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1.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 164-177, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937760

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) does not have defined therapeutic targets and is currently treated with chemotherapy only. Kinase dysregulation triggers cancer cell proliferation and metastasis and is a crucial therapeutic target for cancer. In this study, targeted kinome sequencing of TNBC tumors was performed to assess the association between kinome gene alterations and disease outcomes in TNBC. @*Methods@#A kinome gene panel consisting of 612 genes was used for the targeted sequencing of 166 TNBC samples and matched normal tissues. Analyses of the significantly mutated genes were performed. Genomic differences between Asian and non-Asian patients with TNBC were evaluated using two Asian TNBC datasets (from Seoul National University Hospital [SNUH] and Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center [FUSCC]) and three nonAsian TNBC datasets (The Cancer Genome Atlas [TCGA], METABRIC, and Gustave Roussy).The prognostic value of kinome gene mutations was evaluated using tumor mutational burden (TMB) and oncogenic pathway analyses. Mutational profiles from the TCGA were used for validation. @*Results@#The significantly mutated genes included TP53 (60% of patients), PIK3CA (21%), BRCA2 (8%), and ATM (8%). Compared with data from non-Asian public databases, the mutation rates of PIK3CA p.H1047R/Q were significantly higher in the SNUH cohort (p = 0.003, 0.048, and 0.032, respectively). This was verified using the FUSCC dataset (p = 0.003, 0.078, and 0.05, respectively). The TMB-high group showed a trend toward longer progression-free survival in our cohort and the TCGA TNBC cohort (p = 0.041 and 0.195, respectively). Kinome gene alterations in the Wnt pathway in patients with TNBC were associated with poor survival in both datasets (p = 0.002 and 0.003, respectively). @*Conclusion@#Comprehensive analyses of kinome gene alterations in TNBC revealed genomic alterations that offer therapeutic targets and should help identify high-risk patients more precisely in future studies.

2.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 488-496, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925669

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to assess the real-world efficacy of nab-paclitaxel in metastatic breast cancer patients. @*Materials and Methods@#This is a retrospective study performed in two tertiary referral hospitals in Korea. Patients with metastatic breast cancer treated with nab-paclitaxel (Abraxane®) between March 2016 and March 2020 were enrolled. @*Results@#A total of 102 patients with metastatic breast cancer were included. Patients were heavily pre-treated with a median of four prior lines of chemotherapy (5 lines when including endocrine therapy in hormone-receptor-positive patients), and 66 patients (64.7%) were exposed to taxanes in the metastatic setting. According to St. Gallen molecular subtypes, 36 patients (35.3%) were luminal A, 28 (27.5%) were luminal B, 18 (17.7%) were human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–positive and 20 (19.6%) had triple-negative disease. Fifty patients (49.0%) were treated with a 3-weekly regimen (260 mg/m2 on day 1 every 3 weeks), and 52 (51.0%) were treated with a weekly regimen (100 mg/m2 every week). Objective response rate was 22.9%. After a median follow-up of 22.0 months, median progression-free survival (PFS) was 4.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.6 to 4.8) and median overall survival was 8.7 months (95% CI, 7.5 to 11.2). Patients treated with weekly regimen had longer PFS compared to 3-weekly regimen (5.5 vs. 2.3 months, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed the treatment regimen as an independent prognostic factor for PFS. There was no grade 3 or 4 hypersensitivity reaction. @*Conclusion@#This real-world data shows that nab-paclitaxel is a reasonable treatment option in heavily pre-treated and/or taxane-exposed metastatic breast cancer patients.

3.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 380-387, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915798

ABSTRACT

Background@#Papillary breast lesions (PBLs) comprise diverse entities from benign and atypical lesions to malignant tumors. Although PBLs are characterized by a papillary growth pattern, it is challenging to achieve high diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility. Thus, we investigated the diagnostic reproducibility of PBLs in core needle biopsy (CNB) specimens with World Health Organization (WHO) classification. @*Methods@#Diagnostic reproducibility was assessed using interobserver variability (kappa value, κ) and agreement rate in the pathologic diagnosis of 60 PBL cases on CNB among 20 breast pathologists affiliated with 20 medical institutions in Korea. This analysis was performed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for cytokeratin 5 (CK5) and p63. The pathologic diagnosis of PBLs was based on WHO classification, which was used to establish simple classifications (4-tier, 3-tier, and 2-tier). @*Results@#On WHO classification, H&E staining exhibited ‘fair agreement’ (κ = 0.21) with a 47.0% agreement rate. Simple classifications presented improvement in interobserver variability and agreement rate. IHC staining increased the kappa value and agreement rate in all the classifications. Despite IHC staining, the encapsulated/solid papillary carcinoma (EPC/SPC) subgroup (κ = 0.16) exhibited lower agreement compared to the non-EPC/SPC subgroup (κ = 0.35) with WHO classification, which was similar to the results of any other classification systems. @*Conclusions@#Although the use of IHC staining for CK5 and p63 increased the diagnostic agreement of PBLs in CNB specimens, WHO classification exhibited a higher discordance rate compared to any other classifications. Therefore, this result warrants further intensive consensus studies to improve the diagnostic reproducibility of PBLs with WHO classification.

