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1.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 30 (3): 881-890
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-186485

ABSTRACT

The objective of the study was to investigate the nephroprotective activity of methanolic extract of different morphological parts [bract, flower, trachea and tracheal fluid] of Musa paradisiaca L. [Family: Musaceae] against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice. Gentamicin produced significant changes in biochemical [increased levels of blood urea nitrogen level, blood urea, and serum creatinine], and histological parameters in mice. Treatment with methanolic extract of bract [100 and 250mg/kg, b.w] and flowering stalk [trachea] [250 and 500mg/kg, b.w] significantly prevented biochemical and histological changes produced by gentamicin toxicity. The extracts of M. paradisiaca[bract and flowering stalk] could contribute a lead to discovery of a new drug for the treatment of drug-induced nephrotoxicity

2.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 30 (2): 481-486
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-186511

ABSTRACT

[number sign]Salvia moorcroftiana is an herbaceous plant commonly known as "Kallijari" in Pakistan and belongs to the family Lamiaceae. This study was carried out to evaluate its scientific base for its traditional use in pain, fever and inflammation. The powdered plant was extracted by the method of cold maceration using aqueous methanol [70:30] as solvents. Hot plate, flick tail and acetic acid induced writhing test were utilized for analgesic assessment. Antiinflammatory activity was evaluated by carageenan-induced mice paw edema. Brewer's induced pyrexia was used for the evaluation of antipyretic activity. Non-significant [p<0.01] results as compared to the standard were obtained in all experiments. It was evident from acute toxicity study that plant was non-toxic in nature. It is concluded from the study that plant had the potential to be safely used for pain, fever and inflammation

3.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2016; 29 (6): 2103-2104
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-184156

ABSTRACT

Although aspirin-clopidogrel combination is more useful for acute coronary syndrome [ACS], the renal safety of this combination had not been established. A total 60 patients with ACS were divided into three groups; receiving aspirin, clopidogrel and aspirin-clopidogrel combination. For determination of renal function, serum BUN, creatinine, uric acid, uric acid clearance and GFR were estimated for four months. The study showed that there were no significant [p>0.05] variations in the parameters when used the drugs in combination [aspirin-clopidogrel] compared with the drugs given alone

4.
Hamdard Medicus. 2016; 59 (1): 41-51
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-185888

ABSTRACT

Tribulus terrestris extracts were prepared using solvents of different polarities and their irritant inducing effects were assessed in vivo on rabbit's ears


The result indicates that the polar components were in higher yield than the others and amounts of the extracted material were directly proportional to the polarities of solvents. Preliminary phytochemical screening shows diversity of compounds and comparative TLC analytical behaviour further indicated the resolution of mostly five compounds from the non-polar, intermediate polar and highly polar materials by different solvent systems. Irritant potency of water extract was assessed on rabbit's ears using a known method that was proved to be the most potent irritant [with +++ response, propagated in an area of 2.70 cm[2] diameter]

5.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2016; 29 (2): 591-594
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-176395

ABSTRACT

The present study was aimed to investigate the antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous methanolic and n-hexane extract of Thymus linearis. For measuring analgesic activity, writhing test, hot plate method and formalin test were performed and abdominal writhing was induced by intra-peritoneal injection of 0.2 ml of 3% acetic acid. While in formalin test, pain was experimentally induced by injecting 25 micro l of 2.5% formalin in left hind paw. In hot plate method, pain was induced thermally by keeping the animals on a hot plate with temperature of about 51[degree]C. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by carrageenan induced mice paw edema. For determination of antipyretic activity, pyrexia was induced by subcutaneous injection of 15% yeast. The results showed that both the extracts had significant analgesic activity [p<0.05]; anti-inflammatory activity [p<0.05] and anti-pyretic activity [p<0.05]. Therefore, it was concluded from this study that the extracts of Thymus linearis may be used against pain, pyrexia and inflammation


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Analgesics , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Antipyretics , Plant Extracts , Pain Measurement , Mice
6.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2016; 29 (1): 247-248
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-177294

