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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898119

ABSTRACT

BackgroundOnly few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).MethodsFrom March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated.ResultsIn total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9±14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, −1.1%±1.2%; PPConclusionThis study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890415

ABSTRACT

BackgroundOnly few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).MethodsFrom March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated.ResultsIn total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9±14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, −1.1%±1.2%; PPConclusionThis study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

3.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 1086-1094, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914252

ABSTRACT

Background@#Early identification of patients with high-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) that is likely to progress has become a critical challenge. We aimed to identify somatic mutations associated with lateral neck lymph node (LN) metastasis (N1b) in patients with PTMC. @*Methods@#Whole-exome sequencing (WES) of 14 PTMCs with no LN metastasis (N0) and 13 N1b PTMCs was performed using primary tumors and matched normal thyroid tissues. @*Results@#The mutational burden was comparable in N0 and N1b tumors, as the median number of mutations was 23 (range, 12 to 46) in N0 and 24 (range, 12 to 50) in N1b PTMC (P=0.918). The most frequent mutations were detected in PGS1, SLC4A8, DAAM2, and HELZ in N1b PTMCs alone, and the K158Q mutation in PGS1 (four patients, Fisher’s exact test P=0.041) was significantly enriched in N1b PTMCs. Based on pathway analysis, somatic mutations belonging to the receptor tyrosine kinase-RAS and NOTCH pathways were most frequently affected in N1b PTMCs. We identified four mutations that are predicted to be pathogenic in four genes based on Clinvar and Combined Annotation-Dependent Depletion score: BRAF, USH2A, CFTR, and PHIP. A missense mutation in CFTR and a nonsense mutation in PHIP were detected in N1b PTMCs only, although in one case each. BRAF mutation was detected in both N0 and N1b PTMCs. @*Conclusion@#This first comprehensive WES analysis of the mutational landscape of N0 and N1b PTMCs identified pathogenic genes that affect biological functions associated with the aggressive phenotype of PTMC.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874547

ABSTRACT

Background@#This phase 3 study evaluated the efficacy and safety of 6-month treatment with romosozumab in Korean postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. @*Methods@#Sixty-seven postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (bone mineral density [BMD] T-scores ≤–2.5 at the lumbar spine, total hip, or femoral neck) were randomized (1:1) to receive monthly subcutaneous injections of romosozumab (210 mg; n=34) or placebo (n=33) for 6 months. @*Results@#At month 6, the difference in the least square (LS) mean percent change from baseline in lumbar spine BMD (primary efficacy endpoint) between the romosozumab (9.5%) and placebo (–0.1%) groups was significant (9.6%; 95% confidence interval, 7.6 to 11.5; P<0.001). The difference in the LS mean percent change from baseline was also significant for total hip and femoral neck BMD (secondary efficacy endpoints). After treatment with romosozumab, the percent change from baseline in procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide transiently increased at months 1 and 3, while that in C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen showed a sustained decrease. No events of cancer, hypocalcemia, injection site reaction, positively adjudicated atypical femoral fracture or osteonecrosis of the jaw, or positively adjudicated serious cardiovascular adverse events were observed. At month 9, 17.6% and 2.9% of patients in the romosozumab group developed binding and neutralizing antibodies, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Treatment with romosozumab for 6 months was well tolerated and significantly increased lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck BMD compared with placebo in Korean postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02791516).

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811147

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is limited information regarding the optimal third-line therapy for managing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) that is inadequately controlled using dual combination therapy. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of pioglitazone or glimepiride when added to metformin plus alogliptin treatment for T2DM.METHODS: This multicenter, randomized, active-controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02426294) recruited 135 Korean patients with T2DM that was inadequately controlled using metformin plus alogliptin. The patients were then randomized to also receive pioglitazone (15 mg/day) or glimepiride (2 mg/day) for a 26-week period, with dose titration was permitted based on the investigator's judgement.RESULTS: Glycosylated hemoglobin levels exhibited similar significant decreases in both groups during the treatment period (pioglitazone: −0.81%, P<0.001; glimepiride: −1.05%, P<0.001). However, the pioglitazone-treated group exhibited significantly higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P<0.001) and significantly lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance values (P<0.001). Relative to pioglitazone, adding glimepiride to metformin plus alogliptin markedly increased the risk of hypoglycemia (pioglitazone: 1/69 cases [1.45%], glimepiride: 14/66 cases [21.21%]; P<0.001).CONCLUSION: Among patients with T2DM inadequately controlled using metformin plus alogliptin, the addition of pioglitazone provided comparable glycemic control and various benefits (improvements in lipid profiles, insulin resistance, and hypoglycemia risk) relative to the addition of glimepiride.


