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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913846

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to evaluate the role of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) in intracranial solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma (SFT/HPC). @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 133 patients with histologically confirmed HPC were included from eight institutions. Gross total resection (GTR) and subtotal resection (STR) were performed in 86 and 47 patients, respectively. PORT was performed in 85 patients (64%). The prognostic effects of sex, age, performance, World Health Organization (WHO) grade, location, size, Ki-67, surgical extent, and PORT on local control (LC), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were estimated by univariate and multivariate analyses. @*Results@#The 10-year PFS, and OS rates were 45%, and 71%, respectively. The multivariate analysis suggested that PORT significantly improved LC (p < 0.001) and PFS (p < 0.001). The PFS benefit of PORT was maintained in the subgroup of GTR (p=0.001), WHO grade II (p=0.001), or STR (p < 0.001). In the favorable subgroup of GTR and WHO grade II, PORT was also significantly related to better PFS (p=0.028). WHO grade III was significantly associated with poor DMFS (p=0.029). In the PORT subgroup, the 0-0.5 cm margin of the target volume showed an inferior LC to a large margin with 1.0-2.0 cm (p=0.021). Time-dependent Cox proportion analysis showed that distant failures were significantly associated with poor OS (p=0.003). @*Conclusion@#This multicenter study supports the role of PORT in disease control of intracranial SFT/HPC, irrespective of the surgical extent and grade. For LC, PORT should enclose the tumor bed with sufficient margin.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875260

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the association of MRI features with the major genomic profiles and prognosis of World Health Organization grade III (G3) gliomas compared with those of glioblastomas (GBMs). @*Materials and Methods@#We enrolled 76 G3 glioma and 155 GBM patients with pathologically confirmed disease who had pretreatment brain MRI and major genetic information of tumors. Qualitative and quantitative imaging features, including volumetrics and histogram parameters, such as normalized cerebral blood volume (nCBV), cerebral blood flow (nCBF), and apparent diffusion coefficient (nADC) were evaluated. The G3 gliomas were divided into three groups for the analysis: with this isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutation, IDH mutation and a chromosome arm 1p/19q-codeleted (IDHmut1p/19qdel), IDH mutation, 1p/19q-nondeleted (IDHmut1p/19qnondel), and IDH wildtype (IDHwt). A prediction model for the genetic profiles of G3 gliomas was developed and validated on a separate cohort. Both the quantitative and qualitative imaging parameters and progression-free survival (PFS) of G3 gliomas were compared and survival analysis was performed. Moreover, the imaging parameters and PFS between IDHwt G3 gliomas and GBMs were compared. @*Results@#IDHmut G3 gliomas showed a larger volume (p = 0.017), lower nCBF (p = 0.048), and higher nADC (p = 0.007) than IDHwt. Between the IDHmut tumors, IDHmut1p/19qdel G3 gliomas had higher nCBV (p = 0.024) and lower nADC (p = 0.002) than IDHmut1p/19qnondel G3 gliomas. Moreover, IDHmut1p/19qdel tumors had the best prognosis and IDHwt tumors had the worst prognosis among G3 gliomas (p < 0.001). PFS was significantly associated with the 95th percentile values of nCBV and nCBF in G3 gliomas. There was no significant difference in neither PFS nor imaging features between IDHwt G3 gliomas and IDHwt GBMs. @*Conclusion@#We found significant differences in MRI features, including volumetrics, CBV, and ADC, in G3 gliomas, according to IDH mutation and 1p/19q codeletion status, which can be utilized for the prediction of genomic profiles and the prognosis of G3 glioma patients. The MRI signatures and prognosis of IDHwt G3 gliomas tend to follow those of IDHwt GBMs.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913812

