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1.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 25-36, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835616

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Although the number of elderly patients with breast cancer is increasing as the population ages, their treatment is controversial. We evaluated the prognostic factors associated with survival in elderly breast cancer patients and assessed the impact of comorbidity on prognosis. @*Methods@#This study included 362 patients (aged ≥65 years) who underwent surgery for breast cancer in our institution between 2003 and 2014. The patients were divided into early-aged (65–74 years) and late-aged (≥75 years) groups. Comorbidity was parametrized using the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). Kaplan–Meier analysis was used to analyze overall survival (OS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS). Prognostic factors were evaluated by Cox proportional hazards regression. @*Results@#The surgical method, subtypes, stage, and oncological features were similar between early- and late-aged groups; however, smaller proportions of patients in the late-aged group received chemotherapy (12.9% vs. 45.5%) and endocrine therapy (55.3% vs. 73.3%). In multivariable analysis, the poor prognostic factors associated with DMFS and OS were high CCI, high histologic grade, and advanced stage. Chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, and radiotherapy were not significantly related to DMFS and OS. @*Conclusion@#In this study, adjuvant treatments did not affect the prognosis of elderly patients with breast cancer. To clarify the effects of adjuvant therapies in these patients, a large-scale retrospective study that considers not only tumor characteristics but also life expectancy is necessary.

2.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831045

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Combination of radiotherapy and immune checkpoint blockade such as programmed death-1 (PD-1) or programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) blockade is being actively tested in clinicaltrial. We aimed to identify a subset of patients that could potentially benefit from this strategyusing The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset for glioblastoma (GBM). @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 399 cases were clustered into radiosensitive versus radioresistant (RR) groupsbased on a radiosensitivity gene signature and were also stratified as PD-L1 high versusPD-L1 low groups by expression of CD274 mRNA. Differential and integrated analyses withexpression and methylation data were performed. CIBERSORT was used to enumerate theimmune repertoire that resulted from transcriptome profiles. @*Results@#We identified a subset of GBM, PD-L1-high-RR group which showed worse survival comparedto others. In PD-L1-high-RR, differentially expressed genes (DEG) were highly enriched forimmune response and mapped into activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase–AKT andmitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Integration of DEG and differentiallymethylated region identified that the kinase MAP3K8-involved in T-cell receptor signalingwas upregulated and BAI1, a factor which inhibits angiogenesis, was silenced.CIBERSORT showed that a higher infiltration of the immune repertoire, which included M2macrophages and regulatory T cells. @*Conclusion@#Taken together, PD-L1-high-RR group could potentially benefit from radiotherapy combinedwith PD-1/PD-L1 blockade and angiogenesis inhibition.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831027

ABSTRACT

Background@#High-grade glioma (HGG) with primary leptomeningeal seeding (PLS) at initial diagnosis is rare. The purpose of this study was to identify its clinical features and to describe the clinical treatment outcomes. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with HGG (World Health Organization grade III or IV) at our institution between 2004 and 2019, and patients with PLS at the initial diagnosis were enrolled in the study. Clinical features, such as the location of leptomeningeal seeding, surgical methods, and degree of resection, were sorted based on electronic medical records also containing performance scale, and hematological and serological evaluations. Radiological findings and immunohistochemical categories were confirmed. Furthermore, we sought to determine whether controlling intracranial pressure (ICP) via early cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion increases overall survival (OS) after the initial diagnosis. @*Results@#Of the 469 patients with HGG in our institution, less than 2% had PLS at the initial diagnosis. Most patients suffered from headache, diplopia, and dizziness. Pathological findings included 7 glioblastomas and 2 anaplastic astrocytomas. Seven of the 9 patients underwent CSF diversion. All patients were administered concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) with temozolomide, 89% of which started adjuvant temozolomide and 33% of which completed the six cycles of adjuvant temozolomide.The OS of patients with HGG and PLS was 8.7 months (range, 4-37), an extremely poor result compared to that of other studies. Also, the 1-year and 2-year OS rates were 44.4% and 16.7%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Diagnosis and treatment of HGG with PLS are challenging. Aggressive control of ICP followed by early initiation of standard CCRT seems to be helpful in improving symptoms. However, despite aggressive treatment, the prognosis is poor. A multicenter trial and research may be necessary to create a standardized protocol for this disease.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739672