Subject(s)
Cholesterol, HDL , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Insulin Resistance , Metformin , Sulfonylurea Compounds , Thiazolidinediones , Treatment Failure
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811144

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Circulating apolipoprotein J (ApoJ) is closely associated with insulin resistance; however, the effect of exercise on circulating ApoJ levels and the association of ApoJ with metabolic indices remain unknown. Here, we investigated whether a combined exercise can alter the circulating ApoJ level, and whether these changes are associated with metabolic indices in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.METHODS: Postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly assigned into either an exercise (EXE, n=30) or control (CON, n=15) group. Participants in the EXE group were enrolled in a 12-week program consisting of a combination of aerobic and resistance exercises. At baseline, 4, 8, and 12 weeks, body composition and metabolic parameters including homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and serum ApoJ levels were assessed.RESULTS: In the EXE group, ApoJ levels decreased 26.3% and 19.4%, relative to baseline, at 8 and 12 weeks, respectively. Between-group differences were significant at 8 and 12 weeks (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively). In the EXE group, 12 weeks of exercise resulted in significant decreases in body weight, percent body fat, and HOMA-IR indices. Concurrently, weight-adjusted appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM/wt) was increased in the EXE group compared with the CON group. Importantly, changes in the ApoJ level were significantly correlated with changes in ASM/wt.CONCLUSION: Exercise training resulted in a significant decrease in the circulating ApoJ level, with changes in ApoJ associated with an improvement in some insulin resistance indices. These data suggest that circulating ApoJ may be a useful metabolic marker for assessing the effects of exercise on insulin resistance.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Apolipoproteins , Body Composition , Body Weight , Clusterin , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Exercise , Female , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Insulin , Muscle, Skeletal , Sarcopenia
7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832420

ABSTRACT

Background@#Vandetanib is the most widely used tyrosine kinase inhibitor for the treatment of patients with advanced medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). However, only limited data regarding its use outside clinical trials are available. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vandetanib in patients with advanced MTC in routine clinical practice. @*Methods@#In this multicenter retrospective study, 12 patients with locally advanced or metastatic MTC treated with vandetanib at four tertiary hospitals were included. The primary outcome was the objective response rate (ORR) based on the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. The progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicities were also evaluated. @*Results@#Eleven patients (92%) had distant metastasis and 10 (83%) had disease progression at enrollment. Partial response was observed in five patients (ORR, 42%) and stable disease lasting ≥24 weeks was reported in an additional five patients (83%). During the median 31.7 months of follow-up, disease progression was seen in five patients (42%); of these, two died due to disease progression. The median PFS was 25.9 months, while the median OS was not reached. All patients experienced adverse events (AEs) which were generally consistent with the known safety profile of vandetanib. Vandetanib was discontinued in two patients due to skin toxicity. @*Conclusion@#Consistent with the phase III trial, this study confirmed the efficacy of vandetanib for advanced MTC in terms of both ORR and PFS in the real-world setting. Vandetanib was well tolerated in the majority of patients, and there were no fatal AEs.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832389

ABSTRACT

Background@#The aim of this study was to develop a scoring system to stratify the risk of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and to select the proper management. @*Methods@#We performed a systematic search of MEDLINE and Embase. Data regarding patients’ prognoses were obtained from the included studies. Odds ratios (ORs) with statistical significance were extracted from the publications. To generate a risk scoring system (RSS), ORs were summed (RSS1), and summed after natural-logarithmic transformation (RSS2). RSS1 and RSS2 were compared to the eighth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system and the 2015 American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines for thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid carcinoma. @*Results@#Five meta-analyses were eligible for inclusion in the study. Eight variables (sex, tumour size, extrathyroidal extension, BRAF mutation, TERT mutation, histologic subtype, lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis) were included. RSS1 was the best of the analysed models. @*Conclusion@#We developed and validated a new RSS derived from previous meta-analyses for patients with PTC. This RSS seems to be superior to previously published systems.