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to refine the radiotherapy (RT) volume and dose for intracranial germinoma considering recurrences and long-term toxicities. @*Materials and Methods@#Total 189 patients with intracranial germinoma were treated with RT alone (n=50) and RT with upfront chemotherapy (CRT) (n=139). All cases were confirmed histologically. RT fields comprised the extended-field and involved-field only for primary site. The extended-field, including craniospinal, whole brain (WB), and whole ventricle (WV) for cranial field, is followed by involved-field boost. The median follow-up duration was 115 months. @*Results@#The relapses developed in 13 patients (6.9%). For the extended-field, cranial RT dose down to 18 Gy exhibited no cranial recurrence in 34 patients. In CRT, 74 patients (56.5%) showed complete response to chemotherapy and no involved-field recurrence with low-dose RT of 30 Gy. WV RT with chemotherapy for the basal ganglia or thalamus germinoma showed no recurrence. Secondary malignancy developed in 10 patients (5.3%) with a latency of 20 years (range, 4 to 26 years) and caused mortalities in six. WB or craniospinal field rather than WV or involved-field significantly increased the rate of hormone deficiencies, and secondary malignancy. RT dose for extended-field correlated significantly with the rate of hormone deficiencies, secondary malignancy, and neurocognitive dysfunction. @*Conclusion@#De-intensifying extended-field rather than involved-field or total scheme of RT will be critical to decrease the late toxicities. Upfront chemotherapy could be beneficial for the patients with complete response to minimize the RT dose down to 30 Gy. Prospective trials focused on de-intensification of the extended-field RT are warranted.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837104

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This retrospective study compares higher-dose whole-brain radiotherapy (hdWBRT) with reduced-dose WBRT (rdWBRT) in terms of clinical efficacy and toxicity profile in patients treated for primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). @*Materials and Methods@#Radiotherapy followed by high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX)-based chemotherapy was administered to immunocompetent patients with histologically confirmed PCNSL between 2000 and 2016. Response to chemotherapy was taken into account when prescribing the radiation dose to the whole brain and primary tumor bed. The whole brain dose was ≤23.4 Gy for rdWBRT (n = 20) and >23.4 Gy for hdWBRT (n = 68). Patients manifesting cognitive disturbance, memory impairment and dysarthria were considered to have neurotoxicity. A median follow-up was 3.62 years. @*Results@#The 3-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 70.0% and 48.9% with rdWBRT, and 63.2% and 43.2% with hdWBRT. The 3-year OS and PFS among patients with partial response (n = 45) after chemotherapy were 77.8% and 53.3% with rdWBRT, and 58.3% and 45.8% with hdWBRT (p > 0.05). Among patients with complete response achieved during follow-up, the 3-year freedom from neurotoxicity (FFNT) rate was 94.1% with rdWBRT and 62.4% with hdWBRT. Among patients aged ≥60 years, the 3-year FFNT rate was 87.5% with rdWBRT and 39.1% with hdWBRT (p = 0.49). Neurotoxicity was not observed after rdWBRT in patients aged below 60 years. @*Conclusion@#rdWBRT with tumor bed boost combined with upfront HD-MTX is less neurotoxic and results in effective survival as higher-dose radiotherapy even in partial response after chemotherapy.

5.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 129-137, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837093

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To identify the clinical usefulness of serum M protein and to establish a rationale for regular follow-up with serum protein electrophoresis in solitary plasmacytoma. @*Materials and Methods@#Sixty-nine patients with solitary plasmacytoma and solitary plasmacytoma with minimal marrow involvement according to the International Myeloma Working Group criteria were retrospectively reviewed. @*Results@#At a median follow-up of 6.2 years, 5-year local control (LC), 5-year multiple myeloma-free survival (MMFS), 5-year failure-free survival (FFS), and 5-year overall survival (OS) were 82.6%, 44.1%, 41.8%, and 85.1%, respectively. Among the patients whose initial serum M protein was present or not evaluated, 37.3% of patients showed disappearance of serum M protein after various treatment. MMFS of these patients were comparable to non-secretory plasmacytoma with undetectable levels of M protein, and significantly better than patients with persistent M protein. Increase of serum M protein ≥0.1 g/dL was most predictive of treatment failure with area under the curve of 0.731. @*Conclusion@#Patients who eventually showed persistence of serum M protein after treatment showed worse MMFS and FFS compared to those whose serum M protein disappeared or who had initially non-secretory disease. The increase of serum M protein level ≥0.1 g/dL from current nadir was predictive of treatment failure. Therefore, regular follow-up with serum M protein is highly recommended especially unless the patient had initially non-secretory disease.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831046