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has been no practical guidelines for the management of patients with central nervous system (CNS) tumors in Korea for many years. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, started to prepare guidelines for CNS tumors from February 2018. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. RESULTS: First, the maximal safe resection if feasible is recommended. After the diagnosis of a glioblastoma with neurosurgical intervention, patients aged ≤70 years with good performance should be treated by concurrent chemoradiotherapy with temozolomide followed by adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy (Stupp's protocol) or standard brain radiotherapy alone. However, those with poor performance should be treated by hypofractionated brain radiotherapy (preferred)±concurrent or adjuvant temozolomide, temozolomide alone (Level III), or supportive treatment. Alternatively, patients aged >70 years with good performance should be treated by hypofractionated brain radiotherapy+concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide or Stupp's protocol or hypofractionated brain radiotherapy alone, while those with poor performance should be treated by hypofractionated brain radiotherapy alone or temozolomide chemotherapy if the patient has methylated MGMT gene promoter (Level III), or supportive treatment. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that glioblastomas should be treated by maximal safe resection, if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to the individual comprehensive condition of the patient.


Subject(s)
Brain , Central Nervous System , Chemoradiotherapy , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Glioblastoma , Humans , Korea , Radiotherapy
6.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 120-130, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738410

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of central nervous system (CNS) failure in Korean patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-enriched breast cancer treated with surgery followed by postoperative radiotherapy (RT). METHODS: A total of 749 patients from eight institutions were enrolled in this study. All of them underwent surgery followed by postoperative RT from 2003 to 2011; 246 (32.8%) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and 649 (81.7%) received adjuvant chemotherapy. Adjuvant trastuzumab was administered to 386 patients (48.6%). RESULTS: The median follow-up duration was 84 (range, 8–171) months. The 7-year disease-free and overall survival rates were 79.0% and 84.2%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, mastectomy, nodal involvement, and presence of lymphatic invasion were correlated with poor overall survival (p = 0.004, 0.022, and 0.011, respectively), whereas T stage and lymphatic invasion were associated with disease-free survival (p = 0.018 and 0.005, respectively). Regarding CNS failures, 30 brain metastases, 2 leptomeningeal metastases, and 8 brain and leptomeningeal metastases were noted. The 7-year CNS relapse-free survival rates in patients receiving and not receiving trastuzumab were 91.2% and 96.9%, respectively (p = 0.005). On multivariate analysis, the administration of adjuvant trastuzumab was the only prognostic factor in predicting a higher CNS failure rate (hazard ratio, 2.260; 95% confidence interval, 1.076–4.746; p = 0.031). CONCLUSION: Adjuvant trastuzumab was associated with higher CNS failure rate in Korean patients with HER2-enriched breast cancer. Close monitoring and reasonable approaches such as CNS penetrating HER2 blockades combined with the current standard therapy could contribute to improving intracranial tumor control and quality of life in patients with CNS metastasis from HER2-enriched breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Brain , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Central Nervous System Neoplasms , Central Nervous System , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Mastectomy , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Quality of Life , Radiation Oncology , Radiotherapy , ErbB Receptors , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Trastuzumab
7.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 439-452, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764278

