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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917389

ABSTRACT

no abstract available

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890353

ABSTRACT

Background@#Previously developed prediction models for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have limited performance. We developed a deep learning (DL) based model using a cohort representative of the Korean population. @*Methods@#This study was conducted on the basis of the National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening (NHIS-HEALS) cohort of Korea. Overall, 335,302 subjects without T2DM at baseline were included. We developed the model based on 80% of the subjects, and verified the power in the remainder. Predictive models for T2DM were constructed using the recurrent neural network long short-term memory (RNN-LSTM) network and the Cox longitudinal summary model. The performance of both models over a 10-year period was compared using a time dependent area under the curve. @*Results@#During a mean follow-up of 10.4±1.7 years, the mean frequency of periodic health check-ups was 2.9±1.0 per subject. During the observation period, T2DM was newly observed in 8.7% of the subjects. The annual performance of the model created using the RNN-LSTM network was superior to that of the Cox model, and the risk factors for T2DM, derived using the two models were similar; however, certain results differed. @*Conclusion@#The DL-based T2DM prediction model, constructed using a cohort representative of the population, performs better than the conventional model. After pilot tests, this model will be provided to all Korean national health screening recipients in the future.

3.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 443-454, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914830

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has been associated with worse prognosis, and biomarkers are needed to identify high-risk patients who may benefit from clinical trials or escalated treatment after completion of standard treatment. We aimed to assess whether the post-treatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) can reflect patient prognosis and determine the follow-up period that can provide the most feasible data. @*Methods@#In this retrospective analysis involving patients with TNBC, clinicopathological data, including those on peripheral complete blood cell count, were collected. The prognostic powers of serial NLRs obtained at baseline and after treatment completion were compared. Kaplan-Meier curves were generated to compare the overall survival (OS) and distant disease-free survival (DDFS). @*Results@#In total, 210 patients were enrolled. Forty-three (20.5%) events were detected. Twothirds of the events (29/43) were related to breast cancer. Most recurrent breast cancer-related diseases (27/29) were detected within 5 years of the initial diagnosis. In contrast, half of the events due to secondary malignancies or non-breast-related diseases (7/14) occurred 5 years after the initial diagnosis. Comparison of the prognostic performance of NLRs at baseline and at 6, 12, and 24 months after treatment completion revealed the strongest prognostic performance at 6 months after treatment completion (area under the curve = 0.745). The high NLR group (NLR >2.47) showed worse OS (p = 0.006) and DDFS (p < 0.001) than low NLR group. @*Conclusion@#Elevated post-treatment NLR was significantly associated with worse survival in patients with TNBC. We believe that it can be a useful surrogate marker for identifying highrisk patients with TNBC.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898057

ABSTRACT

Background@#Previously developed prediction models for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have limited performance. We developed a deep learning (DL) based model using a cohort representative of the Korean population. @*Methods@#This study was conducted on the basis of the National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening (NHIS-HEALS) cohort of Korea. Overall, 335,302 subjects without T2DM at baseline were included. We developed the model based on 80% of the subjects, and verified the power in the remainder. Predictive models for T2DM were constructed using the recurrent neural network long short-term memory (RNN-LSTM) network and the Cox longitudinal summary model. The performance of both models over a 10-year period was compared using a time dependent area under the curve. @*Results@#During a mean follow-up of 10.4±1.7 years, the mean frequency of periodic health check-ups was 2.9±1.0 per subject. During the observation period, T2DM was newly observed in 8.7% of the subjects. The annual performance of the model created using the RNN-LSTM network was superior to that of the Cox model, and the risk factors for T2DM, derived using the two models were similar; however, certain results differed. @*Conclusion@#The DL-based T2DM prediction model, constructed using a cohort representative of the population, performs better than the conventional model. After pilot tests, this model will be provided to all Korean national health screening recipients in the future.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917038

ABSTRACT

Despite significant advances in the management of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), there remains an enormous health problem with high morbidity and mortality over the last few decades. The neprilysin inhibitor enhances the activity of natriuretic peptides, producing vasodilation, natriuresis, and diuresis. Angiotensin receptor blockers inhibit the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Sacubitril/valsartan, a first-in-class angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI), has been shown to improve cardiovascular outcomes in HFrEF and delay the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with HFrEF. The PARADIGM-HF study showed a reduction in diuretic need in the ARNI group. While the use of diuretics is effective in volume control in patients with HFrEF, their use has the potential to adversely affect renal function. Therefore, ARNI therapy could benefit patients with heart failure and CKD by reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and possibly retarding the progression of CKD, although more clinical evidence is required in patients with severe CKD and end-stage renal disease.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832992