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study was designed to investigate the incidence of interim disease progression (IPD)and volumetric changes of the surgical cavity (SC) during the surgery-to-radiotherapy interval(SRI), and eventually assess the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the time ofradiotherapy (RT) planning in newly diagnosed anaplastic gliomas. @*Materials and Methods@#Among 195 anaplastic glioma patients who underwent RT, 121 were evaluable with twoseparate MRIs during SRI. The presence of IPD was determined using the updatedResponse Assessment in Neuro-Oncology size criteria. In 84 patients who underwent surgicalresection, each SC was contoured by a radiation oncologist and the volumetric changesof the SCs were calculated between the two separate MRIs. Daily rate of change in the SCvolume was calculated assuming an exponential and linear change. @*Results@#Five of 121 patients (4.13%) demonstrated IPD during SRI, and the incidence was significantlyhigher in patients undergoing biopsy (vs. surgical resection, 12.9% vs. 1.1%, p=0.015)and in patients with remnant contrast-enhancing tumor after surgery (15.8 vs. 2.0%,p=0.027). The mean daily rate of absolute change in SC was 1.06% (95% confidence interval[CI], 0.89 to 1.23) and 0.89% (95% CI, 0.77 to 1.02) according to the exponential andlinear model, respectively. The expected mean volumetric change at 2 weeks were 16.64%(95% CI, 13.77 to 19.52) and 12.51% (95% CI, 10.77 to 14.26), respectively. @*Conclusion@#IPD during the SRI is rare in surgically resected anaplastic gliomas. However, pre-RT MRI isessential for accurate RT-target delineation and disease evaluation for patients initiatingRT beyond postoperative 2 weeks and undergoing biopsy, respectively.

7.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1324-1335, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763227

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and safety of spinal stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in treating spinal metastasis with epidural spinal cord compression (ESCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: During 2013-2016, 149 regions of spinal metastasis in 105 patients treated with singlefraction (12-24 Gy) spinal SRS were reviewed. Cord compression of Bilsky grade 2 (with visible cerebrospinal fluid [CSF]) or 3 (no visible CSF) was defined as ESCC. Local progression (LP) and vertebral compression fracture (VCF) rates after SRS were evaluated using multivariate competing-risk regression analysis. RESULTS: The 1-year cumulative incidences of LP for Bilsky grades 0 (n=80), 1 (n=39), 2 (n=21), and 3 (n=9) were 3.0%, 8.4%, 0%, and 24.9%, respectively. Bilsky grade 2 ESCC did not significantly increase the LP rate (no LP for grade 2). The 1-year cumulative incidences of VCF for Bilsky grades 0, 1, 2, and 3 were 6.6%, 5.2%, 17.1%, and 12.1%, respectively. ESCC may increase VCF risk (subhazard ratio [SHR] for grade 2, 5.368; p=0.035; SHR for grade 3, 2.215; p=0.460). Complete or partial pain response rates after SRS were 79%, 78%, 53%, and 63% for Bilsky grades 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively (p=0.008). No neurotoxicity of grade ≥ 3 was observed. CONCLUSION: Spinal SRS for spinal metastasis with Bilsky grade 2 ESCC did not increase the LP rate, was not associated with severe neurotoxicity, and showed moderate VCF and pain response rates. Bilsky grade 3 had a high LP rate.


Subject(s)
Cerebrospinal Fluid , Disease Progression , Fractures, Compression , Humans , Incidence , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiosurgery , Spinal Cord Compression , Spine
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763126

