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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1184-1194, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913813

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Effectiveness and safety of clofarabine (one of the treatment mainstays in pediatric patients with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia [ALL]) was assessed in Korean pediatric patients with ALL to facilitate conditional coverage with evidence development. @*Materials and Methods@#In this multicenter, prospective, observational study, patients receiving clofarabine as mono/combination therapy were followed up every 4-6 weeks for 6 months or until hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Response rates, survival outcomes, and adverse events were assessed. @*Results@#Sixty patients (2-26 years old; 65% B-cell ALL, received prior ≥ 2 regimen, 68.3% refractory to previous regimen) were enrolled and treated with at least one dose of clofarabine; of whom 26 (43.3%) completed 6 months of follow-up after the last dose of clofarabine. Fifty-eight patients (96.7%) received clofarabine combination therapy. Overall remission rate (complete remission [CR] or CR without platelet recovery [CRp]) was 45.0% (27/60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 32.4 to 57.6) and the overall response rate (CR, CRp, or partial remission [PR]) was 46.7% (28/60; 95% CI, 34.0 to 59.3), with 11 (18.3%), 16 (26.7%), and one (1.7%) patients achieving CR, CRp, and PR, respectively. The median time to remission was 5.1 weeks (95% CI, 4.7 to 6.1). Median duration of remission was 16.6 weeks (range, 2.0 to 167.6 weeks). Sixteen patients (26.7%) proceeded to HSCT. There were 24 deaths; 14 due to treatment-emergent adverse events. @*Conclusion@#Remission with clofarabine was observed in approximately half of the study patients who had overall expected safety profile; however, there was no favorable long-term survival outcome in this study.

2.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832101

ABSTRACT

Intravascular extension of Wilms tumor (WT) can occur in approximately 4-10% of patients. In general, it does not cause any clinical problems because most of these tumors are small. Although there is no standard treatment currently, preoperative chemotherapy and delayed nephrectomy is generally recommended for children with WT accompanied by tumor thrombus. We report a rare case of WT, aniridia, genitourinary anomalies, and mental retardation (WAGR) syndrome in a boy who also had a huge inferior vena cava thrombus, 7 cm length. The prevalence of bilateral WT and tumor thrombus in WAGR has not been identified. The patient was successfully treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy to decrease the size of the tumor thrombus with WT and delayed nephrectomy following chemotherapy without any invasive intervention and did not show complications.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831569

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) constitutes 10%–20% of all malignant lymphomas and has a high cure rate (5-year survival, around 90%). Recently, interest has increased concerning preventing secondary complications (secondary cancer, endocrine disorders) in long-term survivors. We aimed to study the epidemiologic features and therapeutic outcomes of HL in children, adolescents, and young adults in Korea. @*Methods@#We performed a multicenter, retrospective study of 224 patients aged < 25 years diagnosed with HL at 22 participating institutes in Korea from January 2007 to August 2016. @*Results@#A higher percentage of males was diagnosed at a younger age. Nodular sclerosis histopathological HL subtype was most common, followed by mixed cellularity subtype.Eighty-one (36.2%), 101 (45.1%), and 42 (18.8%) patients were classified into low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively. Doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine was the most common protocol (n = 102, 45.5%). Event-free survival rate was 86.0% ± 2.4%, while five-year overall survival (OS) rate was 96.1% ± 1.4%: 98.7% ± 1.3%, 97.7% ± 1.6%, and 86.5% ± 5.6% in the low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively (P = 0.021). Five-year OS was worse in patients with B-symptoms, stage IV disease, highrisk, splenic involvement, extra-nodal lymphoma, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase level.In multivariate analysis, B-symptoms and extra-nodal involvement were prognostic factors for poor OS. Late complications of endocrine disorders and secondary malignancy were observed in 17 and 6 patients, respectively. @*Conclusion@#This is the first study on the epidemiology and treatment outcomes of HL in children, adolescents, and young adults in Korea. Future prospective studies are indicated to develop therapies that minimize treatment toxicity while maximizing cure rates in children, adolescents, and young adults with HL.