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES@#We aim to explore the additional discriminative accuracy of a deep learning (DL) algorithm using repeated-measures data for identifying people at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), compared to Cox hazard regression.@*METHODS@#Two CVD prediction models were developed from National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort (NHIS-HEALS): a Cox regression model and a DL model. Performance of each model was assessed in the internal and 2 external validation cohorts in Koreans (National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort; NHIS-NSC) and in Europeans (Rotterdam Study). A total of 412,030 adults in the NHIS-HEALS; 178,875 adults in the NHIS-NSC; and the 4,296 adults in Rotterdam Study were included.@*RESULTS@#Mean ages was 52 years (46% women) and there were 25,777 events (6.3%) in NHIS-HEALS during the follow-up. In internal validation, the DL approach demonstrated a C-statistic of 0.896 (95% confidence interval, 0.886–0.907) in men and 0.921 (0.908–0.934) in women and improved reclassification compared with Cox regression (net reclassification index [NRI], 24.8% in men, 29.0% in women). In external validation with NHIS-NSC, DL demonstrated a C-statistic of 0.868 (0.860–0.876) in men and 0.889 (0.876–0.898) in women, and improved reclassification compared with Cox regression (NRI, 24.9% in men, 26.2% in women). In external validation applied to the Rotterdam Study, DL demonstrated a C-statistic of 0.860 (0.824–0.897) in men and 0.867 (0.830–0.903) in women, and improved reclassification compared with Cox regression (NRI, 36.9% in men, 31.8% in women).@*CONCLUSIONS@#A DL algorithm exhibited greater discriminative accuracy than Cox model approaches.TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02931500

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836070

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The aim of this study was to investigate whether a new generic rosuvastatin is non-inferior to a proprietary one in terms of lipid-lowering efficacy. We also evaluated its non-lipid effects including adverse events. @*Methods@#One-hundred and fifty-eight patients with cardiovascular risks requiring pharmacological lipid-lowering therapy were screened. After a 4-week run-in period, 126 individuals who met the lipid criteria for drug therapy were randomly assigned to receive the new generic or proprietary rosuvastatin 10 mg daily for 8 weeks. The primary outcome variables were low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction and LDL-C target achievement. Hematological and biochemical parameters and adverse events were assessed. @*Results@#After 8 weeks of drug treatment, the mean percentage change in LDL-C was not different between the groups (−45.5%±19.9% and −45.1%±19.0% for generic and proprietary rosuvastatin, respectively; p=0.38). The LDL-C target achievement rate was similar between the groups (75.0% and 77.1% for generic and proprietary rosuvastatin, respectively; p=0.79). The percentage change in the other lipid profiles was not significantly different. Although generic- and proprietary rosuvastatins modestly affected creatine kinase and blood pressure, respectively, the changes were all within normal ranges. Incidence of adverse events did not differ between the receivers of the 2 formulations. @*Conclusion@#The new generic rosuvastatin was non-inferior to the proprietary rosuvastatin in terms of lipid-lowering efficacy. The rosuvastatin formulations did not exhibit clinically significant non-lipid effects with good safety profiles. Our study provides comprehensive data regarding 2 rosuvastatin formulations in East Asian subjects.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831920