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Glioblastoma, the most common brain tumor in adults, has poor prognosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of disulfiram (DSF), an aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor, on in vitro radiosensitivity of glioblastoma cells with different methylation status of O⁶-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter and the underlying mechanism of such effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five human glioblastoma cells (U138MG, T98G, U251MG, U87MG, and U373MG) and one normal human astrocyte (NHA) cell were cultured and treated with DSF or 6MV X-rays (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 Gy). For combined treatment, cells were treated with DSF before irradiation. Surviving fractions fit from cell survival based on colony forming ability. Apoptosis, DNA damage repair, and cell cycle distributionwere assayed bywestern blot for cleaved caspase-3, γH2AX staining, and flow cytometry, respectively. RESULTS: DSF induced radiosensitization in most of the glioblastoma cells, especially, in the cells with radioresistance as wildtype unmethylated promoter (MGMT-wt), but did not in normal NHA cell. DSF augmented or induced cleavage of caspase-3 in all cells after irradiation. DSF inhibited repair of radiation-induced DNA damage in MGMT-wt cells, but not in cells with methylated MGMT promoter. DSF abrogated radiation-induced G2/M arrest in T98G and U251MG cells. CONCLUSION: Radiosensitivity of glioblastoma cells were preferentially enhanced by pre-irradiation DSF treatment compared to normal cell, especially radioresistant cells such as MGMT-wt cells. Induction of apoptosis or inhibition of DNA damage repair may underlie DSF-induced radiosensitization. Clinical benefit of combining DSF with radiotherapy should be investigated in the future.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aldehyde Dehydrogenase , Apoptosis , Astrocytes , Brain Neoplasms , Caspase 3 , Cell Cycle , Cell Survival , Disulfiram , DNA Damage , Flow Cytometry , Glioblastoma , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Methylation , Prognosis , Radiation Tolerance , Radiotherapy
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760995

ABSTRACT

Despite recent innovation in treatment techniques and subsequently improved outcomes, the majority of glioblastoma (GBL) have relapses, especially in locoregional areas. Local re-irradiation (re-RT) has been established as a feasible option for recurrent GBL of all ages with safety, tolerability, and effectiveness both in survival and quality of life regardless of fractionation schedule. To keep adverse effects under acceptable range, cumulative dose limit in equivalent dose at 2 Gy fractions by the linear-quadratic model at α/β = 2 for normal brain tissue (EQD2) with narrow margin should be observed and single/hypofractionated re-RT should be undertaken very carefully to recurrent tumor with large volume or adjacent to the brainstem. Promising outcome of re-operation (re-Op) plus re-RT (re-Op/RT) need to be validated and result from re-RT with temozolomide/bevacizumab (TMZ/BV) or new strategy is expected. Development of new-concept prognostic scoring or risk group is required to select patients properly and make use of predictive biomarkers such as O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promotor methylation that influence outcomes of re-RT, re-Op/RT, or re-RT with TMZ/BV.


Subject(s)
Appointments and Schedules , Biomarkers , Brain , Brain Stem , Glioblastoma , Humans , Methylation , O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase , Quality of Life , Re-Irradiation , Recurrence
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760991

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To identify prognostic factors influencing progression-free survival (PFS) of aggressive fibromatosis (AF) after postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) and assess correlations between immunohistochemistry (IHC) features of β-catenin/smooth muscle actin (SMA) and PFS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Records of 37 patients with AF treated by PORT from 1984 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Fifteen patients underwent wide excision for AF and 22 patients received debulking operation. The median total dose of PORT was 59.4 Gy. IHC staining results of β-catenin and SMA were available for 11 and 12 patients, respectively. RESULTS: The median follow-up duration was 105.9 months. Five-year PFS rate was 70.9%. Tumor size or margin status was not related to PFS in univariate analysis (p = 0.197 and p = 0.716, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that increased interval from surgery to PORT (>5.7 weeks) was a marginal risk factor for PFS (p = 0.054). Administration of PORT at the initial diagnosis resulted in significantly improved PFS compared to deferring PORT after recurrence (p = 0.045). Patient with both risk factors of deferring PORT after recurrence and interval from surgery to PORT >5.7 weeks had significantly lower 5-year PFS than patients without risk factor (34.1% vs. 100.0%; p = 0.012). Nuclear β-catenin intensity tended to inversely correlate with 5-year PFS, although it did not reach statistical significance (62.5% at low vs. 100.0% at high; p = 0.260). SMA intensity was not related to PFS (p = 0.700). CONCLUSION: PORT should be performed immediately after surgery irrespective of margin status or tumor size especially in recurrent case. Nuclear β-catenin staining intensity of IHC might correlate with local recurrence.