4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741874

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in Korean children. METHODS: We retrospectively collected and analyzed data from the medical records of the patients with S. aureus bacteremia ≤18 years of age in Gil Medical Center from 2002 to 2016. RESULTS: A total of 212 SAB cases were detected. The annual incidence of SAB from 2002 to 2016 ranged from 0.77 to 1.95 per 1,000 patients hospitalized. The neonate group (<28 days of age) and the pediatric group (28–18 years of age) were 51.4% (n=109) and 48.6% (n=103), respectively. According to the origin of infection, there were 93 cases (43.9%) of community-associated (CA)-SAB and 119 cases (56.1%) of healthcare-associated (HA)-SAB. The rates of HA-SAB among the neonate group and among the pediatric group were 64.2% and 47.6%, respectively (P=0.015). There was no difference in complications between CA-SAB and HA-SAB, but mortality was higher in HA-SAB. The proportion of methicillin-resistance S. aureus (MRSA) was the highest in neonates (88.1%), decreased with age, and was 36.4%–37.5% among children aged ≥5 years. The MRSA proportion was 72.2%, showing no consistent trend over the period. CONCLUSIONS: The annual incidence of SAB and the proportion of MRSA in SAB remained constant in the recent 15 years in children. Judicious decision of antimicrobial agents for treatment considering the patient's age and the origin of infection is necessary.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Bacteremia , Child , Epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Medical Records , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Mortality , Retrospective Studies , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763516

ABSTRACT

We present a case of Korean pediatric patient with pre-B cell type acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with trisomy 5 as a sole cytogenetic anomaly. Here, we compare and describe the present case with previous pediatric case reports and provide a review of the literature. This case report may help elucidate the poor prognostic impact of trisomy 5 as a sole cytogenetic anomaly in pediatric patients with ALL. Additional studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis.


Subject(s)
Cytogenetics , Humans , Pediatrics , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Precursor Cells, B-Lymphoid , Prognosis , Trisomy
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786525

ABSTRACT

Hyperleukocytosis (HL), defined by a peripheral white blood cell (WBC) count exceeding 100,000/mm³, is occasionally observed in childhood acute leukemia. The increased viscosity in the micro-circulation by HL and the interaction between the leukemic blasts and endometrium of blood vessels sometimes result in leukostasis. Leukostasis can incur life-threatening manifestations, such as respiratory distress, brain infarction and hemorrhage, and renal failure, needing an emergency care. Although early stage of leukostasis is difficult to detect due to nonspecific manifestations, an emergency care is mandatory because leukostasis can proceed to a fatal course. Initial management includes an aggressive fluid therapy that can reduce WBC count, and prevent other metabolic complications implicated by HL. Packed red blood cells should be judiciously transfused because it increases blood viscosity. Conversely, transfusion of platelet concentrates or fresh frozen plasma, which does not affect blood viscosity, is recommended for prevention of hemorrhage. To reduce tumor burden, leukapheresis or exchange transfusion is commonly performed. However, the efficacy is still controversial, and technical problems are present. Leukapheresis or exchange transfusion is recommended if WBC count is 200,000–300,000/mm³ or more, especially in acute myelocytic leukemia, or manifestations of leukostasis are present. In addition, early chemotherapy is the definite treatment of leukostasis.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets , Blood Vessels , Blood Viscosity , Brain Infarction , Disease Management , Drug Therapy , Emergencies , Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Service, Hospital , Endometrium , Erythrocytes , Female , Fluid Therapy , Hemorrhage , Leukapheresis , Leukemia , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Leukocyte Disorders , Leukocytes , Leukocytosis , Leukostasis , Plasma , Renal Insufficiency , Tumor Burden , Viscosity
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714205