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832341

ABSTRACT

Background@#Only few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). @*Methods@#From March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated. @*Results@#In total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9± 14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, –1.1%±1.2%; P<0.001). The number of patients with HbA1c <7% increased significantly from 5 to 68 (P<0.005). In addition, lipid profiles and liver enzyme levels were also improved whereas no changes in body weight. There was no significant safety issue in patients treated with quadruple OHA therapy. @*Conclusion@#This study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832339

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study was a multicenter, parallel-group, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, noninferiority trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of γ-linolenic acid (GLA) relative to α-lipoic acid (ALA) over a 12-week treatment period in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). @*Methods@#This study included 100 T2DM patients between 20 and 75 years of age who had painful DPN and received either GLA (320 mg/day) and placebo or ALA (600 mg/day) and placebo for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measures were mean changes in pain intensities as measured by the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the total symptom scores (TSS). @*Results@#Of the 100 subjects who initially participated in the study, 73 completed the 12-week treatment period. Per-protocol analyses revealed significant decreases in the mean VAS and TSS scores compared to baseline in both groups, but there were no significant differences between the groups. The treatment difference for the VAS (95% confidence interval [CI]) between the two groups was −0.65 (−1.526 to 0.213) and the upper bound of the 95% CI did not exceed the predefined noninferiority margin (δ1 =0.51). For the TSS, the treatment difference was −0.05 (−1.211 to 1.101) but the upper bound of the 95% CI crossed the noninferiority margin (δ2 =0.054). There were no serious adverse events associated with the treatments. @*Conclusion@#GLA treatment in patients with painful DPN was noninferior to ALA in terms of reducing pain intensity measured by the VAS over 12 weeks.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816623

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies on the relationship between thyroid function and anemia in the euthyroid range are scarce. We aimed to evaluate the association between anemia and serum free thyroxine (fT4) and thyrotropin (TSH) in euthyroid adults.METHODS: Data on 5,352 participants aged ≥19 years were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI (2013 to 2015). Anemia was defined as hemoglobin (Hb) <13 and <12 g/dL for men and women, respectively.RESULTS: Overall, 6.1% of participants had anemia, and more women (9.9%) had anemia than men (2.8%, P<0.001). In multivariate analysis, serum fT4 levels, but not TSH, were positively associated with serum Hb levels in both sexes (P<0.001, each). Serum Hb levels linearly reduced across decreasing serum fT4 quartile groups in both sexes (P<0.001, each). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, participants with low-normal fT4 had 4.4 (P=0.003) and 2.8 times (P<0.001) higher risk for anemia than those with high-normal fT4 among men and women, respectively. When participants were divided into two groups at 50 years of age, in younger participants, men and women with the first quartile were at higher risk of anemia than men with the second quartile (odds ratio [OR], 3.3; P=0.029) and women with the forth quartile (OR, 3.2; P<0.001), respectively. This association was not observed in older participants.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that a low-normal level of serum fT4 was associated with a lower serum Hb level and a higher risk of anemia in euthyroid adults, especially in younger participants.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anemia , Female , Humans , Korea , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Nutrition Surveys , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroid Gland , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785704