Subject(s)
Actins , beta Catenin , Diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Fibromatosis, Aggressive , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Multivariate Analysis , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
11.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 332-340, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741957

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To retrospectively analyze dosimetric parameters of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) delivered to extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in the stomach (gastric MALT lymphoma) to find out advantages of VMAT and conditions for definite benefits of VMAT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty patients with stage I-II gastric MALT lymphoma received VMAT (n = 14) or 3D-CRT (n = 36) between December 2005 and April 2018. Twenty-seven patients were categorized according to whether the planning target volume (PTV) overlaps kidney(s). Dosimetric parameters were analyzed by dose-volume histogram. RESULTS: Radiation dose to the liver was definitely lower with VMAT in terms of mean dose (p = 0.026) and V15 (p = 0.008). The V15 of the left kidney was lower with VMAT (p = 0.065). For those with PTV overlapping kidney(s), the left kidney V15 was significantly lower with VMAT. Furthermore, the closer the distance between the PTV and kidneys, the less the left kidney V15 with VMAT (p = 0.037). Delineation of kidney(s) by integrating all respiratory phases had no additional benefit. CONCLUSIONS: VMAT significantly increased monitor units, reduced treatment time and radiation dose to the liver and kidneys. The benefit of VMAT was definite in reducing the left kidney V15, especially in geometrically challenging conditions of overlap or close separation between PTV and kidney(s).


Subject(s)
Humans , Kidney , Liver , Lymphoid Tissue , Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone , Organs at Risk , Radiotherapy, Conformal , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Retrospective Studies , Stomach
12.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 153-162, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741937

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate clinical outcomes including progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), partial response, and complete response in patients who underwent radiation therapy (RT) for mycosis fungoides (MF). Also, we sought to find prognostic factors for clinical outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total 19 patients confirmed with MF between 1999–2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical and treatment characteristics, clinical outcomes, and and toxicities were analyzed. RESULTS: Eleven patients were treated with total skin electron beam radiotherapy (TSEBT) and 8 patients with involved field radiation therapy (IFRT) with median dose of 30 Gy, respectively. The median time interval from diagnosis to RT was 2.6 months (range, 0.4 to 87.3 months). The overall response rate was 100%; 11 patients (57.9%) had a complete response and 8 patients (42.1%) a partial response. The presence of positive lymph node at the time of consultation of RT was associated with lower OS (p = 0.043). In multivariate analysis, PFS was significantly lower for patients with increased previous therapies experienced following RT (p = 0.019) and for patients showing PR during RT (p = 0.044). There were no reported grade 3 or more skin toxicities related with RT. CONCLUSION: Both IFRT and TSEBT are effective treatment for MF patients. Patients with short disease course before RT or complete response during RT are expected to have longer PFS. Positive lymph node status at the initiation of RT was associated woth poor OS, suggesting other treatment modalities such as low-dose RT for patients with low life-expectancy.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous , Multivariate Analysis , Mycosis Fungoides , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies , Skin
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715838

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare asparaginase-related toxicities in two asparaginase preparations, namely native Escherichia coli L-asparaginase (L-ASP) and pegylated asparaginase (PEG-ASP) in combination with ifosfamide, methotrexate, etoposide, and prednisolone (IMEP) in natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma (NTCL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 41 NTCL patients who received IMEP plus native E. coli L-ASP or PEG-ASP at Seoul National University Hospital were included in this study between January 2013 and March 2016. IMEP/ASP treatment consisted of ifosfamide, methotrexate, etoposide, plus native E. coli L-ASP (6,000 IU/m2 on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11) or PEG-ASP (2,500 IU/m2 on day 1) every 3 weeks. ASP-related toxicities, toxicity patterns, length of hospital stay, and clinical outcomes were compared between the different treatment groups. RESULTS: The frequency of ASP-related toxicities was similar between the IMEP plus native E. coli L-ASP group and the PEG-ASP group apart from hypofibrinogenemia (native E. coli L-ASP vs. PEG-ASP group, 86.4% vs. 36.8%; p=0.001). Although post-treatment transaminase and albumin levels were significantly high and low, respectively, hepatotoxicity gradients before and after treatment did not differ significantly between the groups. Since PEG-ASP was given at an outpatient clinic in some patients, length of hospital stay was significantly shorter in the IMEP plus PEG-ASP group (median, 4.0 vs. 6.0 days; p=0.002). A favorable tendency of clinical outcomes was observed in NTCL patients treated with IMEP plus PEG-ASP (complete remission rate, 73.7% vs. 45.5%; p=0.067). CONCLUSION: IMEP plus PEG-ASP showed similar ASP-related toxicities, shorter length of hospital stay, and a trend towards improved clinical outcomes compared with IMEP plus native E. coli L-ASP in NTCL.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care Facilities , Asparaginase , Escherichia coli , Escherichia , Etoposide , Humans , Ifosfamide , Length of Stay , Lymphoma , Methotrexate , Prednisolone , Seoul
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714973