4.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 182-193, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835603

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Endocrine therapy is a standard treatment for hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, which accounts for 60%–75% of all breast cancer. Hormone receptor positivity is a prognostic and predictive biomarker in breast cancer. Approximately 50%–80% of breast cancer is also positive for androgen receptor (AR), but the prognostic and predictive value of AR expression in breast cancer is controversial. Here, we investigated AR expression and its prognostic value in patients with surgically resected breast cancer in Korea. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who had surgically resected breast cancer to collect AR expression data and other clinicopathological data. The optimal cut-off for AR positivity was determined using a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. @*Results@#We reviewed 957 patients with surgically resected breast cancer from June 2012 to April 2013. The median follow-up was 62 months, and relapse events occurred in 101 (10.6%) patients. Unlike the cut-off value of 1% or 10% in previous reports, 35% was determined to be best for predicting relapse-free survival (RFS) in this study. At the cut-off value of 35%, 654 (68.4%) patients were AR-positive. AR expression was more prevalent in luminal A (87.6%) and luminal B (73.1%) types than in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (56.2%) or triple-negative (20.6%) types. AR expression of ≥ 35% was significantly related to longer RFS in a multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 0.430; 95% confidence interval, 0.260–0.709; p = 0.001). @*Conclusion@#We propose a cut-off value of 35% to best predict RFS in patients with surgically resected breast cancer. AR expression was positive in 68.4% of patients, and AR positivity was found to be an independent prognostic factor for longer RFS.

5.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 393-398, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786125

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hyperchromatic crowed groups (HCGs) are defined as three-dimensional aggregates of crowded cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, and are frequently encountered in cervicovaginal liquid-based cytology (LBC). Here, we aimed to examine the prevalence of HCGs in cervicovaginal LBC and the cytomorphological characteristics of various epithelial cell clusters presenting as HCGs.METHODS: We first examined the prevalence of HCGs in a “routine cohort” of LBC cytology (n=331), consisting of all cervicovaginal LBCs accessioned over 3 days from outpatient clinics (n=179) and the screening population (n=152). Then we examined a second “high-grade epithelial cell abnormalities (H-ECA) cohort” (n=69) of LBCs diagnosed as high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), or adenocarcinoma during 1 year.RESULTS: HCGs was observed in 34.4% of the routine cohort and were significantly more frequent in the epithelial cell abnormality category compared to the non-neoplastic category (p=.003). The majority of HCGs represented atrophy (70%). Of the 69 histologically confirmed H-ECA cases, all contained HCGs. The majority of cases were HSIL (62%), followed by SCC (16%). Individually scattered neoplastic cells outside the HCGs were significantly more frequent in SCCs compared to glandular neoplasia (p=.002). Despite the obscuring thick nature of the HCGs, examining the edges and the different focal planes of the HCGs and the background were helpful in defining the nature of the HCGs.CONCLUSIONS: HCGs were frequently observed in cervicovaginal LBC and were mostly non-neoplastic; however, neoplastic HCGs were mostly high-grade lesions. Being aware of the cytomorphological features of different HCGs is important in order to avoid potential false-negative cytology interpretation.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Atrophy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cohort Studies , Crows , Epithelial Cells , Mass Screening , Prevalence , Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions of the Cervix , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
6.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 369-377, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741203