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There is cumulative evidence that changes in biomarker status occur frequently during the metastatic progression of breast cancer and affect treatment response. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of biomarker changes in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) and its impact on prognosis. METHODS: A total of 152 patients diagnosed with MBC at the time of initial diagnosis or during post-surgical follow-up were included. Changes in biomarker status in MBCs, their frequency according to various metastatic sites, tumor characteristics, and their association with patient survival were analyzed. RESULTS: Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and Ki-67 status changed in 9 (6.0%), 40 (26.3%), 12 (7.9%), and 29 (19.1%) patients, respectively. ER, PR, and HER2 mainly showed positive to negative conversion, whereas Ki-67 changed mostly from a low to high index. There were no differences in the frequencies of biomarker changes according to the metastatic sites. As for ER and HER2, cases with negative conversion showed low expression levels in the primary tumor. Survival analyses indicated that a positive to negative conversion of ER was an independent poor prognostic factor in patients with primary ER-positive breast cancer. CONCLUSION: Changes in biomarker status are not rare, and usually occur in an unfavorable direction in breast cancer metastases. Negative conversion of ER status is a predictor of poor prognosis. Thus, it is beneficial to evaluate changes in biomarker status in MBC not only for the purpose of determining treatment options but also for prognostication of patients.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Diagnosis , Estrogens , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , ErbB Receptors , Receptors, Progesterone
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763112

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There was no practical guideline for the management of patients with central nervous system tumor in Korea in the past. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, developed the guideline for glioblastoma successfully and published it in Brain Tumor Research and Treatment, the official journal of KSNO, in April 2019. Recently, the KSNO guideline for World Health Organization (WHO) grade III cerebral glioma in adults has been established. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified by searches in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. Scope of the disease was confined to cerebral anaplastic astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma in adults. RESULTS: Whenever radiological feature suggests high grade glioma, maximal safe resection if feasible is globally recommended. After molecular and histological examinations, patients with anaplastic astrocytoma, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant should be primary treated by standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy whereas those with anaplastic astrocytoma, NOS, and anaplastic astrocytoma, IDH-wildtype should be treated following the protocol for glioblastomas. In terms of anaplastic oligodendroglioma, IDH-mutant and 1p19q-codeletion, and anaplastic oligodendroglioma, NOS should be primary treated by standard brain radiotherapy and neoadjuvant or adjuvant PCV (procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine) combination chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that WHO grade III cerebral glioma of adults should be treated by maximal safe resection if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to molecular and histological features of tumors.


Subject(s)
Adult , Astrocytoma , Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Central Nervous System , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Humans , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Korea , Lomustine , Oligodendroglioma , Radiotherapy , World Health Organization
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763111

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There was no practical guideline for the management of patients with central nervous system tumor in Korea for many years. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, has developed the guideline for glioblastoma. Subsequently, the KSNO guideline for World Health Organization (WHO) grade II cerebral glioma in adults is established. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified by searching PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords regarding diffuse astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma of brain in adults. RESULTS: Whenever radiological feature suggests lower grade glioma, the maximal safe resection if feasible is recommended globally. After molecular and histological examinations, patients with diffuse astrocytoma, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-wildtype without molecular feature of glioblastoma should be primarily treated by standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy (Level III) while those with molecular feature of glioblastoma should be treated following the protocol for glioblastomas. In terms of patients with diffuse astrocytoma, IDH-mutant and oligodendroglioma (IDH-mutant and 1p19q codeletion), standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant PCV (procarbazine+lomustine+vincristine) combination chemotherapy should be considered primarily for the high-risk group while observation with regular follow up should be considered for the low-risk group. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that WHO grade II gliomas should be treated by maximal safe resection, if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to molecular and histological features of tumors and clinical characteristics of patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Astrocytoma , Brain , Central Nervous System , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Follow-Up Studies , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Humans , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Korea , Oligodendroglioma , Radiotherapy , World Health Organization
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762547