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigated the clinical characteristics of patients who developed thyroid dysfunction and evaluated the risk factors for hypothyroidism following radiotherapy and chemotherapy in pediatric patients with medulloblastoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET). METHODS: The medical records of 66 patients (42 males) treated for medulloblastoma (n=56) or PNET (n=10) in childhood between January 2000 and December 2014 at Seoul National University Children’s Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 21 patients (18 high-risk medulloblastoma and 3 PNET) underwent high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue (HDCT/ASCR) RESULTS: During the median 7.6 years of follow-up, 49 patients (74%) developed transient (n=12) or permanent (n=37) hypothyroidism at a median 3.8 years of follow-up (2.9–4.6 years). Younger age ( < 5 years) at radiation exposure (P=0.014 vs. ≥9 years) and HDCT (P=0.042) were significantly predictive for hypothyroidism based on log-rank test. However, sex, type of tumor, and dose of craniospinal irradiation (less vs. more than 23.4 Gy) were not significant predictors. Cox proportional hazard model showed that both younger age (< 5 years) at radiation exposure (hazard ratio [HR], 3.1; vs. ≥9 years; P=0.004) and HDCT (HR, 2.4; P=0.010) were significant predictors of hypothyroidism. CONCLUSIONS: Three-quarters of patients with pediatric medulloblastoma or PNET showed thyroid dysfunction, and over half had permanent thyroid dysfunction. Thus, frequent monitoring of thyroid function is mandatory in all patients treated for medulloblastoma or PNET, especially, in very young patients and/or high-risk patients recommended for HDCT/ASCR.


Subject(s)
Craniospinal Irradiation , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hypothyroidism , Medical Records , Medulloblastoma , Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive , Pediatrics , Proportional Hazards Models , Radiation Exposure , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Seoul , Stem Cells , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Hormones
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-6988

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Bevacizumab±irinotecan is effective for treatment of recurrent malignant gliomas. However, the optimal duration of treatment has not been established. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-four consecutive patients with recurrent malignant glioma who were treated with bevacizumab at our institutions were identified. Patients who continued bevacizumab until tumor progression were enrolled in a late discontinuation (LD) group, while those who stopped bevacizumab before tumor progression were enrolled in an early discontinuation (ED) group. Landmark analyses were performed at weeks 9, 18, and 26 for comparison of patient survival between the two groups. RESULTS: Among 89 assessable patients, 62 (69.7%) and 27 (30.3%) patients were categorized as the LD and ED groups, respectively. According to landmark analysis, survival times from weeks 9, 18, and 26 were not significantly different between the two groups in the overall population. However, the LD group showed a trend toward increased survival compared to the ED group among responders. In the ED group, the median time from discontinuation to disease progression was 11.4 weeks, and none of the patients showed a definite rebound phenomenon. Similar median survival times after disease progression were observed between groups (14.4 weeks vs. 15.7 weeks, p=0.251). Of 83 patients, 38 (45.8%) received further therapy at progression, and those who received further therapy showed longer survival in both the LD and ED groups. CONCLUSION: In recurrent malignant glioma, duration of bevacizumab was not associated with survival time in the overall population. However, ED of bevacizumab in responding patients might be associated with decreased survival.