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chemokine receptor CXC chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) and its ligand CXC motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12; stromal cell-derived factor-1) are implicated in tumor growth, metastasis, and tumor cell-microenvironment interaction. A number of studies have reported that increased CXCR4 expression is associated with worse prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), but its prognostic significance has not been studied in TNBC patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: Two hundred eighty-three TNBC patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. Tissue microarray was constructed from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue and immunohistochemistry for CXCR4 and CXCL12 was performed. Expression of each marker was compared with clinicopathologic characteristics and outcome. RESULTS: High cytoplasmic CXCR4 expression was associated with younger age (p = .008), higher histologic grade (p = .007) and lower pathologic stage (p = .045), while high CXCL12 expression was related to larger tumor size (p = .045), positive lymph node metastasis (p = .005), and higher pathologic stage (p = .017). The patients with high cytoplasmic CXCR4 experienced lower distant recurrence (p = .006) and better recurrence-free survival (RFS) (log-rank p = .020) after adjuvant chemotherapy. Cytoplasmic CXCR4 expression remained an independent factor of distant recurrence (p = .019) and RFS (p = .038) after multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: High cytoplasmic CXCR4 expression was associated with lower distant recurrence and better RFS in TNBC patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. This is the first study to correlate high CXCR4 expression to better TNBC prognosis, and the underlying mechanism needs to be elucidated in further studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Cytoplasm , Immunohistochemistry , Lymph Nodes , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Receptors, CXCR , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
7.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 262-266, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741175

ABSTRACT

Rhabdomyosarcoma is a malignant soft tissue tumor which shows skeletal muscle differentiation. Leptomeningeal metastasis can occur as a late complication, but currently there are no reports that have documented the cytologic features in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We report a case of metastatic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma diagnosed in the CSF of a 28-year-old male who was originally diagnosed with rhabdomyosarcoma on the neck, and that went through systemic therapy. The tumor was positive for anaplastic lymphoma kinase, but progressed despite additional therapy with crizotinib. The CSF specimen revealed small round cells, large atypical cells with abundant cytoplasm and eccentric nuclei, and cells with horseshoe-shaped nuclei. These cytologic findings were in agreement with previous literature and well-correlated with histopathology. This is the first report to document the cytologic feature of rhabdomyosarcoma in CSF. In many cases it is difficult to perform ancillary tests in a CSF specimen and cytopathologists should be aware of the cytomorphologic characteristics to avoid misdiagnosis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Cytoplasm , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Errors , Lymphoma , Muscle, Skeletal , Neck , Neoplasm Metastasis , Phosphotransferases , Rhabdomyosarcoma , Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar
8.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 223-230, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-101377

ABSTRACT

Angelica acutiloba (AA), a Japanese species of Danggui, has been used worldwide as a traditional herbal medicine with several bioactivities including anti-diabetic, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and anti-obesity. However, there is lack of toxicological data available to evaluate potential long-term toxicity and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of AA extract in accordance with the test guidelines published by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. In the 14-day repeat-dose toxicity study, no adverse effects on mortality, body weight change, clinical signs, and organ weights was found following repeat oral administration to rats for 14 days (125, 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg body weight), leading that 2000 mg/kg is the highest recommended dose of AA extract for the 13-week repeat-dose oral toxicity study. In the 13-week repeat-dose oral toxicity study, the AA extract was orally administered to groups of rats for 13 weeks (125, 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg body weight) to compare between control and AA extract groups. The administration of AA extract did not produce mortality or remarkable clinical signs during this 13-week study. And, the data revealed that there were no significant differences in food/water consumption, body weight, hematological parameters, clinical chemistry parameters, gross macroscopic findings, organ weight and histopathology in comparison to the control group. On the basis of these results, the subchronic NOAEL of the AA extract was more than 2000 mg/kg/day when tested in rats. And, the AA extract is considered safe to use orally as a traditional herbal medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Rats , Administration, Oral , Angelica , Asian People , Body Weight , Body Weight Changes , Chemistry, Clinical , Herbal Medicine , Medicine, Traditional , Mortality , No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level , Organ Size , Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development
9.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1088-1096, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160265

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z0011 trial reported that complete dissection of axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) may not be warranted in women with clinical T1-T2 tumors and one or two involved ALNs who were undergoing lumpectomy plus radiation followed by systemic therapy. The present study was conducted to identify preoperative imaging predictors of ≥ 3 ALNs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The training set consisted of 1,917 patients with clinical T1-T2 and node negative invasive breast cancer. Factors associated with ≥ 3 involved ALNs were evaluated by logistic regression analysis. The validation set consisted of 378 independent patients. The nomogram was applied prospectively to 512 patients who met the Z0011 criteria. RESULTS: Of the 1,917 patients, 204 (10.6%) had ≥ 3 positive nodes. Multivariate analysis showed that involvement of ≥ 3 nodes was significantly associated with ultrasonographic and chest computed tomography findings of suspicious ALNs (p < 0.001 each). These two imaging criteria, plus patient age, were used to develop a nomogram calculating the probability of involvement of ≥ 3 ALNs. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the nomogram were 0.852 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.820 to 0.883) for the training set and 0.896 (95% CI, 0.836 to 0.957) for the validation set. Prospective application of the nomogram showed that 60 of 512 patients (11.7%) had scores above the cut-off. Application of the nomogram reduced operation time and cost, with a very low re-operation rate (1.6%). CONCLUSION: Patients likely to have ≥ 3 positive ALNs could be identified by preoperative imaging. The nomogram was helpful in selective intraoperative examination of sentinel lymph nodes.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Logistic Models , Lymph Nodes , Mastectomy, Segmental , Multivariate Analysis , Nomograms , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Surgeons , Thorax
10.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 261-267, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126244