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to investigate the basic characteristics of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and its differences between occupations using Korea's National Health Insurance (NHI) and National Employment Insurance (NEI). METHODS: The study participants were obtained from the NEI and NHI data from 2008 to 2015, with a diagnosis code of G560 (CTS) as the main or sub-diagnosis. Data about gender, age, diabetes mellitus, smoking, drinking, and length of employment, information about type of occupation, and number of employees according to age and occupation were obtained from NHI and NEI data. In total, 240 occupations were classified into blue-collar (BC) and white-collar (WC) work. In addition, each occupation was classified as high-risk and low-risk groups depending on the degree of wrist usage. RESULTS: The number of patients with CTS per 100,000 individuals increased with advancing age, and it was higher in women (4,572.2) than in men (1,798.5). Furthermore, the number was higher in BC workers (3,247.5) than in WC workers (1,824.1) as well as in the high-risk group than in the low-risk group in both BC workers (3,527.8 vs. 1,908.2) and WC workers (1,829.9 vs. 1,754.4). The number of patients with CTS was higher in the high-risk group than in the low-risk group among male and female BC workers and female WC workers. However, the number was higher in the low-risk group among male WC workers. In the BC category, the number of patients with CTS was highest among food processing-related workers (19,984.5). In the WC category, the number of patients with CTS was highest among social workers and counselors (7,444.1). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study are expected to help identify occupational differences in patterns of CTS. High number of patients with CTS was seen in new jobs, as well as in previous studies.


Subject(s)
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome , Counseling , Diabetes Mellitus , Diagnosis , Drinking , Employment , Female , Humans , Insurance , Male , National Health Programs , Occupations , Smoke , Smoking , Social Work , Social Workers , Wrist
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760989

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We evaluated failure pattern and treatment outcomes of observational approach on regional lymph node (LN) in cutaneous melanoma of extremities and sought to find clinico-pathologic factors related to LN metastases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 73 patients with cutaneous melanoma of extremities between 2005 and 2016. If preoperative 18-F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) findings were non-specific for regional LNs, surgical resection of primary tumors with adequate margins was performed without sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and/or complete lymph node dissection (CLND), irrespective of tumor thickness or size. In patients with suspicious or positive findings on PET/CT or CT, SLNB followed by CLND or CLND was performed at the discretion of the surgeon. We defined LN dissection (LND) as SLNB and/or CLND. RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 38 months (range, 6 to 138 months), the dominant pattern of failure was regional failure (17 of total 23 events, 74%) in the observation group (n = 56). Pathologic LN metastases were significant factor for poor regional failure-free survival (hazard ration [HR] = 3.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–10.33; p = 0.044) and overall survival (HR = 3.62; 95% CI, 1.02–12.94; p = 0.047) in multivariate analysis. In subgroup analysis for cN0 patients according to the preoperative PET/CT findings, LND group showed the better trend of LRFFS (log rank test, p = 0.192) and RFFS (p = 0.310), although which is not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Observational approach on regional LNs on the basis of the PET/CT in patients with cutaneous melanoma of extremities showed the dominant regional failure pattern compared to upfront LND approach. To reveal regional lymph node status, SLND for cN0 patients may of importance in managing cutaneous melanoma patients.


Subject(s)
Extremities , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Melanoma , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Retrospective Studies , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
12.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 197-205, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714860

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although microinvasive carcinoma is distinct from ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), the clinical significance of microinvasion in DCIS remains elusive. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinicopathological features and clinical outcomes of microinvasive carcinoma compared with pure DCIS. METHODS: We assessed 613 cases of DCIS and microinvasive carcinoma that were consecutively resected from 2003 to 2014 and analyzed clinicopathological variables, expression of standard biomarkers such as the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), p53, and Ki-67, and tumor recurrence. RESULTS: Among the 613 cases, 136 (22.2%) were classified as microinvasive carcinoma. Microinvasive carcinoma was significantly associated with DCIS with a large extent, high nuclear grade, necrosis, and comedotype architectural pattern. ER and PR expressions were dominantly observed in pure DCIS, whereas positive HER2 status, p53 overexpression, and high Ki-67 proliferation indices were more frequently observed in microinvasive carcinoma. Lymph node metastasis was found in only four cases of microinvasive carcinoma with multifocal microinvasion. In the multivariate analysis, DCIS with a large extent, comedo-type architectural pattern, and negative ER status were found to be independent predictors of microinvasion. During follow-up, 12 patients had ipsilateral breast recurrence, and no differences in recurrence rates were observed between patients with DCIS and those with microinvasive carcinoma. The triple-negative subtype was the only factor that was associated with tumor recurrence. CONCLUSION: Microinvasive carcinomas are distinct from DCIS in terms of clinicopathological features and biomarker expressions but are similar to DCIS in terms of clinical outcomes. Our results suggest that microinvasive carcinoma can be treated and followed up as pure DCIS.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Ductal , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating , Estrogens , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Multivariate Analysis , Necrosis , Neoplasm Metastasis , ErbB Receptors , Receptors, Progesterone , Recurrence , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
13.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 72-77, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714583