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thyroid disease and metabolic syndrome are both associated with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between thyroid hormones and obesity sub-phenotypes using nationwide data from Korea, a country known to be iodine replete.METHODS: This study was based on data obtained from the sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, administered from 2013 to 2015. A total of 13,873 participants aged ≥19 years were included, and classified into four groups: metabolically healthy non-obesity (MHNO), metabolically healthy obesity (MHO), metabolically unhealthy non-obesity (MUNO), and metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO) by body fat on the basis of body mass index and metabolic health.RESULTS: At baseline, serum free thyroxine (fT4) values were significantly higher in the MHNO phenotype (MHNO, 1.27±0.01 ng/dL; MHO, 1.25±0.01 ng/dL; MUNO, 1.24±0.01 ng/dL; MUO, 1.24±0.01 ng/dL, P<0.001) in total study population. However, this significant association no longer remained after adjustment for age, urine iodine concentration, and smoking (P=0.085). After adjustment for confounders, statistically significant association was observed between lower thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and MHNO phenotype (P=0.044). In men participants (not women), higher fT4 values were significantly associated with MHNO phenotype (P<0.001). However, no significant association was observed between thyroid function (TSH or fT4) and obesity phenotypes in groups classified by age (cutoff age of 55 years).CONCLUSION: Although there was a difference by age and sex, we found that the decrease of TSH and the increase of fT4 values were associated with MHNO.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Adult , Body Mass Index , Cardiovascular Diseases , Humans , Iodine , Korea , Male , Nutrition Surveys , Obesity , Obesity, Metabolically Benign , Phenotype , Smoke , Smoking , Thyroid Diseases , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Hormones , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719388

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to determine the association between the annual changes in dopamine transporter (DAT) availability as measured by 123I-ioflupane (123I-FP-CIT) single-photon-emission computed tomography and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) known to be risk factors in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: In total, 150 PD patients were included from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative database. Specific SNPs that are associated with PD were selected for genotyping. SNPs that were not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium or whose minor allele frequency was less than 0.05 were excluded. Twenty-three SNPs met the inclusion criteria for this study. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare annual percentage changes in DAT availability for three subgroups of SNP. RESULTS: None of the 23 SNPs exerted a statistically significant effect (p < 0.0022) on the decline of DAT availability in PD patients. However, we observed trends of association (p < 0.05) between three SNPs of two genes with the annual percentage change in DAT availability: 1) rs199347 on the putamen (p=0.0138), 2) rs356181 on the caudate nucleus (p=0.0105), and 3) rs3910105 on the caudate nucleus (p=0.0374). A post-hoc analysis revealed that DAT availability was reduced the most for 1) the putamen in the CC genotype of rs199347 (vs. CT, p=0.0199; vs. TT, p=0.0164), 2) the caudate nucleus in the TT genotype of rs356181 (vs. CC, p=0.0081), and 3) the caudate nucleus in the CC genotype of rs3910105 (vs. TT, p=0.0317). CONCLUSIONS: Significant trends in the associations between three SNPs and decline of DAT availability in PD patients have been discovered.


Subject(s)
Caudate Nucleus , Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins , Dopamine , Gene Frequency , Genotype , Humans , Parkinson Disease , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Putamen , Risk Factors , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740477

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study examined the change in the trabecular bone score (TBS), areal bone mineral density (aBMD), and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women who underwent thyrotropin (TSH)-suppressive therapy for treating papillary thyroid cancer after a total thyroidectomy procedure. METHODS: We evaluated 36 postmenopausal women who received a total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid cancer and were undergoing TSH suppressive therapy with levothyroxine. Postmenopausal women (n=94) matched for age and body mass index were recruited as healthy controls. The aBMD and TBS of the lumbar spine were compared between dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at baseline and at follow-up after an average of 4.92 years. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the rate of diagnoses of osteoporosis, osteopenia, or normal bone status between the 2 groups during the baseline DXA evaluation. However, the TBS was significantly lower whereas aBMD did not show significant difference at the time of baseline DXA measurement (1st DXA, 1.343±0.098 vs. 1.372±0.06317, P < 0.001; 2nd DXA, 1.342±0.095 vs. 1.370±0.062, P < 0.001). The TBS and aBMD did not differ significantly between the initial and follow-up DXA images in both groups of TSH suppressive patients and controls. CONCLUSIONS: The average value of TBS and aBMD did not significantly change during the follow-up period. The TSH suppressive therapy was revealed as not a significant factor for the progressive deterioration of bone status during long term follow-up.