ABSTRACT

Iron is critical for almost all living organisms because it serves as a cofactor for many proteins and enzymes necessary for oxygen and energy metabolism. Disruption of iron homeostasis is associated with a wide range of diseases. Thus mammals have developed sophisticated mechanisms to maintain optimal range of iron concentration. Iron regulation involves processes at the systemic and cellular levels. These processes are regulated by hepcidin and iron regulatory proteins. Hepcidin modulates systemic iron homeostasis with ability to impede cellular iron export via interaction with the iron export protein, ferroportin. Whereas, iron regulatory proteins control cellular iron homeostasis by translational regulation of proteins which involve iron metabolism. Recent advances in the study of iron metabolism have shown promising results that hepcidin-targeted strategies may help to improve the diagnosis and treatment of iron related diseases. Although these strategies are now under development, ongoing studies can help to elucidate its application possibilities.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Energy Metabolism , Hepcidins , Homeostasis , Iron Metabolism Disorders , Iron , Iron-Regulatory Proteins , Mammals , Metabolism , Oxygen
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714202

ABSTRACT

To date, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only choice of therapy for most patients with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). Relapse remains a major problem. Approximately 90% of patients carry either somatic or germline mutations of genes participating in RAS signal transduction such as PTPN11, CBL, K-RAS, N-RAS, or NF1 in their leukemic cells, allowing an understanding of the molecular pathophysiology of JMLL and the development of novel drugs. As these genetic aberrations are mutually exclusive, the genetic change observed in JMML helps us to establish the diagnosis of JMML. Furthermore, the genetic abnormalities of JMML are an important prognostic factor, as the type of abnormality may determine disease progression. Recent studies have revealed a strong association between hypermethylation of some genes and already known poor prognostic factors such as older age, elevated fetal hemoglobin at diagnosis, and somatic mutation of PTPN11. These molecular characteristics may be the basis for a guideline to determine the treatment, especially when to proceed with HSCT. Recently, novel drugs have been used based on these molecular characteristics. 5-Azacitidine, an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferase and tipifarnib, a selective farnesyl transferase inhibitor, have been used to improve the outcome of JMML. In addition, drugs which inhibit the RAS signal transduction have been developed, which are less toxic and will improve outcome in the near future.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Disease Progression , DNA , Fetal Hemoglobin , Germ-Line Mutation , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Juvenile , Recurrence , Signal Transduction , Transferases
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717354

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immaturity of the endocrine system that controls the normal menstrual cycle frequently results in abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) and elicits anemia in adolescent girls. This study was conducted to assess the predictive value of endometrial thickness (ET) for anemia in adolescent girls with AUB. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed for a cohort of adolescents (12–18 years old) with AUB who presented over a 10-year period. Complete blood count and ultrasonographic data of 115 adolescent girls with AUB were analyzed. Subjects were classified according to ET as group I (ET < 11 mm) and group II (≥11 mm), and the incidence of anemia was compared. Subjects were also classified according to age as group Y (12–15 years old of age) and group O (16–18 yr), and ET, hemoglobin (Hb), and incidence of anemia were compared. RESULTS: The incidence of anemia in all subjects was 67.8% and was significantly higher in group II than in group I (P < 0.001). The incidence of severe anemia was 56.9% in group II, which was higher than in group I (P=0.039). The incidence of anemia was not significantly different between groups Y and O. However, the incidence of severe anemia was significantly higher in group Y than in group O (P=0.001). CONCLUSION: AUB can result in severe anemia in adolescent girls particularly those who are close to menarche or have a thick endometrium. Early supervision of AUB is required in order to avoid anemia in adolescent girls with AUB.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Anemia , Blood Cell Count , Cohort Studies , Endocrine System , Endometrium , Female , Humans , Incidence , Menarche , Menstrual Cycle , Organization and Administration , Retrospective Studies , Uterine Hemorrhage
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717598