ABSTRACT

The present diagnostic tests for cancers are expensive and are not accessible by poor. Therefore, it was necessary to explore a diagnostic test accessible by general public. Plasma lipid profile is decreased in all the cancers except in breast cancer, where HDL-cholesterol is decreased while the other lipids are increased. Therefore, plasma lipid profile may be used as diagnostic test for malignancy. As general diagnostic procedures, these laboratory parameters [plasma lipids] should also be co-related with the clinical symptoms of the patient and other diagnostic tools

7.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2016; 29 (3): 999-1003
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-179573

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, occurrence of skin cancer is very common in humans. It is reported that the most common cause of the skin cancer is excessive exposure to sunlight as it contains harmful radiations; the ultra violet rays. Different management strategies are used for different types of skin cancers, which are chemotherapy, radiation therapy

8.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2016; 29 (4): 1321-1324
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-181728

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to identify antimicrobial potential of Kalanchoe laciniata. The plants were extracted with 30-70% aqueous-methanol and n-hexane. The antimicrobial activities were examined using agar well diffusion method against bacteria [Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli] and fungi [Candidaalbicans]. Results showed that E. coli were more sensitive than Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The largest zone of inhibition [52 mm] was recorded against E. coli with the n-hexane extract of Kalanchoe laciniata

9.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2016; 29 (5): 1711-1713
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-183657

ABSTRACT

Objective of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of Sea buckthorn [Hippophae rhamnoides L.] berries and leaves against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA] by using the standard disc diffusion method. Chloroform, n-hexane and aqueous extract of the plant parts were used. Doses of 2mg/ml, 4 mg/ml and 6mg/ml were tested against the microorganism, and the zone of inhibition was compared against the standard drug vancomycin. Results indicated that n-hexane and chloroform extracts of berries and n-hexane extract leaves showed significant [p<0.05] antibacterial activity comparable with vancomycin. It was concluded from the study that extracts berries and leaves of Hippophae rhamnoides have antibacterial activity against MRSA

10.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2015; 28 (1): 265-270
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-153905

ABSTRACT

The evolution of antibiotic-resistant in bacteria has aggravated curiosity in development of alternative therapy to conventional drugs. One of the emerging drugs that can be used alternative to antibiotics is bacteriophage therapy. The use of living phages in the cure of lethal infectious life threatening diseases caused by Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria has been reported. Another development in the field of bacteriophage therapy is the use of genetically modified and non replicating phages in the treatment of bacterial infection. Genetically engineered bacteriophages can be used as adjuvant along with antibiotic therapy. Phages encoded with lysosomal enzymes are also effectual in the treatment of infectious diseases


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance, Microbial , Bacteriophages , Bacterial Infections/therapy
11.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2015; 28 (5): 1811-1817
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-166680

ABSTRACT

Malaria and HIV are amongst the two main diseases worldwide and creating troubles of our time. Together, they grounds extra than four million deaths a year. Malaria causes around about for more than a million deaths each year, of which over 80-90% come about in tropical Africa, somewhere malaria is the primary source of mortality in children below six years of age. Sideways as of adolescent, children, pregnant women are surrounded by the largest part exaggerated by the disease. In the wide geographical extend beyond in event and the follow-on co-infection; the interface flanked as a result of the two diseases visibly has foremost communal strength results. Thus both are dangerous for health at the same time


Subject(s)
Humans , Malaria , Plasmodium , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Developing Countries , Coinfection
12.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2015; 28 (4): 1425-1432
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-165787

ABSTRACT

Mesothelioma is a rare form of cancer affecting the mesothelium lining. It is usually caused by asbestos exposure or exposure to nanofibers. Median survival is less than one year in the mesothelioma patients. Due to its severity, there is a dire necessity to find out new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Some recent strategies could help us in fighting against mesothelioma. Diagnostic tools include a range of biomarkers or biotechnological procedure. Therapeutic tools include chemotherapeutic strategies along with immunotherapy, gene therapy and alternative therapy

13.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2015; 28 (2): 647-655
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-178170