Subject(s)
Absorptiometry, Photon , Body Mass Index , Bone Density , Bone Diseases, Metabolic , Diagnosis , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Osteoporosis , Postmenopause , Spine , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764958

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Removal of uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulfate by AST-120 is known to improve renal function and delay the initiation of dialysis in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. However, it is unclear whether the addition of AST-120 to conventional treatments is effective in delaying the progression of renal dysfunction in patients with diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: A total of 100 patients with type 2 diabetes and renal dysfunction (serum creatinine levels ranging from 1.5 to 3.0 mg/dL) were recruited from eight centers in Korea and treated with AST-120 (6 g/day) for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was improvement in renal function measured as the gradient of the reciprocal serum creatinine level (1/sCr) over time (i.e., the ratio of 1/sCr time slope for post- to pre-AST-120 therapy). A response was defined as a ratio change of the regression coefficient of 1/sCr ≤ 0.90. RESULTS: Renal function improved in 80.3% of patients (61/76) after 24 weeks of AST-120 treatment. There were no differences between responder and non-responder groups in baseline characteristics except for diastolic blood pressure (73.5 ± 9.5 mmHg in the responder group vs. 79.3 ± 11.1 mmHg in the non-responder group; P = 0.046). Serum lipid peroxidation level decreased significantly in the responder group (from 2.25 ± 0.56 μmol/L to 1.91 ± 0.72 μmol/L; P = 0.002) but not in the non-responder group. CONCLUSION: The addition of AST-120 to conventional treatments may delay the progression of renal dysfunction in diabetic nephropathy. The antioxidant effect of AST-120 might contribute to improvement in renal function.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Blood Pressure , Creatinine , Diabetic Nephropathies , Dialysis , Humans , Indican , Korea , Lipid Peroxidation , Oxidative Stress , Prospective Studies , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763651

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Combination of metformin to reduce the fasting plasma glucose level and an α-glucosidase inhibitor to decrease the postprandial glucose level is expected to generate a complementary effect. We compared the efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose combination of voglibose plus metformin (vogmet) with metformin monotherapy in drug-naïve newly-diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A total of 187 eligible patients aged 20 to 70 years, with a glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level of 7.0% to 11.0%, were randomized into either vogmet or metformin treatments for 24 weeks. A change in the HbA1c level from baseline was measured at week 24. RESULTS: The reduction in the levels of HbA1c was −1.62%±0.07% in the vogmet group and −1.31%±0.07% in the metformin group (P=0.003), and significantly more vogmet-treated patients achieved the target HbA1c levels of <6.5% (P=0.002) or <7% (P=0.039). Glycemic variability was also significantly improved with vogmet treatment, estimated by M-values (P=0.004). Gastrointestinal adverse events and hypoglycemia (%) were numerically lower in the vogmet-treated group. Moreover, a significant weight loss was observed with vogmet treatment compared with metformin (−1.63 kg vs. −0.86 kg, P=0.039). CONCLUSION: Vogmet is a safe antihyperglycemic agent that controls blood glucose level effectively, yields weight loss, and is superior to metformin in terms of various key glycemic parameters without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Fasting , Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Metformin , Weight Loss
17.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 268-272, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759936

ABSTRACT

Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a widely used technology used to diagnosis osteoporosis and monitor changes in bone mineral density (BMD). The present paper reviews the clinical application of DXA in evaluating osteoporosis, including indications for BMD testing, interpretation of DXA results, diagnosis of osteoporosis, and serial BMD follow up. As the clinical utility of DXA depends on the quality of the scan acquisition, the precision assessment of DXA is also discussed.


Subject(s)
Absorptiometry, Photon , Bone Density , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Osteoporosis
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786970

ABSTRACT

Obesity, an increasingly common problem in modern societies, results from energy intake chronically exceeding energy expenditure. This imbalance of energy can be triggered by the internal state of the caloric equation (homeostasis) and non-homeostatic factors, such as social, cultural, psychological, environmental factors or food itself. Nowadays, positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceuticals have been examined to understand the cerebral control of food intake in humans. Using ¹⁵O–H₂ PET, changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) coupled to neuronal activity were reported in states of fasting, satiation after feeding, and sensory stimulation. In addition, rCBF in obese subjects showed a greater increase in insula, the primary gustatory cortex. ¹⁸F–fluorodeoxyglucose PET showed higher metabolic activity in postcentral gyrus of the parietal cortex and lower in prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex in obese subjects. In addition, dopamine receptor (DR) PET demonstrated lower DR availability in obese subjects, which might lead to overeating to compensate. Brain PET has been utilized to reveal the connectivity between obesity and brain. This could improve understanding of obesity and help develop a new treatment for obesity.