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to compare the therapeutic efficacy of prolonged macrolide (PMC), corticosteroids (CST), doxycycline (DXC), and levofloxacin (LFX) against macrolide-unresponsive Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) pneumonia in children and to evaluate the safety of the secondary treatment agents. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of patients with MP pneumonia hospitalized between January 2015 and April 2017. Macrolide-unresponsiveness was clinically defined with a persistent fever of ≥ 38.0°C at ≥ 72 hours after macrolide treatment. The cases were divided into four groups: PMC, CST, DXC, and LFX. We compared the time to defervescence (TTD) after secondary treatment and the TTD after initial macrolide treatment in each group with adjustment using propensity score-matching analysis. RESULTS: Among 1,165 cases of MP pneumonia, 190 (16.3%) were unresponsive to macrolides. The proportion of patients who achieved defervescence within 48 hours in CST, DXC, and LFX groups were 96.9% (31/33), 85.7% (12/14), and 83.3% (5/6), respectively. The TTD after initial macrolide treatment did not differ between PMC and CST groups (5.1 vs. 4.2 days, P = 0.085), PMC and DXC groups (4.9 vs. 5.7 days, P = 0.453), and PMC and LFX groups (4.4 vs. 5.0 days, P = 0.283). No side effects were observed in the CST, DXC, and LFX groups. CONCLUSION: The change to secondary treatment did not show better efficacy compared to PMC in children with macrolide-unresponsive MP pneumonia. Further studies are needed to guide appropriate treatment in children with MP pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Child , Doxycycline , Fever , Humans , Levofloxacin , Macrolides , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Mycoplasma , Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Retrospective Studies
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23111

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the overall survival of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) approaches 85-90%, the prognosis of relapsed or refractory (R/R) ALL is grave. This study aimed to identify the treatment pattern, treatment response, and overall survival of these patients. METHODS: We reviewed data of 64 patients with R/R ALL whose initial diagnosis of ALL had been made between 1 and 21 years of age. Patients who received clofarabine as part of an induction regimen were excluded. Relapsed patients were limited to those who relapsed after ≥2 prior induction regimens. Treatment patterns, response rates, and overall survival were analyzed. RESULTS: Patients' median age was 15.0 years (range, 6.0-25.0) at the diagnosis of R/R ALL. The most frequently used agents other than steroid were vincristine (54.0%), cytarabine (44.6%), and idarubicin (36.5%), while L-asparaginase was used in only one patient. The complete remission (CR) and overall response (OR) rates were 38.1 and 42.9%, respectively. Sixteen patients (25.4%) underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The 5-year overall survival was 6.7%. The survival of patients with HSCT was significantly higher compared with those without HSCT (35.2% vs 0%, P=0.0097). Among 14 patients who achieved CR or CR without platelet recovery (CRp) before HSCT, the 3-year survival was 46.9%. CONCLUSION: The survival of Korean patients with R/R childhood ALL was dismal despite a reasonable CR rate, whereas that of those who received HSCT after CR or CRp was excellent. More treatment options are needed to improve the overall outcome of R/R childhood ALL.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets , Cytarabine , Diagnosis , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Idarubicin , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Vincristine
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788613

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the overall survival of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) approaches 85-90%, the prognosis of relapsed or refractory (R/R) ALL is grave. This study aimed to identify the treatment pattern, treatment response, and overall survival of these patients.METHODS: We reviewed data of 64 patients with R/R ALL whose initial diagnosis of ALL had been made between 1 and 21 years of age. Patients who received clofarabine as part of an induction regimen were excluded. Relapsed patients were limited to those who relapsed after ≥2 prior induction regimens. Treatment patterns, response rates, and overall survival were analyzed.RESULTS: Patients' median age was 15.0 years (range, 6.0-25.0) at the diagnosis of R/R ALL. The most frequently used agents other than steroid were vincristine (54.0%), cytarabine (44.6%), and idarubicin (36.5%), while L-asparaginase was used in only one patient. The complete remission (CR) and overall response (OR) rates were 38.1 and 42.9%, respectively. Sixteen patients (25.4%) underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The 5-year overall survival was 6.7%. The survival of patients with HSCT was significantly higher compared with those without HSCT (35.2% vs 0%, P=0.0097). Among 14 patients who achieved CR or CR without platelet recovery (CRp) before HSCT, the 3-year survival was 46.9%.CONCLUSION: The survival of Korean patients with R/R childhood ALL was dismal despite a reasonable CR rate, whereas that of those who received HSCT after CR or CRp was excellent. More treatment options are needed to improve the overall outcome of R/R childhood ALL.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets , Cytarabine , Diagnosis , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Idarubicin , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Vincristine
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129018