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The current study aimed to elucidate a time-course change in left atrial volume after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and to verify factors associated with left atrial volume reduction (LAVR) and its prognostic implications. @*Methods@#The records of 97 patients were retrospectively reviewed after CRT.Echocardiographic data were analyzed at baseline before CRT, at early follow-up FU) (≤ 1 year, median 6 months), and at late FU (median 30 months). Left ventricular volume response (LVVR) was defined as 15% reduction in left ventricular (LV) end-systolic volume (ESV). LAVR was classified into two groups by the median value at early FU: LAVR (≥ 7.5%) and no LAVR (< 7.5%). @*Results@#LV ESV index continuously decreased from baseline to early FU and from early FU to late FU (106.1 ± 47.4 mL/m2 vs. 87.6 ± 51.6 mL/m2 vs. 72.5 ± 57.1 mL/m2).LA volume index decreased from baseline to early FU, but there were no reductions thereafter (51.8 ± 21.9 mL/m2 vs. 45.1 ± 19.6 mL/m2 vs. 44.9 ± 23.0 mL/m2).The only echocardiographic factor associated with LAVR was change in E velocity(odds ratio [OR], 1.04;p = 0.002). Early LAVR (OR, 10.05;p = 0.002) was an independent predictor for late LVVR. @*Conclusions@#LAVR was related to reduction in E velocity, suggesting its relation with optimization of LV filling pressure. Early LAVR was a predictor for LVVR to CRT in long-term FU.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We aim to explore the additional discriminative accuracy of a deep learning (DL) algorithm using repeated-measures data for identifying people at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), compared to Cox hazard regression.METHODS: Two CVD prediction models were developed from National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort (NHIS-HEALS): a Cox regression model and a DL model. Performance of each model was assessed in the internal and 2 external validation cohorts in Koreans (National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort; NHIS-NSC) and in Europeans (Rotterdam Study). A total of 412,030 adults in the NHIS-HEALS; 178,875 adults in the NHIS-NSC; and the 4,296 adults in Rotterdam Study were included.RESULTS: Mean ages was 52 years (46% women) and there were 25,777 events (6.3%) in NHIS-HEALS during the follow-up. In internal validation, the DL approach demonstrated a C-statistic of 0.896 (95% confidence interval, 0.886–0.907) in men and 0.921 (0.908–0.934) in women and improved reclassification compared with Cox regression (net reclassification index [NRI], 24.8% in men, 29.0% in women). In external validation with NHIS-NSC, DL demonstrated a C-statistic of 0.868 (0.860–0.876) in men and 0.889 (0.876–0.898) in women, and improved reclassification compared with Cox regression (NRI, 24.9% in men, 26.2% in women). In external validation applied to the Rotterdam Study, DL demonstrated a C-statistic of 0.860 (0.824–0.897) in men and 0.867 (0.830–0.903) in women, and improved reclassification compared with Cox regression (NRI, 36.9% in men, 31.8% in women).CONCLUSIONS: A DL algorithm exhibited greater discriminative accuracy than Cox model approaches.TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02931500


Subject(s)
Adult , Artificial Intelligence , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cohort Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Insurance, Health , Learning , Male , Mass Screening , National Health Programs
10.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 173-180, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738767

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Decreased left atrial appendage (LAA) emptying velocity in transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is related with higher incidence of thrombus and increased risk of stroke. Patients with valve disease are at higher risk of thrombus formation before and after surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of 4-dimensional cardiac computed tomography (4DCT) to predict the risk of thrombus formation. METHODS: Between March 2010 to March 2015, total of 62 patients (mean 60±15 years old, male: 53.2%) who underwent 4DCT and TEE for cardiac valve evaluation before surgery were retrospectively included in the current study. Fractional area change in TEE view and emptying velocity at left atrial appendage in TEE view (VeTEE) were measured. Ejection fraction (EF) of left atrial appendage in computed tomography (EFCT) was calculated by 4DCT with full volume analysis. The best cut-off value of EFCT predicting presence of spontaneous echo contrast (SEC) or thrombus was evaluated, and correlation between the parameters were also estimated. RESULTS: SEC or thrombus was observed in 45.2%. EFCT and VeTEE were significantly correlated (r=0.452, p < 0.001). However, fractional area change measured by TEE showed no correlation with VeTEE (r=0.085, p=0.512). EFCT < 37.5% best predicted SEC or thrombus in the patients with valve disease who underwent 4DCT and TEE (area under the curve, 0.654; p=0.038). CONCLUSIONS: In the patients who underwent 4DCT for cardiac valve evaluation before surgery, EFCT by volume analysis might have additional role to evaluate LAA function and estimate the risk of thrombus.


