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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900018

ABSTRACT

Background@#Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a negative impact on growth and development in children and is a risk factor for neurocognitive impairment; however, there is limited research on the cognitive function of children and adolescents with CKD. This study therefore aimed to investigate the mean intelligence and risk factors for low intelligence in children and adolescents with CKD. @*Methods@#Eighty-one patients with CKD under 18 years old were included in the KoreaN cohort study for Outcomes in patients With Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-Ped CKD). Participants completed either the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (6–16 years), or Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (> 16 years). @*Results@#The mean full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) was 91 ± 19; 24.7% of participants scored a full-scale IQ below 80. Participants with a short stature (height Z scores < −1.88), failure to thrive (weight Z scores < −1.65), more severe CKD stage (≥ IIIb), longer duration of CKD (≥ 5 years), and those who were Medicare or Medicaid beneficiaries, had significantly lower mean full-scale IQs. @*Conclusion@#On linear regression analysis, the association between the full-scale IQ, and longer duration of CKD and growth failure, remained significant after controlling for demographic and clinical variables. It is therefore necessary to investigate cognitive impairment in pediatric patients with CKD who exhibit growth failure or for a longer postmorbid period. It is believed that early interventions, such as kidney transplantation, will have a positive effect on IQ in children with CKD, as the disease negatively affects IQ due to poor glomerular filtration rate over time.

2.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 117-121, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913883

ABSTRACT

Chronic kidney disease (CKD)-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is a common complication of CKD, often accompanied by extra-skeletal calcification in adult patients. As increased vascular calcification is predicted to increase cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, the revised Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines recommend avoiding calcium-containing phosphate chelators. However, extra-skeletal calcification is less commonly noticed in pediatric patients. Here, we report our experience of such a complication in pediatric patients receiving maintenance peritoneal dialysis. Extra-skeletal calcification was noticed at the corneas, pelvic cavity, and soft tissues of the lower leg in 4 out of 32 patients on maintenance peritoneal dialysis. These patients experienced the aggravation of extra-skeletal calcifications during peritoneal dialysis, and 2 of them underwent excisional operations. It is required to monitor extra-skeletal calcifications in children on kidney replacement therapy.

3.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 122-127, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913882

ABSTRACT

C1q nephropathy is a rare glomerulopathy that typically presents with nephrotic syndrome in children. Treatment with immunosuppressive agents renders patients vulnerable to infection and its complications. Gastroenteritis is common in children, and rotavirus is a leading cause. Extraintestinal manifestations of rotavirus have recently been reported; however, there is a paucity of cases exploring the involvement of a rotavirus on the respiratory system. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a rapid onset respiratory failure characterized by noncardiogenic pulmonary edema and hypoxemia. Causes of ARDS include sepsis, pneumonia, pancreatitis, aspiration, and trauma. In this paper, we report a case of ARDS after rotavirus infection in a child with C1q nephropathy who had been treated with immunosuppressive agents.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897485

ABSTRACT

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children is associated with various complications, including poor growth and development, mineral bone disorder, cardiovascular disease, kidney failure, and mortality. Slowing down the progression of CKD is important since CKD is often not curable. Prospective cohort studies have been conducted to understand the progression and outcomes of CKD in children, and these studies have identified non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors. Recognition of known risk factors and early intervention are important to delay the progression of kidney function decline in children.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897481

ABSTRACT

C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN), a rare condition associated with dysregulation of the alternative pathway of the complement system, is histopathologically characterized by isolated or dominant C3 deposition in the renal glomeruli. We report a case of C3GN associated with anti-complement factor H (CFH) autoantibodies and CHF-related protein deficiency in an adolescent male. A 16-year-old adolescent male was admitted to a hospital with a 1-month history of generalized edema prior to presentation. Persistent microscopic hematuria and low serum C3 levels were incidentally detected at 7 and 10 years of age, respectively. Laboratory test results revealed hypoalbuminemia, nephrotic-range proteinuria, microscopic hematuria, and normal serum creatinine levels. The serum C3 and C4 levels were 17 mg/dL (normal 80–150 mg/dL) and 22 mg/mL (17–40 mg/mL), respectively. Renal biopsy showed typical features of C3GN. Further investigations revealed positive results on plasma anti-CFH autoantibody testing and a homozygous deletion of CFHR1 and CFHR3, which encode CFH-related proteins 1 and 3, respectively. Proteinuria persisted despite treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone, mycophenolate mofetil, and angiotensin-receptor blocker; however, his renal function remained stable. In conclusion, anti-CFH autoantibodies serve as important contributors to C3GN. This is the first case report that describes C3GN in an adolescent Korean male with anti-CFH autoantibodies and homozygous CFHR1 and CFHR3 deletion.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892314