ABSTRACT

Dengue fever is caused by the mosquito-borne dengue virus [DENV] serotypes 1-4, and is the most common arboviral infection of humans in subtropical and tropical regions of the world. Dengue virus infections can present with a spacious range of clinical signs, from a mild feverish illness to a life-threatening shock syndrome. Till now, there is no approved vaccine or drug against this virus. Therefore, there is an urgent need of development of alternative solutions for dengue. Several plant species have been reported with anti-dengue activity. Many herbal/natural drugs, most of which are commonly used as nutritional components, have been used as antiviral, larvicidal, mosquitocidal and mosquito repellents that may be used against dengue. The objective of this review article was to provide current approaches for the treatment and management/prevention of dengue fever by targeting viral proteins involved in replication cycle of the virus and different developmental stages of mosquito


Subject(s)
Dengue/prevention & control , Disease Management , Antiviral Agents , Larva , Culicidae , Dengue Virus , Insect Repellents
14.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2014; 27 (6): 1985-1988
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-148847

ABSTRACT

The objective of the study was to investigate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activity of aqueous ethanolic extracts of Tamarix aphylla. The powdered plant was extracted by the method of cold maceration using aqueous ethanol [70:30] as solvents. Analgesic activity was assessed by Eddy's hot plate method, formalin-induced paw licking and acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carageenan-induced mice paw edema. The anti-pyretic activity was determined by yeast-induced pyrexia in mice. The aqueous ethanolic extract of Tamarix aphylla showed 42% inhibition [p<0.005] of acetic acid-induced writhing, 63% reduction [p<0.005] in formalin-induced paw licking, and 42% increase [p<0.05] in reaction time as compared to normal control. The extract did not show significant anti-inflammatory activity. However, it showed significant antipyretic effect [p<0.005]. The results of this study demonstrate that aqueous ethanolic extract of Tamarix aphylla exhibit analgesic and antipyretic activity but lacks anti-inflammatory activity


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Analgesics , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Antipyretics , Ethanol , Mice , Plant Extracts
15.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2014; 27 (2): 405-415
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-138644

ABSTRACT

Joint FAO/WHO expert's consultation report defines probiotics as: Live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Most commonly used probiotics are Lactic acid bacteria [LAB] and bifidobacteria. There are other examples of species used as probiotics [certain yeasts and bacilli]. Probiotic supplements are popular now a days. From the beginning of 2000, research on probiotics has increased remarkably. Probiotics are now day's widely studied for their beneficial effects in treatment of many prevailing diseases. Here we reviewed the beneficiary effects of probiotics in some diseases

16.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2014; 27 (4): 785-792
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-152583

ABSTRACT

Simple and cost effective study consisting of three steps, comparison of micromeritic properties of different blends i.e. placebo without API and Nimesulide containing, Use of central composite design [CCRD] for intermediate release Nimesulide tablets and stability results of three selected Nimesulide tablet formulations which were calculated by using R Gui. Different concentrations of Avicel, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose [HPMC] and magnesium stearate were used as variables in central composite design and two types blend i.e., with or without Nimesulide were selected for bulk density, tap density, percentage compressibility; angle of repose and Hausner's ratio. Blending rate constant was performed after applying the different mixing times like 3, 6, 9 and 12 minutes. Twenty intermediate release formulations were designed and three formulations were chosen for compression by direct compression method on the basis of compressibility index. Physicochemical properties and best release pattern in four hours in different dissolution medium were successfully measured. Relative densities, porosity of tablets were compared with tensile strength of tablet and weight variation, hardness, friability and dissolution was performed by simple experiments. Presence of Nimesulide in the bulk increased all micromeratic tests while 9 minutes was best mixing time. The hardness of NM containing tablets increased with the increase of relative density. The release pattern was further analyzed by model dependent i.e. zero order, first order and Higuchi, Korse-meyer and Pappas, Hixson Crowell and model independent kinetic model i.e., f2 value respectively. R Gui explained the F16 formulation shows the best result in stability studies with shelf life 72 months