Subject(s)
Atrial Appendage , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography , Heart Valve Diseases , Heart Valves , Humans , Incidence , Male , Retrospective Studies , Stroke , Thrombosis
11.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 48-55, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719688

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to elucidate which echocardiographic criteria at three time points, for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) response, are accurate in discriminating the hierarchical clinical composite end point (HCCEP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 120 patients (age, 66.1±12.6 years; men, 54.2%) who underwent CRT implantation for heart failure (HF). Echocardiography was performed before and at 3, 6, and 12 months after CRT implantation. The 1-year HCCEP included all-cause mortality, hospitalization for HF, and New York Heart Association functional class for 12 months. CRT response criteria were decrease in left ventricular (LV) end-systolic volume (LVESV) >15%, decrease in LV end-diastolic volume >15%, absolute increase in LV ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥5%, relative increase in LVEF ≥15%, and decrease in mitral regurgitation ≥1 grade. Temporal changes in CRT response rates, accuracy of CRT response criteria at each time and cutoff value for the discrimination of improvement in HCCEP, and agreements with improvement in HCCEP were analyzed. RESULTS: HCCEP improvement rates were 65.8% in total group. In nonischemic group, CRT response rates according to all echocardiographic criteria significantly increased with time. In ischemic group, CRT response rate did not significantly change with time. In total group, ΔLVESV at 6 months (ΔLVESV6) had the most significant accuracy for the discrimination of HCCEP (area under the curve=0.781). The optimal cutoff value of ΔLVESV6 was 13.5% (sensitivity=0.719, specificity=0.719). ΔLVESV6 had fair agreement with HCCEP (κ=0.391, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: ΔLVESV6 is the most useful echocardiographic CRT response criterion for the prediction of 1-year HCCEP.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy , Discrimination, Psychological , Echocardiography , Heart , Heart Failure , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Mitral Valve Insufficiency , Mortality , Stroke Volume
12.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 173-180, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917265

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES@#Decreased left atrial appendage (LAA) emptying velocity in transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is related with higher incidence of thrombus and increased risk of stroke. Patients with valve disease are at higher risk of thrombus formation before and after surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of 4-dimensional cardiac computed tomography (4DCT) to predict the risk of thrombus formation.@*METHODS@#Between March 2010 to March 2015, total of 62 patients (mean 60±15 years old, male: 53.2%) who underwent 4DCT and TEE for cardiac valve evaluation before surgery were retrospectively included in the current study. Fractional area change in TEE view and emptying velocity at left atrial appendage in TEE view (VeTEE) were measured. Ejection fraction (EF) of left atrial appendage in computed tomography (EFCT) was calculated by 4DCT with full volume analysis. The best cut-off value of EFCT predicting presence of spontaneous echo contrast (SEC) or thrombus was evaluated, and correlation between the parameters were also estimated.@*RESULTS@#SEC or thrombus was observed in 45.2%. EFCT and VeTEE were significantly correlated (r=0.452, p < 0.001). However, fractional area change measured by TEE showed no correlation with VeTEE (r=0.085, p=0.512). EFCT < 37.5% best predicted SEC or thrombus in the patients with valve disease who underwent 4DCT and TEE (area under the curve, 0.654; p=0.038).@*CONCLUSIONS@#In the patients who underwent 4DCT for cardiac valve evaluation before surgery, EFCT by volume analysis might have additional role to evaluate LAA function and estimate the risk of thrombus.

13.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 265-272, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713094

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Impaired left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) and the presence of microalbuminuria indicate early cardiac and renal dysfunction. We aimed to determine the relationships among 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (BP) variables, LV GLS, and urine albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) in hypertensive patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 130 hypertensive patients (mean age 53 years; 59 men) underwent 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring, measurements of peripheral and central BPs, and transthoracic echocardiography. Patients with apparent LV systolic dysfunction (LV ejection fraction < 50%) or chronic kidney disease were not included. LV GLS was calculated using two-dimensional speckle tracking, and UACR was analyzed from spot urine samples. RESULTS: In simple correlation analysis, LV GLS showed the most significant correlation with mean daytime diastolic BP (DBP) (r=0.427, p < 0.001) among the various BP variables analyzed. UACR revealed a significant correlation only with night-time mean systolic BP (SBP) (r=0.253, p=0.019). In multiple regression analysis, daytime mean DBP and night-time mean SBP were independent determinants for LV GLS (β=0.35, p=0.028) and log UACR (β=0.49, p=0.007), respectively, after controlling for confounding factors. Daytime mean DBP showed better diagnostic performance for impaired LV GLS than did peripheral or central DBPs, which were not diagnostic. Night-time mean SBP showed satisfactory diagnostic performance for microalbuminuria. CONCLUSION: There are different associations for daytime and night-time BP with early cardiac and renal dysfunction. Ambulatory BP monitoring provides more relevant BP parameters than do peripheral or central BPs regarding early cardiac and renal dysfunction in hypertensive patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure/physiology , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Echocardiography , Female , Heart/physiopathology , Humans , Hypertension/diagnostic imaging , Kidney/physiopathology , Kidney Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Regression Analysis , Systole/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology
14.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1237-1240, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-15467