ABSTRACT

Background@#Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a negative impact on growth and development in children and is a risk factor for neurocognitive impairment; however, there is limited research on the cognitive function of children and adolescents with CKD. This study therefore aimed to investigate the mean intelligence and risk factors for low intelligence in children and adolescents with CKD. @*Methods@#Eighty-one patients with CKD under 18 years old were included in the KoreaN cohort study for Outcomes in patients With Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-Ped CKD). Participants completed either the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (6–16 years), or Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (> 16 years). @*Results@#The mean full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) was 91 ± 19; 24.7% of participants scored a full-scale IQ below 80. Participants with a short stature (height Z scores < −1.88), failure to thrive (weight Z scores < −1.65), more severe CKD stage (≥ IIIb), longer duration of CKD (≥ 5 years), and those who were Medicare or Medicaid beneficiaries, had significantly lower mean full-scale IQs. @*Conclusion@#On linear regression analysis, the association between the full-scale IQ, and longer duration of CKD and growth failure, remained significant after controlling for demographic and clinical variables. It is therefore necessary to investigate cognitive impairment in pediatric patients with CKD who exhibit growth failure or for a longer postmorbid period. It is believed that early interventions, such as kidney transplantation, will have a positive effect on IQ in children with CKD, as the disease negatively affects IQ due to poor glomerular filtration rate over time.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889781

ABSTRACT

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children is associated with various complications, including poor growth and development, mineral bone disorder, cardiovascular disease, kidney failure, and mortality. Slowing down the progression of CKD is important since CKD is often not curable. Prospective cohort studies have been conducted to understand the progression and outcomes of CKD in children, and these studies have identified non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors. Recognition of known risk factors and early intervention are important to delay the progression of kidney function decline in children.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889777

ABSTRACT

C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN), a rare condition associated with dysregulation of the alternative pathway of the complement system, is histopathologically characterized by isolated or dominant C3 deposition in the renal glomeruli. We report a case of C3GN associated with anti-complement factor H (CFH) autoantibodies and CHF-related protein deficiency in an adolescent male. A 16-year-old adolescent male was admitted to a hospital with a 1-month history of generalized edema prior to presentation. Persistent microscopic hematuria and low serum C3 levels were incidentally detected at 7 and 10 years of age, respectively. Laboratory test results revealed hypoalbuminemia, nephrotic-range proteinuria, microscopic hematuria, and normal serum creatinine levels. The serum C3 and C4 levels were 17 mg/dL (normal 80–150 mg/dL) and 22 mg/mL (17–40 mg/mL), respectively. Renal biopsy showed typical features of C3GN. Further investigations revealed positive results on plasma anti-CFH autoantibody testing and a homozygous deletion of CFHR1 and CFHR3, which encode CFH-related proteins 1 and 3, respectively. Proteinuria persisted despite treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone, mycophenolate mofetil, and angiotensin-receptor blocker; however, his renal function remained stable. In conclusion, anti-CFH autoantibodies serve as important contributors to C3GN. This is the first case report that describes C3GN in an adolescent Korean male with anti-CFH autoantibodies and homozygous CFHR1 and CFHR3 deletion.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917048

ABSTRACT

Background@#The clinical features of pediatric rhabdomyolysis differ from those of the adults with rhabdomyolysis; however, multicenter studies are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of pediatric rhabdomyolysis and reveal the risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI) in such cases. @*Methods@#This retrospective study analyzed the medical records of children and adolescents diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis at 23 hospitals in South Korea between January 2007 and December 2016. @*Results@#Among 880 patients, those aged 3 to 5 years old composed the largest subgroup (19.4%), and all age subgroups were predominantly male. The incidence of AKI was 11.3%. Neurological disorders (53%) and infection (44%) were the most common underlying disorder and cause of rhabdomyolysis, respectively. The median age at diagnosis in the AKI subgroup was older than that in the non-AKI subgroup (12.2 years vs. 8.0 years). There were no significant differences in body mass index, myalgia, dark-colored urine, or the number of causal factors between the two AKI-status subgroups. The multivariate logistic regression model indicated that the following factors were independently associated with AKI: multiorgan failure, presence of an underlying disorder, strong positive urine occult blood, increased aspartate aminotransferase and uric acid levels, and reduced calcium levels. @*Conclusions@#Our study revealed characteristic clinical and laboratory features of rhabdomyolysis in a Korean pediatric population and highlighted the risk factors for AKI in these cases. Our findings will contribute to a greater understanding of pediatric rhabdomyolysis and may enable early intervention against rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831682