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Glucose has been recommended as an analgesic for mild to moderately painful procedures in neonates. The goal of this study was to assess the optimal dextrose concentration for pain control in newborns. METHODS: This prospective, randomized, blinded clinical trial included 116 healthy full-term newborns. The neonates were randomly assigned to the following four groups by drawing straws: groups receiving sterile water or a 10%, 20%, or 40% dextrose solution orally. Each group was treated with the assigned solution prior to hepatitis B vaccination. The Neonatal Facial Coding System (NFCS) and the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS) scores were evaluated before, immediately after, and 2 minutes after the injection in all neonates. Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) scores were evaluated during the injection. All procedures were video-recorded, and pain scores were assessed by two independent observers who were not involved in the care of the newborns studied. The pain scores were compared among the four groups. RESULTS: The 40% dextrose solution significantly reduced the NFCS (P=0.002) and the PIPP scores (P=0.001) compared with sterile water. No hyperglycemic events were noted in the study subjects 2 hours after the injection. CONCLUSION: The 40% dextrose solution effectively relieved pain due to intramuscular injection in full-term newborns without causing hyperglycemic events. However, the 10% and 20% dextrose solutions did not affect neonatal pain scores.


Subject(s)
Clinical Coding , Glucose , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Injections, Intramuscular , Pain Management , Prospective Studies , Vaccination , Water
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the treatment outcome of our optic nerve sheath meningioma (ONSM) case series in terms of preventing tumor growth and preserving vision in ONSM patients. METHODS: Between July 2003 and March 2015, 1,398 patients with intracranial meningioma were diagnosed at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. Among them, only 13 patients (0.93%) were diagnosed with ONSM and enrolled in the present study. Tumor volume changes of ONSM patients and their visual acuity were evaluated before and after treatments. RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 50 months (range, 12–133 months). Visual acuity was evaluated in 12 of 13 patients, and visual acuity was found to be preserved in 9 of 12 patients (75%). Tumor volume was reduced in all patients. The tumor control rate was 100% in the present study. The difference in tumor volume between pretreatment and last follow-up was statistically significant (p=0.015). CONCLUSION: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) could maintain visual acuity and stabilize tumor volume in ONSM patients, suggesting that IMRT and GKS may be effective therapies for ONSM. However, which treatment is the more effective modality must be confirmed by prospective studies and longer-term follow-up.


Subject(s)
Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Meningioma , Optic Nerve , Prospective Studies , Radiosurgery , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Seoul , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Burden , Visual Acuity
15.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1140-1148, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717753

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify predictors for distant metastatic behavior and build a related prognostic nomogram in breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1,181 patients with non-metastatic breast cancer between 2003 and 2011 were analyzed. To predict the probability of distant metastasis, a nomogram was constructed based on prognostic factors identified using a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: The 7-year overall survival and 5-year post-progression survival of locoregional versus distant recurrence groups were 67.6% versus 39.1% (p=0.027) and 54.2% versus 33.5% (p=0.043), respectively. Patients who developed distant metastasis showed early and late mortality risk peaks within 3 and after 5 years of follow-up, respectively, but a broad and low risk increment was observed in other patients with locoregional relapse. In multivariate analysis of distant metastasis-free interval, age (≥ 45 years vs. < 45 years), molecular subtypes (luminal A vs. luminal B, human epidermal growth receptor 2, and triple negative), T category (T1 vs. T2-3 and T4), and N category (N0 vs. N1 and N2-3) were independently associated (p < 0.05 for all). Regarding the significant factors, a well-validated nomogram was established (concordance index, 0.812). The risk score level of patients with initial brain failure was higher than those of non-brain sites (p=0.029). CONCLUSION: The nomogram could be useful for predicting the individual probability of distant recurrence in breast cancer. In high-risk patients based on the risk scores, more aggressive systemic therapy and closer surveillance for metastatic failure should be considered.