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Crohn's disease (CD) can involve any site of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). However, the characteristics of upper GIT involvement in CD are unclear, especially in the Eastern pediatric population. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of upper GIT involvement and identify the clinical features of Korean children with CD. METHODS: This was a retrospective multicenter cohort study that included 52 pediatric patients with CD who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy and biopsy. The clinical symptoms and endoscopic and histologic features of the upper GIT were identified according to the presence or absence of upper gastrointestinal symptoms. RESULTS: Among the 52 patients, upper GIT involvement was noted in 50.0% (26/52). The mean age at CD diagnosis was 14.1±2.1 years. Gastric ulcer was the most common lesion (19.2%) found on upper GIT endoscopy, followed by duodenal ulcers (15.4%). Chronic inflammation was the most common histopathologic feature (75.0%), followed by gastric erosion (17.3%). Granuloma was found in 9.6% of patients. Helicobacter pylori infection was identified in 5.8% of patients. Endoscopic and histologic findings were not significantly different, but the mean values of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (60.7±27.1 vs. 43.0±27.6 mm/h, p=0.037) and C-reactive protein (16.5±28.2 vs. 6.62±13.4 mg/dL, p=0.014) were significantly different between patients with and without upper gastrointestinal CD symptoms. CONCLUSION: Upper GIT involvement was relatively common in pediatric patients with CD irrespective of upper gastrointestinal symptoms, and H. pylori infection was relatively uncommon. The results of this study should aid the establishment of regional guidelines for upper GIT examination.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein , Child , Cohort Studies , Crohn Disease , Diagnosis , Duodenal Ulcer , Endoscopy , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Gastrointestinal Tract , Granuloma , Helicobacter pylori , Humans , Inflammation , Pediatrics , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Stomach Ulcer , Upper Gastrointestinal Tract
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129003

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Crohn's disease (CD) can involve any site of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). However, the characteristics of upper GIT involvement in CD are unclear, especially in the Eastern pediatric population. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of upper GIT involvement and identify the clinical features of Korean children with CD. METHODS: This was a retrospective multicenter cohort study that included 52 pediatric patients with CD who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy and biopsy. The clinical symptoms and endoscopic and histologic features of the upper GIT were identified according to the presence or absence of upper gastrointestinal symptoms. RESULTS: Among the 52 patients, upper GIT involvement was noted in 50.0% (26/52). The mean age at CD diagnosis was 14.1±2.1 years. Gastric ulcer was the most common lesion (19.2%) found on upper GIT endoscopy, followed by duodenal ulcers (15.4%). Chronic inflammation was the most common histopathologic feature (75.0%), followed by gastric erosion (17.3%). Granuloma was found in 9.6% of patients. Helicobacter pylori infection was identified in 5.8% of patients. Endoscopic and histologic findings were not significantly different, but the mean values of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (60.7±27.1 vs. 43.0±27.6 mm/h, p=0.037) and C-reactive protein (16.5±28.2 vs. 6.62±13.4 mg/dL, p=0.014) were significantly different between patients with and without upper gastrointestinal CD symptoms. CONCLUSION: Upper GIT involvement was relatively common in pediatric patients with CD irrespective of upper gastrointestinal symptoms, and H. pylori infection was relatively uncommon. The results of this study should aid the establishment of regional guidelines for upper GIT examination.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein , Child , Cohort Studies , Crohn Disease , Diagnosis , Duodenal Ulcer , Endoscopy , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Gastrointestinal Tract , Granuloma , Helicobacter pylori , Humans , Inflammation , Pediatrics , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Stomach Ulcer , Upper Gastrointestinal Tract
15.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 542-549, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-227797