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There is no standard targeted therapy for the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Therefore, its management heavily depends on adjuvant chemotherapy. Using core needle biopsy, this study evaluated the histological factors of TNBC predicting the response to chemotherapy. METHODS: One hundred forty-three TNBC patients who received single-regimen neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) with the combination of doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and docetaxel were enrolled. The core needle biopsy specimens acquired before NAC were used to analyze the clinicopathologic variables and overall performance of the predictive model for therapeutic response. RESULTS: Independent predictors of pathologic complete response after NAC were found to be higher number of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (p=0.007), absence of clear cytoplasm (p=0.008), low necrosis (p=0.018), and high histologic grade (p=0.039). In the receiver operating characteristics curve analysis, the area under curve for the combination of these four variables was 0.777. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that a predictive model using the above four variables can predict therapeutic response to single-regimen NAC with the combination of doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and docetaxel in TNBC. Therefore, adding these morphologic variables to clinical and genomic signatures might enhance the ability to predict the therapeutic response to NAC in TNBC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Area Under Curve , Biopsy, Large-Core Needle , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Cyclophosphamide , Cytoplasm , Doxorubicin , Drug Therapy , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating , Necrosis , Neoadjuvant Therapy , ROC Curve , Treatment Outcome , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
11.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 268-274, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126243

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigated the prognostic impact of discordance between the receptor status of primary breast cancers and corresponding metastases. METHODS: A total 144 patients with breast cancer and distant metastasis were investigated. The estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status of primary tumor and corresponding metastases were assessed. Tumor phenotype according to receptor status was classified as triple-negative phenotype (TNP) or non-TNP. Concordance and discordance was determined by whether there was a change in receptor status or phenotype between primary and metastatic lesions. RESULTS: The rates of discordance between primary breast cancer and metastatic lesions were 18.1%, 25.0%, and 10.3% for ER, PR, and HER2, respectively. The rates of concordant non-TNP, concordant TNP and discordant TNP were 65.9%, 20.9%, and 13.2%, respectively. Patients with concordant ER/PR-negative status had worse postrecurrence survival (PRS) than patients with concordant ER/PR-positive and discordant ER/PR status (p=0.001 and p=0.021, respectively). Patients who converted from HER2-positive to negative after distant metastasis had worst PRS (p=0.040). Multivariate analysis showed that concordant TNP was statistically significant factor for worse PRS (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Discordance in receptor status and tumor phenotype between primary breast cancer and corresponding metastatic lesions was observed. Patients with concordant TNP had worse long-term outcomes than patients with concordant non-TNP and discordant TNP between primary and metastatic breast cancer. Identifying the receptor status of metastatic lesions may lead to improvements in patient management and survival.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Estrogens , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Phenotype , Prognosis , ErbB Receptors , Receptors, Progesterone
12.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 199-205, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-166632

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate imaging features of pure lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients who underwent immediate re-excision after lumpectomy. METHODS: Twenty-six patients (46.1±6.7 years) with 28 pure LCIS lesions, who underwent preoperative MRI and received curative surgery at our institution between 2005 and 2013, were included in this study. Clinicopathologic features associated with immediate re-excision were reviewed and analyzed using Fisher exact test or the Wilcoxon signed rank test. RESULTS: Of the 28 lesions, 21.4% (6/28, six patients) were subjected to immediate re-excision due to resection margin involvement by LCIS. Nonmass lesions and moderate-to-marked background parenchymal enhancement on MRI were more frequently found in the re-excision group than in the single operation group (100% [6/6] vs. 40.9% [9/22], p=0.018; 83.3% [5/6] vs. 31.8% [7/22], p=0.057, respectively). The median lesion size discrepancy observed between magnetic resonance images and histopathology was greater in the re-excision group than in the single operation group (-0.82 vs. 0.13, p=0.018). There were no differences in the mammographic or histopathologic findings between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Nonmass LCIS lesions or moderate-to-marked background parenchymal enhancements on MRI can result in an underestimation of the extent of the lesions and are associated with subsequent re-excision due to resection margin involvement.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Carcinoma in Situ , Carcinoma, Lobular , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mastectomy, Segmental
13.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 197-207, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-198396