Subject(s)
Brain , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Nomograms , Phenobarbital , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Recurrence
16.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1418-1432, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717512

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Alteration of biomarker status after primary systemic therapy (PST) is occasionally found in breast cancer. This study was conducted to clarify the clinical implications of change of biomarker status in breast cancer patients treated with PST. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The pre-chemotherapeutic biopsy and post-chemotherapeutic resection specimens of 442 breast cancer patients who had residual disease after PST were included in this study. The association between changes of biomarker status after PST and clinicopathologic features of tumors, and survival of the patients, were analyzed. RESULTS: Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status changed after PST in 18 (4.1%), 80 (18.1%), and 15 (3.4%) patients,respectively. ER and PR mainly underwent positive to negative conversion,whereas HER2 status underwent negative to positive conversion. Negative conversion of ER and PR status after PST was associated with reduced disease-free survival. Moreover, a decline in the Allred score for PR in post-PST specimens was significantly associated with poor clinical outcome of the patients. HER2 change did not have prognostic significance. In multivariate analyses, negative PR status after PST was found to be an independent adverse prognostic factor in the whole patient group, in the adjuvant endocrine therapy-treated subgroup, and also in pre-PST PR positive subgroup. CONCLUSION: ER and HER2 status changed little after PST, whereas PR status changed significantly. In particular, negative conversion of PR status was revealed as a poor prognostic indicator, suggesting that re-evaluation of basic biomarkers is mandatory in breast cancer after PST for proper management and prognostication of patients.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Biopsy , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Disease-Free Survival , Estrogens , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Progesterone , Prognosis , ErbB Receptors , Receptors, Progesterone
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762535

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified shift work that involves circadian disruption as “probably carcinogenic to humans,” there has been growing concern on the relationship between night work and breast cancer. In Korea, about 10–15% of workers are engaged in night-shift work, and breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women. The purpose of this study was to review epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between night work and breast cancer. METHODS: We reviewed 21 original articles and 5 meta analyses on relationship between nightwork and breast cancer, and investigated the compensation criteria of Denmark. RESULTS: The association between breast cancer and night work has been reported by numerous epidemiologic studies, including cohort studies, case-control studies, and meta-analysis. However, a dose-response relationship has not clearly emerged among workers exposed to less than 20 years of night work. CONCLUSION: Although there are some limitations to the epidemiological studies so far, further consideration of breast cancer cases in patients with high exposure to night work is needed to assess breast cancer as a work-related disease.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinogens , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Compensation and Redress , Denmark , Epidemiologic Studies , Female , Humans , International Agencies , Korea
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83985