ABSTRACT

Left atrial appendage (LAA) occlusion can be employed as an alternative treatment to oral anticoagulation in patients with atrial fibrillation to prevent embolic events. Atrial septal defect (ASD) may be related with right heart dysfunction and allow paradoxical embolism to occur. However, occlusion of both LAA through atrial access with ostium secundum ASD and ASD in the same setting is unusual. Therefore, we report a case in which a LAA and an ASD was sequentially occluded.


Subject(s)
Atrial Appendage , Atrial Fibrillation , Embolism, Paradoxical , Heart , Heart Septal Defects, Atrial , Humans
15.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 918-928, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-90202

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes. Heavy aortic calcification exacerbates arterial stiffness, which consequently heightens left ventricular (LV) afterload. We assessed the usefulness of aortic calcification for predicting adverse cardiovascular outcomes and to determine whether the relationship, if any, differed as a function of LVH. METHODS: The analytic sample was comprised of a total of 487 individuals 65 years of age or older. Thoracic aorta calcium score (TACS) was measured by coronary computed tomography, and patients were stratified according to the median (TACS, 446 mm3). LVH obtained from echocardiography was defined as LV mass index >115 g/m2 for men and >95 g/m2 for women. Cox regression reporting hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was performed to predict the risk for the composite study endpoint, defined as cardiac death, admission for heart failure, obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) requiring revascularization, or stroke. RESULTS: A total of 39 composite events (8.0%) occurred during a median follow-up of 65 months (interquartile range [IQR], 17–89 months). For those with LVH, the concurrent presence of high TACS appeared to be an independent predictor (HR, 4.51; 95% CI, 1.71–11.88; p=0.002) for the composite study endpoint. Other combined LVH and TACS subgroups were not associated with significant factors for predicting the composite study endpoint (p>0.050, all). CONCLUSION: TACS provides robust predictive utility for a composite of cardiovascular events and cardiac death in persons with LVH. This finding was less pronounced in those with a relatively healthy myocardium, defined by the absence of LVH.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aorta, Thoracic , Calcium , Coronary Artery Disease , Death , Echocardiography , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Failure , Humans , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular , Male , Myocardium , Prognosis , Stroke , Vascular Calcification , Vascular Stiffness
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-89912

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a well-established risk factor for stroke. Interestingly, ischemic stroke increases risk of incident AF in patients without prior diagnosed AF. For better risk stratification for post-stroke AF, we studied left atrial (LA) size and mechanical function using two-dimensional (2D) speckle tracking imaging in patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: A total of 227 patients (132 males, age 67 ± 12) with acute ischemic stroke without a history of AF underwent 2D transthoracic echocardiography and speckle tracking imaging for the assessment of LA volume index and global LA longitudinal strain (LALS). From clinical variables, the CHA2DS2-VASc score and National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) were calculated in each patient. Post-stroke AF was defined as newly diagnosed AF during the course after ischemic stroke. RESULTS: Post-stroke AF occurred in 25 patients (11%). Patients with post-stroke AF were older and showed a higher tendency of CHA2DS2-VASc score, significantly higher log NIHSS, larger LA volume index and lower global LALS than those without. In multivariate analysis, global LALS was an independent predictor for post-stroke AF (hazard ratio 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.83.0.97, p < 0.01) after controlling for confounding factors. Furthermore, global LALS provided incremental predictive value for post-stroke AF over the CHA2DS2-VASc score, NIHSS, and LA volume index. The global LALS < 14.5% better distinguished post-stroke AF (area under the curve 0.837, sensitivity 60%, specificity 95%, p < 0.01) than CHA2DS2-VASc score. CONCLUSION: Global LALS as a marker of LA mechanical function has incremental predictive value for post-stroke AF in patients with acute ischemic stroke.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Echocardiography , Heart Atria , Humans , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Stroke
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-35407