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The ability to accurately predict the likelihood of achieving breast conservation surgery (BCS) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) is important in deciding whether NCT or surgery should be the first-line treatment in patients with operable breast cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the data of 513 women, who had stage II or III breast cancer and received NCT and surgery from a single institution. The ability of various clinicopathologic factors to predict the achievement of BCS and tumor size reduction to < or = 3 cm was assessed. Nomograms were built and validated in an independent cohort. RESULTS: BCS was performed in 50.1% of patients, with 42.2% of tumors reduced to < or = 3 cm after NCT. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that smaller initial tumor size, longer distance between the lesion and the nipple, absence of suspicious calcifications on mammography, and a single tumor were associated with BCS rather than mastectomy (p < 0.05). Negative estrogen receptor, smaller initial tumor size, higher Ki-67 level, and absence of in situ component were associated with residual tumor size < or = 3 cm (p < 0.05). Two nomograms were developed using these factors. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for nomograms predicting BCS and residual tumor < or = 3 cm were 0.800 and 0.777, respectively. The calibration plots showed good agreement between the predicted and actual probabilities. CONCLUSION: We have established a model with novel factors that predicts BCS and residual tumor size after NCT. This model can help in making treatment decisions for patients who are candidates for NCT.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Calibration , Cohort Studies , Drug Therapy , Estrogens , Logistic Models , Mammography , Mastectomy , Mastectomy, Segmental , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Neoplasm, Residual , Nipples , Nomograms , ROC Curve
14.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 16-21, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-173798

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) with pathologic complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) have superior survival outcomes compared to those with residual disease after NAC. This study investigated the value of three biomarkers, p53, Ki-67, and Bcl-2 for predicting pCR in NAC-treated patients with TNBC. METHODS: Between 2003 and 2012, 198 patients with pathologically confirmed primary TNBC were treated with two different taxane-based chemotherapeutic regimens prior to surgery. Before NAC, expression of p53 (cutoff 25%), Ki-67 (cutoff 10%), and Bcl-2 (cutoff 10%) was assessed immunohistochemically in core biopsy specimens. The incidence of pCR was correlated with the expression of these biomarkers. RESULTS: Overall, pCR occurred in 37 of the 198 patients (18.7%). A significant association was observed between the pCR rate and overexpression of the p53 and Ki-67 biomarkers. Multivariate analysis showed that only p53 expression was independently associated with pCR to NAC (odds ratio, 3.961; p=0.003). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of p53 expression for predicting pCR were 77.8%, 50.3%, 26.2%, and 90.9%, respectively. The pCR rate was the lowest (5.2%) in patients with low expression of both p53 and Ki-67, and it was the highest (25.8%) when both biomarkers showed high expression. CONCLUSION: Expression of p53 was significantly associated with pCR after NAC in patients with TNBC, suggesting that this biomarker might be particularly valuable in identifying TNBC patients prone to have residual disease after NAC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers , Biopsy , Drug Therapy , Incidence , Multivariate Analysis , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
15.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 52-60, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99596

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (EUS-FNAC) is currently the most commonly used procedure for obtaining cytologic specimens of the pancreas. It is accurate, minimally invasive, safe and cost-effective. However, there is discrepancy between cytological and surgical diagnoses. This study was aimed at evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNAC of the pancreas. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 191 cases of pancreatic lesions initially diagnosed by EUS-FNAC with subsequent histological diagnosis between 2010 and 2012 in the Department of Pathology, Seoul National University Hospital. Cytologic and surgical diagnoses were categorized into five groups: negative, benign, atypical, malignant, and insufficient for diagnosis. Subsequently, 167 cases with satisfactory yield in both surgical and cytology specimens were statistically analyzed to determine correlations with diagnosis. RESULTS: In comparison to surgical diagnoses, cytologic diagnoses were true-positive in 103 cases (61.7%), true-negative in 28 cases (16.8%), false-positive in 9 cases (5.4%), and false-negative in 27 cases (16.1%). The diagnostic accuracy was 78.4%, sensitivity was 79.2%, and specificity was 75.7%. The positive predictive value was 92.0%, and negative predictive value was 50.9%. CONCLUSIONS: EUS-FNAC has high accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value. Overcoming the limitations of EUS-FNAC will make it a useful and reliable diagnostic tool for accurate evaluation of pancreatic lesions.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration , Pancreas , Pathology , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seoul
16.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 280-287, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-199243