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hearing loss (HL) in children may adversely affect their development. HL is more prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) than in the general population.This study evaluated the prevalence of HL and its underlying diseases in patients with childhood-onset in CKD. @*Methods@#In this retrospective study of a tertiary referral center, childhood-onset CKD patients (stage 2–5, age at onset of renal symptom < 18 years) were recruited. We referred to the “renal” syndromic HL as cases with genetic or syndromic diseases, or extra-renal anomalies in addition to HL and CKD. @*Results@#A total of 421 patients (male:female = 279:142) were reviewed according to the causes of CKD: congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT; n = 184, 43.7%), glomerulopathies (GP; n = 105, 24.9%), cystic kidney diseases (CYST; n = 39, 9.3%), perinatal problems (PP; n = 29, 6.9%), and others (n = 64, 15.2%). HL was detected in 82 (19.5%) patients, including 51 (12.1%) patients with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), 30 (7.1%) with conductive hearing loss (CHL), and 1 patient with mixed HL. The prevalence of HL in each group was as follows: 16.8% in the CAKUT group, 28.6% in the GP group, 12.8% in the CYST group, 24.1% in the PP group, and 14.1% in the others group. HL was more common in higher CKD stages, especially CHL in end-stage renal disease. SNHL was more prevalent in CKD from GP. Of the 82 patients with HL, 50% had renal syndromic HL: 58.8% of SNHL and one-third of CHL were renal syndromic HL. @*Conclusion@#One-fifth of the childhood-onset CKD had HL. Collectively, renal syndromic HL comprised half of the HL in this study. To improve the quality of life in patients with childhood-onset CKD, we suggest that HL should be considered, requiring surveillance, and if necessary, early intervention.

12.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831540

ABSTRACT

Renal tubular dysgenesis (RTD) is a rare fatal disorder in which there is poor development of proximal tubules, leading to oligohydramnios and the Potter sequences. RTD occurs secondary to renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade during the early stages of fetal development or due to autosomal recessive mutation of genes in the RAS pathway. A boy born at 33+1 weeks due to cord prolapse was found to be anuric and hypotensive. Pregnancy was complicated by severe oligohydramnios from gestational age 28+4 weeks. Abdominal sonography revealed diffuse globular enlargement of both kidneys with increased cortical parenchymal echogenicity. Infantogram showed a narrow thoracic cage and skull X-ray showed large fontanelles and wide sutures suggestive of ossification delay. Basal plasma renin activity was markedly elevated and angiotensin-converting enzyme was undetectable. Despite adequate use of medications, peritoneal dialysis, and respiratory support, he did not recover and expired on the 23rd day of life. At first, autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease was suspected, but severe oligohydramnios along with refractory hypotension, anuria, skull ossification delay and high renin levels made RTD suspicious. ACE gene analysis revealed compound heterozygous pathogenic variations of c.1454.dupC in exon 9 and c.2141dupA in exon 14, confirming RTD. Based on our findings, we propose that, although rare, RTD should be suspected in patients with severe oligohydramnios and refractory hypotension.

13.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 120-125, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831208

ABSTRACT

Gorham-Stout syndrome is a rare bone disorder characterized by progressive massive osteolysis and proliferation of vascular and lymphatic vessels. A 15-year-old boy was initially diagnosed with Gorham-Stout at the age of 8 years based on clinical and radiological findings. Following diagnosis, he was treated with pamidronate, interferon alfa, propranolol, oral corticosteroids, and sirolimus. He developed proteinuria at the age of 15 and progressed into the nephrotic range 2 years later. A renal biopsy revealed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, not otherwise specified variant. The sequential increase in proteinuria associated with medications suggested that the focal segmental glomerulosclerosis may be caused by pamidronate and sirolimus, but cannot completely rule out the possibility of kidney involvement of GSS itself.

14.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 138-142, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831205

ABSTRACT

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is an extremely rare and life-threatening disorder. Typical HUS is often caused by Shiga toxin-positive Escherichia coli, while aHUS is caused by dysregulation of the alternative pathway of the complement system in association with genetic abnormalities or development of autoantibodies. Eculizumab, a humanized anti-complement 5 monoclonal antibody, is recommended for the treatment of aHUS, but its long-term safety and efficacy in pediatric patients remain under review. In this paper, we report a pediatric case of aHUS with anti-complement factor H autoantibodies, who was treated successfully with eculizumab.

15.
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17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785582

