , Toxoplasma
6.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 213-218, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192951

ABSTRACT

Most men infected with Trichomonas vaginalis are asymptomatic and can remain undiagnosed and untreated. This has been hypothesized to result in chronic persistent prostatic infection. Adhesion of the protozoan organisms to mucosal cells is considered a first and prerequisite step for T. vaginalis infection. Adhesion of T. vaginalis to prostate epithelial cells has not yet been observed; however, there are several reports about inflammation of prostate epithelial cells induced by T. vaginalis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether adhesion and cytotoxicity of T. vaginalis are involved in inflammation of prostate epithelial cells. When RWPE-1 cells were infected with T. vaginalis (1:0.4 or 1:4), adhesion of T. vaginalis continuously increased for 24 hr or 3 hr, respectively. The cytotoxicity of prostate epithelial cells infected with T. vaginalis (RWPE-1: T. vaginalis=1:0.4) increased at 9 hr; at an infection ratio of 1:4, cytotoxicity increased after 3 hr. When the RWPE-1 to T. vaginalis ratio was 1:0.4 or 1:4, production of IL-1β, IL-6, CCL2, and CXCL8 also increased. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was verified by measuring decreased E-cadherin and increased vimentin expression at 24 hr and 48 hr. Taken together, the results indicate that T. vaginalis adhered to prostate epithelial cells, causing cytotoxicity, pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and EMT. Our findings suggest for the first time that T. vaginalis may induce inflammation via adhesion to normal prostate epithelial cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Cadherins , Cell Adhesion , Epithelial Cells , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Epithelium , Inflammation , Interleukin-6 , Prostate , Trichomonas vaginalis , Trichomonas , Vimentin
7.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 123-132, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57440

ABSTRACT

Trichomonas vaginalis causes the most prevalent sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Trichomonads have been detected in prostatic tissues from prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and prostate cancer. Chronic prostatic inflammation is known as a risk factor for prostate enlargement, benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms, and acute urinary retention. Our aim was to investigate whether T. vaginalis could induce inflammatory responses in cells of a benign prostatic hyperplasia epithelial cell line (BPH-1). When BPH-1 cells were infected with T. vaginalis, the protein and mRNA of inflammatory cytokines, such as CXCL8, CCL2, IL-1β, and IL-6, were increased. The activities of TLR4, ROS, MAPK, JAK2/STAT3, and NF-κB were also increased, whereas inhibitors of ROS, MAPK, PI3K, NF-κB, and anti-TLR4 antibody decreased the production of the 4 cytokines although the extent of inhibition differed. However, a JAK2 inhibitor inhibited only IL-6 production. Culture supernatants of the BPH-1 cells that had been incubated with live T. vaginalis (trichomonad-conditioned medium, TCM) contained the 4 cytokines and induced the migration of human monocytes (THP-1 cells) and mast cells (HMC-1 cells). TCM conditioned by BPH-1 cells pretreated with NF-κB inhibitor showed decreased levels of cytokines and induced less migration. Therefore, it is suggested that these cytokines are involved in migration of inflammatory cells. These results suggest that T. vaginalis infection of BPH patients may cause inflammation, which may induce lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).


Subject(s)
Humans , Cytokines , Emigration and Immigration , Epithelial Cells , Inflammation , Interleukin-6 , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms , Mast Cells , Monocytes , Prostate , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Prostatic Neoplasms , Prostatitis , Risk Factors , RNA, Messenger , Trichomonas vaginalis , Trichomonas , Urinary Retention
8.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 205-212, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-135414

ABSTRACT

Trichomonas vaginalis commonly causes vaginitis and perhaps cervicitis in women and urethritis in men and women. Macrophages are important immune cells in response to T. vaginalis infection. In this study, we investigated whether human macrophages could be involved in inflammation induced by T. vaginalis. Human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM) were co-cultured with T. vaginalis. Live, opsonized-live trichomonads, and T. vaginalis lysates increased proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 by HMDM. The involvement of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB signaling pathway in cytokine production induced by T. vaginalis was confirmed by phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65 NF-kappaB. In addition, stimulation with live T. vaginalis induced marked augmentation of nitric oxide (NO) production and expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) levels in HMDM. However, trichomonad-induced NF-kappaB activation and TNF-alpha production in macrophages were significantly inhibited by inhibition of iNOS levels with L-NMMA (NO synthase inhibitor). Moreover, pretreatment with NF-kappaB inhibitors (PDTC or Bay11-7082) caused human macrophages to produce less TNF-alpha. These results suggest that T. vaginalis stimulates human macrophages to produce proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-alpha, and NO. In particular, we showed that T. vaginalis induced TNF-alpha production in macrophages through NO-dependent activation of NF-kappaB, which might be closely involved in inflammation caused by T. vaginalis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , Nitric Oxide/immunology , Trichomonas Infections/immunology , Trichomonas vaginalis/immunology
9.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 205-212, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-135411

ABSTRACT

Trichomonas vaginalis commonly causes vaginitis and perhaps cervicitis in women and urethritis in men and women. Macrophages are important immune cells in response to T. vaginalis infection. In this study, we investigated whether human macrophages could be involved in inflammation induced by T. vaginalis. Human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM) were co-cultured with T. vaginalis. Live, opsonized-live trichomonads, and T. vaginalis lysates increased proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 by HMDM. The involvement of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB signaling pathway in cytokine production induced by T. vaginalis was confirmed by phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65 NF-kappaB. In addition, stimulation with live T. vaginalis induced marked augmentation of nitric oxide (NO) production and expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) levels in HMDM. However, trichomonad-induced NF-kappaB activation and TNF-alpha production in macrophages were significantly inhibited by inhibition of iNOS levels with L-NMMA (NO synthase inhibitor). Moreover, pretreatment with NF-kappaB inhibitors (PDTC or Bay11-7082) caused human macrophages to produce less TNF-alpha. These results suggest that T. vaginalis stimulates human macrophages to produce proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-alpha, and NO. In particular, we showed that T. vaginalis induced TNF-alpha production in macrophages through NO-dependent activation of NF-kappaB, which might be closely involved in inflammation caused by T. vaginalis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , Nitric Oxide/immunology , Trichomonas Infections/immunology , Trichomonas vaginalis/immunology
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