Subject(s)
Bevacizumab , Disease Progression , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Humans
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-6981

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and survival benefits of combined treatment with radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) in a Korean sample. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 750 Korean patients with histologically confirmed glioblastoma multiforme, who received concurrent chemoradiotherapy with TMZ (CCRT) and adjuvant TMZ from January 2006 until June 2011, were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: After the first operation, a gross total resection (GTR), subtotal resection (STR), partial resection (PR), biopsy alone were achieved in 388 (51.7%), 159 (21.2%), 96 (12.8%), and 107 (14.3%) patients, respectively. The methylation status of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) was reviewed retrospectively in 217 patients. The median follow-up period was 16.3 months and the median overall survival (OS) was 17.5 months. The actuarial survival rates at the 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS were 72.1%, 21.0%, and 9.0%, respectively. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 10.1 months, and the actuarial PFS at 1-, 3-, and 5-year PFS were 42.2%, 13.0%, and 7.8%, respectively. The patients who received GTR showed a significantly longer OS and PFS than those who received STR, PR, or biopsy alone, regardless of the methylation status of the MGMT promoter. Patients with a methylated MGMT promoter also showed a significantly longer OS and PFS than those with an unmethylated MGMT promoter. Patients who received more than six cycles of adjuvant TMZ had a longer OS and PFS than those who received six or fewer cycles. Hematologic toxicity of grade 3 or 4 was observed in 8.4% of patients during the CCRT period and in 10.2% during the adjuvant TMZ period. CONCLUSION: Patients treated with CCRT followed by adjuvant TMZ had more favorable survival rates and tolerable toxicity than those who did not undergo this treatment.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Chemoradiotherapy , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Glioblastoma , Humans , Korea , Methylation , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-101944

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Homeobox (HOX) genes are essential developmental regulators that should normally be in the silenced state in an adult brain. The aberrant expression of HOX genes has been associated with the prognosis of many cancer types, including glioblastoma (GBM). This study examined the identity and role of HOX genes affecting GBM prognosis and treatment resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The full series of HOX genes of five pairs of initial and recurrent human GBM samples were screened by microarray analysis to determine the most plausible candidate responsible for GBM prognosis. Another 20 newly diagnosed GBM samples were used for prognostic validation. In vitro experiments were performed to confirm the role of HOX in treatment resistance. Mediators involved in HOX gene regulation were searched using differentially expressed gene analysis, gene set enrichment tests, and network analysis. RESULTS: The underexpression of HOXA11 was identified as a consistent signature for a poor prognosis among the HOX genes. The overall survival of the GBM patients indicated a significantly favorable prognosis in patients with high HOXA11 expression (31±15.3 months) compared to the prognoses in thosewith low HOXA11 expression (18±7.3 months, p=0.03). When HOXA11 was suppressed in the GBM cell lines, the anticancer effect of radiotherapy and/or temozolomide declined. In addition, five candidate mediators (TGFBR2, CRIM1, TXNIP, DPYSL2, and CRMP1) that may confer an oncologic effect after HOXA11 suppression were identified. CONCLUSION: The treatment resistance induced by the underexpression of HOXA11 can contribute to a poor prognosis in GBM. Further investigation will be needed to confirm the value of HOXA11 as a potential target for overcoming the treatment resistance by developing chemo- or radiosensitizers.


Subject(s)
Adult , Brain , Cell Line , Genes, Homeobox , Glioblastoma , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Microarray Analysis , Prognosis , Radiotherapy
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225906

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Normalized cerebral blood volume (nCBV) can be measured using manual or semiautomatic segmentation method. However, the difference in diagnostic performance on brain tumor differentiation between differently measured nCBV has not been evaluated. PURPOSE: To compare the diagnostic performance of manually obtained nCBV to that of semiautomatically obtained nCBV on glioblastoma (GBM) and primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) differentiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Histopathologically confirmed forty GBM and eleven PCNSL patients underwent 3T MR imaging with dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging before any treatment or biopsy. Based on the contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging, the mean nCBV (mCBV) was measured using the manual method (manual mCBV), random regions of interest (ROIs) placement by the observer, or the semiautomatic segmentation method (semiautomatic mCBV). The volume of enhancing portion of the tumor was also measured during semiautomatic segmentation process. T-test, ROC curve analysis, Fisher's exact test and multivariate regression analysis were performed to compare the value and evaluate the diagnostic performance of each parameter. RESULTS: GBM showed a higher enhancing volume (P = 0.0307), a higher manual mCBV (P = 0.018) and a higher semiautomatic mCBV (P = 0.0111) than that of the PCNSL. Semiautomatic mCBV had the highest value (0.815) for the area under the curve (AUC), however, the AUCs of the three parameters were not significantly different from each other. The semiautomatic mCBV was the best independent predictor for the GBM and PCNSL differential diagnosis according to the stepwise multiple regression analysis. CONCLUSION: We found that the semiautomatic mCBV could be a better predictor than the manual mCBV for the GBM and PCNSL differentiation. We believe that the semiautomatic segmentation method can contribute to the advancement of perfusion based brain tumor evaluation.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Biopsy , Blood Volume , Brain Neoplasms , Central Nervous System , Diagnosis, Differential , Glioblastoma , Humans , Lymphoma , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methods , Perfusion , ROC Curve
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-26792