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Primary hyperoxaluria (PH), a rare inborn error of glyoxylate meta bolism causing overproduction of oxalate, is classified into three genetic subgroups: type 1–3 (PH1–PH3) caused by AGXT, GRHPR , and HOGA1 gene mutations, respectively. We performed a retrospective case series study of Korean pediatric patients with PH.METHODS: In total, 11 unrelated pediatric patients were recruited and their phenotypes and genotypes were analyzed by a retrospective review of their medical records.RESULTS: Mutational analyses revealed biallelic AGXT mutations (PH1) in nine patients and a single heterozygous GRHPR and HOGA1 mutation in one patient each. The c.33dupC was the most common AGXT mutation with an allelic frequency of 44%. The median age of onset was 3 months (range, 2 months-3 years), and eight patients with PH1 presented with end stage renal disease (ESRD). Patients with two truncating mutations showed an earlier age of onset and more frequent retinal involvement than patients with one truncating mutation. Among eight PH1 patients presenting with ESRD, five patients were treated with intensive dialysis followed by liver transplantation (n=5) with/without subsequent kidney transplantation (n=3).CONCLUSION: Most patients presented with severe infantile forms of PH. Patients with two truncating mutations displayed more severe phenotypes than those of patients with one truncating mutation. Sequential liver and kidney transplantation was adopted for PH1 patients presenting with ESRD. A larger nation-wide multicenter study is needed to confirm the genotype-phenotype correlations and outcomes of organ transplantation.


Subject(s)
Age of Onset , Dialysis , Genetic Association Studies , Genotype , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hyperoxaluria, Primary , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Kidney Transplantation , Liver , Liver Transplantation , Medical Records , Organ Transplantation , Phenotype , Retinaldehyde , Retrospective Studies , Transplants
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765002

ABSTRACT

D-penicillamine has been reported to cause antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis presenting as rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis or pulmonary-renal syndrome mostly in adults. We report a pediatric case of D-penicillamine induced ANCA-associated vasculitis that manifests as a pulmonary-renal syndrome with a mild renal manifestation. A 13-year-old girl who has been taking D-penicillamine for five years under the diagnosis of Wilson disease visited the emergency room because of hemoptysis and dyspnea. She had diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage, microscopic hematuria, and proteinuria. Myeloperoxidase ANCA was positive, and a renal biopsy revealed pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis. Under the diagnosis of D-penicillamine-induced ANCA-associated vasculitis, D-penicillamine was switched to trientine, and the patient was treated with plasmapheresis, glucocorticoid, cyclophosphamide, and mycophenolate mofetil. Pulmonary hemorrhage improved rapidly followed by the disappearance of the hematuria and proteinuria five months later.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , Biopsy , Child , Cyclophosphamide , Diagnosis , Dyspnea , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Glomerulonephritis , Hematuria , Hemoptysis , Hemorrhage , Hepatolenticular Degeneration , Humans , Penicillamine , Peroxidase , Plasmapheresis , Proteinuria , Trientine , Vasculitis
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765034

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is one of the major complications of organ transplantation, especially in children with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viremia (EV). We performed a retrospective study to evaluate risk factors for PTLD in children with EV. METHODS: Among 199 pediatric kidney transplantation (KT) recipients at our center from January 2001 to October 2015, records of those with EBV viral loads of > 1,000 copies/mL and/or PTLD were reviewed. RESULTS: Diagnosis of PTLD was made in seven patients (PTLD group), and 39 patients had EV only (EV only group). The median time from KT to EV and PTLD diagnosis was 6.7 (range 0.4–47.8) months and 8.2 (range, 2.8–98.9) months, respectively. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of sex, age at transplantation, donor type, EBV viral load, or EV-free duration after KT. Higher tacrolimus level before EV (hazard ratio, 44.5; P = 0.003) was an independent risk factor for PTLD in multivariate Cox regression analysis. Six patients with a high EBV load (median 171,639 copies/mL) were treated with preemptive rituximab (RTX) therapy, resulting in transient reduction of EBV load. None of these patients developed PTLD (median follow-up 51.5 months); however, two had neutropenia and two developed infection requiring hospital admission. CONCLUSION: In pediatric KT recipients, higher tacrolimus levels were associated with a higher incidence of PTLD. Conversely, those who received preemptive RTX for EV did not develop PTLD.


Subject(s)
Allografts , Child , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , Incidence , Kidney Transplantation , Kidney , Neutropenia , Organ Transplantation , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Rituximab , Tacrolimus , Tissue Donors , Transplants , Viral Load , Viremia
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760192

ABSTRACT

The most common type of refractory hypertension found in children is secondary hypertension, which is a potentially curable disease. Reninoma, a renin-secreting juxtaglomerular cell tumor, is a rare cause of severe hypertension that is usually diagnosed in adolescents and young adults. Surgical resection of the tumor completely cures the hypertension of patients with reninoma. The typical clinical presentation of reninoma includes hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and features secondary to the increased activation of the renin-angiotensin system without renal artery stenosis. We report a case of reninoma in a female adolescent with a typical clinical presentation, in which surgical removal of the tumor completely cured hypertension. We discuss here the clinical features, imaging studies, and immunohistochemical examination of the tumor used to establish the diagnosis of reninoma and for the management of the condition.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Alkalosis , Child , Diagnosis , Humans , Hypertension , Hypertension, Renal , Hypokalemia , Juxtaglomerular Apparatus , Renal Artery Obstruction , Renin , Renin-Angiotensin System , Young Adult
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