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of adjuvant treatment in patients with high-grade meningioma. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for patients with high-grade meningioma, World Health Organization grade 2 or 3, in a single center between 2003 and 2014. The patients were reviewed according to age at diagnosis, sex, the location of meningioma, degree of tumor resection, histological features, and type of adjuvant treatment. These factors were analyzed by Firth logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Fifty-three patients with high-grade meningioma were enrolled. Thirty-four patients received adjuvant treatment; conventional radiotherapy or radiosurgery. Clinical follow-up ranged from 13–113 months with a median follow-up of 35.5 months. Gross total removal (GTR), Simpson grade 1 or 2, was achieved in 29 patients and, among them, 13 patients received adjuvant treatment. In the other 24 patients with non-GTR, conventional adjuvant radiotherapy and radiosurgery were performed in 11 and 10 patients, respectively. The other 3 patients did not receive any adjuvant treatment. Radiation-related complications did not occur. Of the 53 patients, 19 patients had suffered from recurrence. The recurrence rate in the adjuvant treatment group was 23.5% (8 out of 34). On the other hand, the rate for the non-adjuvant treatment group was 57.9% (11 out of 19) (odds ratio [OR]=0.208, p=0.017). In the GTR group, the recurrence rate was 7.5% (1 out of 13) for patients with adjuvant treatment and 50% (8 out of 16) for patients without adjuvant treatment (OR=0.121, p=0.04). CONCLUSION: Adjuvant treatment appears to be safe and effective, and could lead to a lower recurrence rate in high-grade meningioma, regardless of the extent of removal. Our results might be used as a reference for making decisions when planning adjuvant treatments for patients with high-grade meningioma after surgery.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Hand , Humans , Logistic Models , Meningioma , Radiosurgery , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , World Health Organization
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-148355

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Considering the distinctive biology of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), this study aimed to identify TNBC-specific prognostic factors and determine the prognostic value of the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI) and its variant indices. METHODS: A total of 233 patients with newly diagnosed stage I to III TNBC from 2003 to 2012 were reviewed. We retrospectively analyzed the patients' demographics, clinicopathologic parameters, treatment, and survival outcomes. The NPI was calculated as follows: tumor size (cm)×0.2+node status+Scarff-Bloom-Richardson (SBR) grade. The modified NPI (MNPI) was obtained by adding the modified SBR grade rather than the SBR grade. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 67.8 months. Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were 81.4% and 89.9%, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that the MNPI was the most significant and common prognostic factor of DFS (p=0.001) and OS (p=0.019). Young age (≤35 years) was also correlated with poor DFS (p=0.006). A recursive partitioning for establishing the prognostic model for DFS was performed based on the results of multivariate analysis. Patients with a low MNPI (≤6.5) were stratified into the low-risk group (p6.5) were subdivided into the intermediate (>35 years) and high-risk (≤35 years) groups. Age was not a prognostic factor in patients with a low MNPI, whereas in patients with a high MNPI, it was the second key factor in subdividing patients according to prognosis (p=0.023). CONCLUSION: The MNPI could be used to stratify patients with stage I to III TNBC according to prognosis. It was the most important prognosticator for both DFS and OS. The prognostic significance of young age for DFS differed by MNPI.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , Biology , Demography , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-6988

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Bevacizumab±irinotecan is effective for treatment of recurrent malignant gliomas. However, the optimal duration of treatment has not been established. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-four consecutive patients with recurrent malignant glioma who were treated with bevacizumab at our institutions were identified. Patients who continued bevacizumab until tumor progression were enrolled in a late discontinuation (LD) group, while those who stopped bevacizumab before tumor progression were enrolled in an early discontinuation (ED) group. Landmark analyses were performed at weeks 9, 18, and 26 for comparison of patient survival between the two groups. RESULTS: Among 89 assessable patients, 62 (69.7%) and 27 (30.3%) patients were categorized as the LD and ED groups, respectively. According to landmark analysis, survival times from weeks 9, 18, and 26 were not significantly different between the two groups in the overall population. However, the LD group showed a trend toward increased survival compared to the ED group among responders. In the ED group, the median time from discontinuation to disease progression was 11.4 weeks, and none of the patients showed a definite rebound phenomenon. Similar median survival times after disease progression were observed between groups (14.4 weeks vs. 15.7 weeks, p=0.251). Of 83 patients, 38 (45.8%) received further therapy at progression, and those who received further therapy showed longer survival in both the LD and ED groups. CONCLUSION: In recurrent malignant glioma, duration of bevacizumab was not associated with survival time in the overall population. However, ED of bevacizumab in responding patients might be associated with decreased survival.


Subject(s)
Bevacizumab , Disease Progression , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Humans
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