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigated the effect of chemoradiotherapy with PP2 and temozolomide (TMZ) on malignant glioma cells using clonogenic assays and in vivo brain tumor model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of PP2 on radiosensitivity of U251 and T98G cells was investigated using clonogenic assays. The expression of E-cadherin, matrix metalloproteinases 2 (MMP2), Ephrin type-A receptor 2 (EphA2), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was measured by Western blotting and an accumulation of γH2AX foci 6 hours after radiotherapy was measured after PP2 treatment. The effect of PP2 on migration, invasion, and vasculogenic mimicry formation (VMF) of U251 cells was evaluated. In an orthotopical brain tumor model with U251 cells, PP2 was injected intraperitoneally with or without oral TMZ before, during and after whole brain radiotherapy. Bioluminescence images were taken to visualize in vivo tumors and immunohistochemical staining of VEGF, CD31, EphA2, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1a was performed. RESULTS: PP2 increased radiosensitivity of U251 and T98G cells without decreasing survival of normal human astrocytes. Chemoradiotherapy with PP2 and TMZ resulted in increased accumulation of γH2AX foci. PP2 induced overexpression of E-cadherin and suppression of MMP2, VEGF, and EphA2. PP2 also compromised invasion, migration, and VMF of U251 cells. In brain tumors, chemoradiotherapy with PP2 and TMZ decreased tumor volume best, but not statistically significantly compared with chemoradiotherapy with TMZ. The expression of VEGF and CD31 was suppressed in PP2-treated tumors. CONCLUSION: PP2 enhances radiosensitivity of malignant glioma cells and suppresses invasion and migration of U251 cells. Chemoradiotherapy with PP2 and TMZ resulted in non-significant tumor volume decrease.


Subject(s)
Astrocytes , Blotting, Western , Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Cadherins , Chemoradiotherapy , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Humans , Matrix Metalloproteinases , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Radiation Tolerance , Radiotherapy , Tumor Burden , Tyrosine , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
20.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1130-1140, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-68881

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors radiosensitize tumor cells. To elucidate mechanisms underlying radiosensitization by HDAC inhibition, understanding of differential contributions of HDAC isotypes is needed. The aim of this study was to investigate involvement of known HDAC isotypes in modulation of cellular radiosensitivity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Because pharmacologic HDAC inhibitors lack isotype-specificity, RNA interference against 11 HDAC isotypes was used to inhibit HDAC in an isotype-specific manner. Radiation cell survival was evaluated using a clonogenic assay in SQ20B cells transfected with small interfering RNA specifically targeting HDAC isotypes. Immunocytochemistry was performed for detection of γH2AX foci. Protein expression was measured using Western blotting. RESULTS: Among 11 HDAC isotypes tested, specific inhibition of 7 isotypes (HDAC1, HDAC3, HDAC4, HDAC6, HDAC7, HDAC10, and HDAC11) enhanced radiation lethality in SQ20B cells. Radiosensitization by inhibition of these HDAC isotypes was accompanied by delay of DNA double strand break repair. Radiosensitivity of SQ20B cells was not altered by selective inhibition of the remaining four isotypes (HDAC2, HDAC5, HDAC8, and HDAC9). Inhibition of HDAC isotypes resulted in downregulation of various proteins involved in pro-survival and DNA damage repair pathways. CONCLUSION: Isotype-specificity exists in HDAC inhibition-induced radiosensitization. Different HDAC isotypes are differentially involved in modulation of cellular radiosensitivity.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Cell Survival , DNA , DNA Damage , Down-Regulation , Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors , Histone Deacetylases , Histones , Immunohistochemistry , Radiation Tolerance , Radiation, Ionizing , RNA Interference , RNA, Small Interfering
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