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A newly isolated mediastinal lymph node (LN) or a small pulmonary nodule, which appears during breast cancer surveillance, may pose a diagnostic dilemma with regard to malignancy. We conducted this study to determine which clinical factors were useful for the differentiation of malignant lesions from benign lesions under these circumstances. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled breast cancer patients who were presented with a new isolated mediastinal LN or small pulmonary nodule that arose during surveillance, and whose lesions were pathologically confirmed. Tissue diagnosis was made by mediastinoscopy, video-assisted thoracic surgery or thoracotomy. RESULTS: A total of 43 patients were enrolled (mediastinal LN, 13 patients; pulmonary nodule, 30 patients). Eighteen patients (41.9%) were pathologically confirmed to have a benign lesion (benign group), and 25 patients (58.1%) were confirmed to have malignant lesion (malignant group). Between the two groups, the initial tumor size (p=0.096) and N stage (p=0.749) were similar. Hormone receptor negativity was more prevalent in the malignant group (59.1% vs. 40.9%, p=0.048). The mean lesion size was larger in the malignant group than in the benign group (20.8 mm vs. 14.4 mm, p=0.024). Metastatic lesions had a significantly higher value of maximal standardized uptake (mSUV) than that of benign lesions (6.4 vs. 3.4, p=0.021). CONCLUSION: Hormone receptor status, lesion size, and mSUV on positron emission tomography are helpful in the differentiation of malignant lesions from benign lesions in breast cancer patients who were presented with a new isolated mediastinal LN or small pulmonary nodule during surveillance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Diagnosis , Lymph Nodes , Mediastinoscopy , Neoplasm Metastasis , Positron-Emission Tomography , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted , Thoracotomy
17.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 167-173, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110218

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We evaluated the efficacy of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting additional malignancies in breast cancer patients newly diagnosed by breast ultrasonography and mammography. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 1,038 breast cancer patients who underwent preoperative mammography, bilateral breast ultrasonography, and subsequent breast MRI between August 2007 and December 2010 at single institution in Korea. MRI-detected additional lesions were defined as those lesions detected by breast MRI that were previously undetected by mammography and ultrasonography and which would otherwise have not been identified. RESULTS: Among the 1,038 cases, 228 additional lesions (22.0%) and 30 additional malignancies (2.9%) were detected by breast MRI. Of these 228 lesions, 109 were suspected to be malignant (Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System category 4 or 5) on breast MRI and second-look ultrasonography and 30 were pathologically confirmed to be malignant (13.2%). Of these 30 lesions, 21 were ipsilateral to the main lesion and nine were contralateral. Fourteen lesions were in situ carcinomas and 16 were invasive carcinomas. The positive predictive value of breast MRI was 27.5% (30/109). No clinicopathological factors were significantly associated with additional malignant foci. CONCLUSION: Breast MRI was useful in detecting additional malignancy in a small number of patients who underwent ultrasonography and mammography.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Information Systems , Korea , Limit of Detection , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mammography , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography , Ultrasonography, Mammary
19.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 93-97, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138529

ABSTRACT

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the breast is a very rare and indolent tumor with a favorable prognosis, despite its triple-negative status. Due to its rarity, there has been no consensus regarding treatments, and treatment guidelines have not been established. Here, we report on six patients with ACC of the breast. All of the patients initially presented with localized disease and no axillary lymph node metastases. Although some of our patients developed local recurrence or distant metastases, all patients had a favorable clinical course, and to date, none of the patients has died from complications of her disease. Here, we described the clinicopathologic features of ACC of the breast and review the current literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenoids , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic , Consensus , Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Recurrence
20.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 93-97, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138528

ABSTRACT

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the breast is a very rare and indolent tumor with a favorable prognosis, despite its triple-negative status. Due to its rarity, there has been no consensus regarding treatments, and treatment guidelines have not been established. Here, we report on six patients with ACC of the breast. All of the patients initially presented with localized disease and no axillary lymph node metastases. Although some of our patients developed local recurrence or distant metastases, all patients had a favorable clinical course, and to date, none of the patients has died from complications of her disease. Here, we described the clinicopathologic features of ACC of the breast and review the current literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenoids , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic , Consensus , Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Recurrence
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