17.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2014; 27 (4): 813-818
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-152587

ABSTRACT

The optimum conditions to label ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonate [EDTMP] compound with [90]y as a potential candidate for bone metastases therapy were investigated. Yttrium-90 is a pure beta-emitter and can be obtained by 89y [n,gamma] [90]y nuclear reaction in a reactor or from an in-house generator system [[90]sr[rightwards arrow][90]y]. The preparation of [90]y-EDTMPis described using [90]y, which was obtained from neutron irradiation of y2o3 as well as from a laboratory scale organic resin-based [90]sr[rightwards arrow][90]y generator. Because of the radiolabeling yield of [90]y-EDTMP on ligand/metal molar ratio, incubation time and ph was evaluated. Under optimum parameters, the radiolabeling yields of [90]y-EDTMPwere <95% for no-carrier-added as well as carrier-added [90]y. The biodistribution of no-carrier-added and carrier-added [90]yEDTMPcomplexes in rats was identical. The results indicate that [90]y [carrier-added]-edtmp is also an effective bone pain palliation agent because of its rapid blood clearance, greater uptake in bones and little absorption in soft tissues

18.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2014; 27 (3): 607-616
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-142182

ABSTRACT

Date Fruits are consumed in Arab areas for a long time as a part of essential diet. Phoenix dactylifera belongs to family Arecaceae and its leaves, barks, pits, fruits and pollens have anticancer, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, antiulcertavie, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, antimutagenic, antidiarheal, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral potential. Besides these, Dates also increase level of estrogen, testosterone, RBCs, Hb, PCV, reticulocytes and platelet counts. It can also cure lead induced heamotoxicity, side effects of methylprednisolon, male and female infertility. It has also cerebroprotective, neuroprotective and haemopoietic activity. Phoenix dactylifera can be used for number of complications if further evaluated and isolated. The present paper is an overview of pharmacological properties of Phoenix dactylifera reported in literature.


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Arecaceae , Pharmacology
19.
Biomedica. 2014; 30 (1): 48-52
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-142247

ABSTRACT

Renal cell carcinomas [RCC] comprise 90% of all renal tumours and are presage of poor outcome. Very little data has been published in Pakistan regarding the clinical and pathological manifestations of the disease. A total 0/50 cases presenting with different subtypes of RCC were selected from Allied Hospital Faisalabad and Sheikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore. Clinical details were obtained from the hospital records. The fresh nephrectomy specimens were further processed according to College of American Pathologists guidelines. Mean age of the study population was 50.16 +/- 11.982 years. Male to female ratio was 2.57:1. Left to right ratio was 1:1. Most tumours [n = 36, 72%] were located in the upper pole. Most common symptom was heamaturia [n = 38, 76%]. Mean of the greatest dimension was 10.41 +/- 4.22 cm. The most common stage of presentation was stage II [n = 21, 42%] and histological subtype was clear cell carcinoma [n = 37, 74%]. Renal cell carcinoma, including its chromophobe variant, is a growing malignancy in Pakistan. Delay in seeking medical care on the part of patient and inadequate facilities account for the tumour growing to a larger size and more advanced stage of malignancy in our country

20.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013; 26 (4): 831-840
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-126983

ABSTRACT

Prostate cancer is a serious multidimensional disorder that arises because of misrepresentation of signaling cascades and acquired resistance against apoptosis. It is progressively becoming more insurmountable because of rheostat like switching of oncogenic signaling in androgen dependent and androgen depleted microenvironment. Additionally, oncogenic fusion proteins have been explored in prostate cancer tissues thus adding another layer of complexity to the targeting of protein network in cancer cell and generate hurdles in the standardization of therapy. In this review we briefly describe identified oncogenic fusion transcripts in prostate cancer and suggest utilization of this biomarker for prostate cancer diagnosis along with standard PSA and immunohistochemistry analysis in Pakistan. We also provide overview of animal model studies to interpret the efficacy of vitamins


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Androgens , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion , Immunohistochemistry
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