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In Kawasaki disease (KD), high dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) significantly lowers the coronary complications. However, some patients either do not respond to initial therapy or develop coronary complications. We aimed to identify the predictive factors for unresponsiveness to initial IVIG therapy and coronary artery dilatation (CAD; defined by Z-score≥2.5) in the acute phase and convalescent phase. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of 703 patients with KD, admitted to Gachon University Gil Medical Center between January 2005 and June 2013. The patients were divided into two groups-IVIG responders vs. non-responders-based on the IVIG treatments, and presence of fever after treatment. Further, these groups were divided into two subgroups based on their CAD. RESULTS: Among the 703 patients with KD, the rate of non-responders to initial IVIG was 16.8%. Serum total bilirubin, platelet count, and neutrophil proportion were independent predictive parameters of unresponsiveness (p<0.05). CAD was found in 234 patients (33.3%) in the acute phase, and in 32 patients (4.6%) in the convalescent phase. Male gender, fever duration, serum C-reactive protein, and white blood cell count were related to CAD (p<0.05). CAD was detected more frequently in non-responders than in the responders (47.5% vs. 31.5%, p=0.001). Kobayashi, Egami, and Sano scoring systems applied to our study population reflected low sensitivities (28.0-33.9%). CONCLUSION: Several independent parameters were related to unresponsiveness to the initial IVIG or CAD. These parameters might be helpful in establishing more focused and careful monitoring of high-risk KD patients in Korea.


Subject(s)
Bilirubin , C-Reactive Protein , Child , Coronary Vessels , Dilatation , Fever , Humans , Immunoglobulins , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Korea , Leukocyte Count , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Neutrophils , Platelet Count , Retrospective Studies
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30895

ABSTRACT

Neuroblastoma, one of the most common solid tumors in early childhood, exhibits aberrant cell-surface glycosylation patterns. In neuroblastoma, disialoganglioside (GD2) is expressed homogeneously and abundantly on 100% of neuroblastoma cells. GD2 is a good tumor marker for developing an anti-tumor-monoclonal antibody (mAb) to neuroblastoma. Immunotherapy, using anti-GD2-mAb, has been tried since last 20 years to improve the prognosis of high risk neuroblastoma patients who show a 5-year survival rate of less than 30% regardless of an intense multimodal therapy. Since the first clinical trial of murine anti-GD2-mAb 3F8 had been performed, multiple clinical studies showed that anti-GD2-mAb might improve the prognosis of high risk neuroblastoma patients. Anti-GD2-mAb removes the neuroblastoma cells via apoptosis by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity. To elicit a stronger ADCC response to antibody therapy, cytokines such as, GM-CSF and interleukin-2 are concomitantly administered, which stimulate the natural anti-tumor activity of the immune system. Children's Oncology Group performed a study of chimeric anti-GD2-mAb (ch14.18) administration with GM-CSF, IL-2 for high risk neuroblastoma patients and showed the improvement of overall survival rate. Based on this study US FDA approved the chimeric anti-GD2-mAb (commercially manufactured dinutuximab) for the treatment of high risk neuroblastoma. Dinutuximab is the the first mAb for use in combination of cytokines for the maintenance treatment of pediatric patients with high risk neuroblastoma who achieve at least a partial response to intensified multimodal therapy. The first anti-tumor-mAb used for children, dinutuximab, could be the base of further development of mAb against the cancers in childhood.


Subject(s)
Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , Apoptosis , Child , Cytokines , Glycosylation , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Humans , Immune System , Immunotherapy , Interleukin-2 , Interleukins , Neuroblastoma , Prognosis , Survival Rate
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788591

ABSTRACT

Neuroblastoma, one of the most common solid tumors in early childhood, exhibits aberrant cell-surface glycosylation patterns. In neuroblastoma, disialoganglioside (GD2) is expressed homogeneously and abundantly on 100% of neuroblastoma cells. GD2 is a good tumor marker for developing an anti-tumor-monoclonal antibody (mAb) to neuroblastoma. Immunotherapy, using anti-GD2-mAb, has been tried since last 20 years to improve the prognosis of high risk neuroblastoma patients who show a 5-year survival rate of less than 30% regardless of an intense multimodal therapy. Since the first clinical trial of murine anti-GD2-mAb 3F8 had been performed, multiple clinical studies showed that anti-GD2-mAb might improve the prognosis of high risk neuroblastoma patients. Anti-GD2-mAb removes the neuroblastoma cells via apoptosis by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity. To elicit a stronger ADCC response to antibody therapy, cytokines such as, GM-CSF and interleukin-2 are concomitantly administered, which stimulate the natural anti-tumor activity of the immune system. Children's Oncology Group performed a study of chimeric anti-GD2-mAb (ch14.18) administration with GM-CSF, IL-2 for high risk neuroblastoma patients and showed the improvement of overall survival rate. Based on this study US FDA approved the chimeric anti-GD2-mAb (commercially manufactured dinutuximab) for the treatment of high risk neuroblastoma. Dinutuximab is the the first mAb for use in combination of cytokines for the maintenance treatment of pediatric patients with high risk neuroblastoma who achieve at least a partial response to intensified multimodal therapy. The first anti-tumor-mAb used for children, dinutuximab, could be the base of further development of mAb against the cancers in childhood.


