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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-105352


The prevailing model of osteology is that bones constantly undergo a remodeling process, and that the differentiation and functions of osteoblasts are partially regulated by leptin through different central hypothalamic pathways. The finding that bone remodeling is regulated by leptin suggested possible endocrinal effects of bones on energy metabolism. Recently, a reciprocal relationship between bones and energy metabolism was determined whereby leptin influences osteoblast functions and, in turn, the osteoblast-derived protein osteocalcin influences energy metabolism. The metabolic effects of bones are caused by the release of osteocalcin into the circulation in an uncarboxylated form due to incomplete gamma-carboxylation. In this regard, the Esp gene encoding osteotesticular protein tyrosine phosphatase is particularly interesting because it may regulate gamma-carboxylation of osteocalcin. Novel metabolic roles of osteocalcin have been identified, including increased insulin secretion and sensitivity, increased energy expenditure, fat mass reduction, and mitochondrial proliferation and functional enhancement. To date, only a positive correlation between osteocalcin and energy metabolism in humans has been detected, leaving causal effects unresolved. Further research topics include: identification of the osteocalcin receptor; the nature of osteocalcin regulation in other pathways regulating metabolism; crosstalk between nutrition, osteocalcin, and energy metabolism; and potential applications in the treatment of metabolic diseases.

Bone Remodeling/physiology , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Energy Metabolism , Humans , Leptin/metabolism , Osteocalcin/genetics
Immune Network ; : 117-123, 2005.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-40269


The immune response to any stimulus is complex, requiring coordinated action by several types of cells in a tightly regulated sequence. Thus, a physical stress such as exercise may act at any number of points in the complex sequence of events collectively termed the immune response. Although exercise causes many propound changes in parameters of immune function, the nature and magnitude of such changes rely on several factors including the immune parameters of interest; type, intensity, and duration of exercise; fitness level or exercise history of the subject; environmental factors such as ambient temperature and humidity. Although regular moderate exercise appears to be important factor for increasing immunity, Athletes are susceptible to illness, in particular upper respiratory track infection, during periods of intense training and after competition. In addition, in elite athletes, frequent illness is associated with overtraining syndrome, a neuroendocrine disorder resulting from excessive training. Through this paper, we want to investigate the effects of exercise on the immunosuppression such as exercise induced lymphopenia, asthma, anaphylaxis, URT (upper respiratory track), and TB (tuberculosis) infection. and also, we want to suggest a direct mechanism, protection and therapy of exercise induced immunosuppression.

Anaphylaxis , Asthma , Athletes , Humans , Humidity , Immunosuppression Therapy , Lymphopenia
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-646235


The effects of taurine, carnitine or glutamine supplementation on endurance exercise performance along with related fatigue factors were evaluated in male college students in the Department of Physical Education, who''s maximal oxygen consumption rates (VO2max) were equivalent to those of endurance athletes. Twenty four subjects were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=6), and given placebo, taurine (4 g/day), carnitine (4 g/day), or glutamine (4 g/day) tablets for 2 weeks. Subjects could run 6.9 min or 9.0 min longer until exhausted on a treadmill at the intensity of 75% VO2max following taurine or camitine supplementation for 2 weeks, respectively, compared to the value measured prior to each supplementation. Glutamine or placebo supplementation did not improve the endurance exercise performance based on the running time until exhausted on a treadmill. Serum lactate concentrations measured 1 hr after the initiation of the endurance exercise, as well as at all-out state tended to be decreased by taurine, carnitine, or glutamine supplementation, and were significantly lowered (43% decrease) by carnitine supplementation (p<0.05). Taurine supplementation significantly reduced the serum inorganic phosphorus concentration measured at all-out state (14% decrease, p<0.05), while carnitine supplementation significantly lowered the resting state serum inorganic phosphorus level (20% decrease, p<0.05). Taurine (32% reduction) or carnitine (23% reduction) supplementation significantly decreased serum ammonia concentration measured at all-out state (p<0.05). From these results, 4 g/day of taurine or carnitine supplementation appears to improve the endurance exercise performance and related human fatigue factors.

Ammonia , Athletes , Carnitine , Dietary Supplements , Fatigue , Glutamine , Humans , Lactic Acid , Male , Oxygen Consumption , Phosphorus , Physical Education and Training , Running , Tablets , Taurine