Subject(s)
Brain , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Eating , Electrons , Energy Intake , Energy Metabolism , Fasting , Gyrus Cinguli , Humans , Hyperphagia , Neurons , Obesity , Parietal Lobe , Positron-Emission Tomography , Prefrontal Cortex , Radiopharmaceuticals , Receptors, Dopamine , Satiation , Somatosensory Cortex
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714104

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the clinical characteristics of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction in newly diagnosed, drug-naive people with type 2 diabetes by analyzing nationwide cross-sectional data. METHODS: We collected the clinical data of 912 participants with newly diagnosed diabetes from 83 primary care clinics and hospitals nationwide from 2015 to 2016. The presence of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction was defined as a homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) value ≥2.5 and fasting C-peptide levels < 1.70 ng/mL, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 75.1% and 22.6% of participants had insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction, respectively. The proportion of participants with insulin resistance but no β-cell dysfunction increased, and the proportion of participants with β-cell dysfunction but no insulin resistance decreased as body mass index (BMI) increased. People diagnosed with diabetes before 40 years of age had significantly higher HOMA-IR and BMI than those diagnosed over 65 years of age (HOMA-IR, 5.0 vs. 3.0; BMI, 28.7 kg/m2 vs. 25.1 kg/m2). However, the β-cell function indices were lower in people diagnosed before 40 years of age than in those diagnosed after 65 years of age (homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function, 39.3 vs. 64.9; insulinogenic index, 10.3 vs. 18.7; disposition index, 0.15 vs. 0.25). CONCLUSION: We observed that the main pathogenic mechanism of type 2 diabetes is insulin resistance in participants with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. In addition, young adults with diabetes are more likely to have higher insulin resistance with obesity and have higher insulin secretory defect with severe hyperglycemia in the early period of diabetes than older populations.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , C-Peptide , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Fasting , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Obesity , Primary Health Care , Young Adult
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713170

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the ability of brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) to predict coronary artery stenosis (CAS) in patients with type 2 diabetes, and compared the predictive power of baPWV to that of well-known cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk calculators. METHODS: The study group included 83 consecutive patients over 30 years old with type 2 diabetes who complained of vague chest discomfort. An automatic pulse waveform analyzer was used to measure baPWV. CAS was measured using multi-slice computed tomographic (MSCT) angiography. RESULTS: Age, maximal baPWV, duration of diabetes, current smoking, the UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Risk Engine score, American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) risk estimator score, the Framingham risk calculator score, and coronary artery calcium score were greater in patients with CAS than in those without CAS. An area under the curve (AUC) indicative of a predictive value for CAS (≥20%) was found for several parameters. The AUC of maximal baPWV, the UKPDS Risk Engine, the ACC/AHA ASCVD risk estimator, and the Framingham risk calculator were 0.672 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.554 to 0.785; P=0.010), 0.777 (95% CI, 0.675 to 0.878; P < 0.001), 0.763 (95% CI, 0.660 to 0.866; P < 0.001), and 0.736 (95% CI, 0.629 to 0.843; P < 0.001), respectively. The optimal cutoff value of baPWV for the detection of CAS was 1,650 cm/sec (sensitivity, 68.9%; specificity, 63.2%). CONCLUSION: Maximal baPWV was closely related with CAS detected by MSCT coronary angiography in patients with type 2 diabetes. baPWV has the potential to be a useful, noninvasive screening tool for the prediction of occult CAS in patients with type 2 diabetes.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Ankle , Area Under Curve , Calcium , Cardiovascular Diseases , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Stenosis , Coronary Vessels , Diabetes Mellitus , Heart , Humans , Mass Screening , Prospective Studies , Pulse Wave Analysis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Smoke , Smoking , Thorax , Vascular Stiffness
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