Subject(s)
Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , Apoptosis , Child , Cytokines , Glycosylation , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Humans , Immune System , Immunotherapy , Interleukin-2 , Interleukins , Neuroblastoma , Prognosis , Survival Rate
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788569

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prolongation of prothrombin time (PT)/activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) in vitro occurs from various causes and lupus anticoagulant (LA) is one of them. This study was performed to investigate the association between prolonged PT/aPTT and LA in children.METHODS: This study included 66 subjects, who showed prolonged PT/aPTT on routine examination and screening test prior to an invasive procedure. LA was investigated in subjects with only PT prolongation, only aPTT prolongation, and PT/aPTT prolongation. The aPTT prolongation subjects were subdivided into more prolonged (≥60 sec) and less prolonged (39.6≤aPTT<60 sec). In addition, the sensitivity and specificity of LA in PT or aPTT prolongation was evaluated by ROC (receiver operating characteristics) curve.RESULTS: The frequency of LA positivity was 60.6% in PT or aPTT prolongation subjects. The frequency and titer of LA were higher in the order of prolonged PT group, prolonged aPTT group, and prolonged PT/aPTT (P<0.01). The frequency and titer of LA were higher in more prolonged aPTT group than less prolonged group (P<0.01). The accuracy of sensitivity and specificity of LA in cases with PT prolongation was low (area under the ROC curve was 0.68), however, was high (0.89) in cases with aPTT prolongation. The sensitivity and specificity of LA in predicting aPTT prolongation time of more than 42.9 sec were 0.83 and 1.00, respectively.CONCLUSION: PT was less affected than aPTT by LA and aPTT prolongation could more accurately predict LA existence. A large portion of PT or aPTT prolongation found in children without obvious past or family history of bleeding, especially accompanying infectious disease, might be associated with LA.


Subject(s)
Child , Communicable Diseases , Hemorrhage , Humans , Lupus Coagulation Inhibitor , Mass Screening , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Prothrombin Time , Prothrombin , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788563

ABSTRACT

Malignant glomus tumor is an exceedingly rare neoplasm occurring in the soft tissues. Controversy exists over whether malignant glomus tumor is a true malignancy due to the rarity of metastasis, however, this neoplasm has been known to show relatively frequent metastasis and poor outcome. To improve the outcome of systemic therapy for malignant glomus tumor might be necessary, but the appropriate chemotherapy or radiotherapy has yet to be elucidated. We report a case of malignant glomus tumor with multiple pulmonary metastases treated with total surgical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy including doxorubicin and ifosfamide; however 7 months after completion of chemotherapy primary lung nodules increased. This case suggests that these chemotherapeutic agents are not effective for the management of malignant glomus tumor with metastasis.


Subject(s)
Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Doxorubicin , Drug Therapy , Female , Glomus Tumor , Humans , Ifosfamide , Lung , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiotherapy , Shoulder
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-98138

ABSTRACT

Lynch syndrome is the most common inherited colon cancer syndrome. Patients with Lynch syndrome develop a range of cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC) and carry a mutation on one of the mismatched repair (MMR) genes. Although CRC usually occurs after the fourth decade in patients with Lynch syndrome harboring a heterozygous MMR gene mutation, it can occur in children with Lynch syndrome who have a compound heterozygous or homozygous MMR gene mutation. We report a case of CRC in a 13-year-old patient with Lynch syndrome and congenital heart disease. This patient had a heterozygous mutation in MLH1 (an MMR gene), but no compound MMR gene defects, and a K-RAS somatic mutation in the cancer cells.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis , Female , Heart Defects, Congenital , Humans
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