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and the presence of carotid plaque have been used for risk stratification of cardiovascular disease (CVD). To date, however, the association between multi-directional functional properties of carotid artery and CVD has not been fully elucidated. We sought to explore the multi-directional mechanics of the carotid artery in relation to cardiovascular risk. METHODS: Four hundred one patients who underwent carotid ultrasound were enrolled between January 2010 and April 2013. A high risk of CVD was defined as more than 20% of 10-year risk based on the Framingham risk score. Using a speckle-tracking technique, the longitudinal and radial movements were analyzed in the B-mode images. Peak longitudinal and radial displacements, strain and strain rate were also measured. Beta stiffness and elastic modulus index were calculated from the radial measurements. RESULTS: Of the overall sample, 13% (52) of patients comprised the high-risk group. In multivariate logistic regression, CIMT and elastic modulus index were independently associated with a high-risk of CVD {odds ratio (OR): 1.810 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.249–2.622] and OR: 1.767 (95% CI: 1.177–2.652); p = 0.002, 0.006, respectively}. The combination of CIMT and elastic modulus index correlated with a high-risk of CVD more so than CIMT alone. CONCLUSION: The elastic modulus index of the carotid artery might serve as a novel surrogate marker of high-risk CVD. Measurement of the multi-directional mechanics of the carotid artery using the speckle tracking technique has potential for providing further information over conventional B-mode ultrasound for stratification of CVD risk.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Cardiovascular Diseases , Carotid Arteries , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Elastic Modulus , Humans , Logistic Models , Mechanics , Ultrasonography
19.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 328-336, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-147358

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The incidence of prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) after mitral valve replacement (MVR) has been reported to vary. The purpose of the current study was to investigate incidence of PPM according to the different methods of calculating effective orifice area (EOA), including the continuity equation (CE), pressure half time (PHT) method and use of reference EOA, and to compare these with various echocardiographic variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 166 individuals who received isolated MVR due to rheumatic mitral stenosis and had postoperative echocardiography performed between 12 and 60 months after MVR. EOA was determined by CE (EOA(CE)) and PHT using Doppler echocardiography. Reference EOA was determined from the literature or values offered by the manufacturer. Indexed EOA was used to define PPM as present if < or =1.2 cm2/m2. RESULTS: Prevalence of PPM was different depending on the methods used to calculate EOA, ranging from 7% in PHT method to 49% in referred EOA method to 62% in CE methods. The intraclass correlation coefficient was low between the methods. PPM was associated with raised trans-prosthetic pressure, only when calculated by CE (p=0.021). Indexed EOA(CE) was the only predictor of postoperative systolic pulmonary artery (PA) pressure, even after adjusting for age, preoperative systolic PA pressure and postoperative left atrial volume index (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Prevalence of mitral PPM varied according to the methods used to calculate EOA in patients with mitral stenosis after MVR. Among the various methods used to define PPM, EOA(CE) was the only predictor of postoperative hemodynamic parameters.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Echocardiography , Echocardiography, Doppler , Female , Heart Valve Diseases/surgery , Heart Valve Prosthesis , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/adverse effects , Hemodynamics , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Mitral Valve/physiopathology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-58197

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To explore the prognostic performance of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and exercise electrocardiography (XECG) in asymptomatic subjects. METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 812 (59 +/- 9 years, 60.8% male) asymptomatic subjects who underwent CCTA and XECG concurrently from 2003 through 2009. Subjects were followed-up for major adverse cardiac events (MACE) including cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina, and revascularization after 90 days from index CCTA. RESULTS: The prevalence of occult coronary artery disease (CAD) detected by CCTA was 17.5% and 120 subjects (14.8%) had positive XECG. During a mean follow-up of 37 +/- 16 months, nine subjects experienced MACE. In multivariable Cox-regression analysis, only the presence of CAD by CCTA independently predicted future MACE (p = 0.002). Moreover, CAD by CCTA improved the predictive value when added to a clinical risk factor model using the likelihood ratio test (p < 0.001). Notably, the prognostic value of CCTA persisted in the moderate-to-high-risk group as classified by the Duke treadmill score (p = 0.040), but not in the low-risk group (p = 0.991). CONCLUSION: CCTA provides incremental prognostic benefit over and above XECG in an asymptomatic population, especially for those in a moderate-to-high-risk group as classified by the Duke treadmill score. Risk stratification using XECG may prove valuable for identifying asymptomatic subjects who can benefit from CCTA.


Subject(s)
Angina, Unstable , Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease , Death , Electrocardiography , Follow-Up Studies , Myocardial Infarction , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
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