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1.
Journal of Lipid and Atherosclerosis ; : 147-160, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938097

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Data pertaining to the prognostic value of the combination of high neutrophilto-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and anemia on admission in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical value of baseline NLR in combination with anemia in predicting clinical outcomes after STEMI. @*Methods@#A total of 5,194 consecutive patients with STEMI within 12 hours of symptom onset from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institute of Health database between 2011 and 2015 were categorized into 4 groups according to their NLR and hemoglobin levels: low NLR (<4) without anemia (n=2,722; reference group); high NLR (≥4) without anemia (n=1,527); low NLR with anemia (n=508); and high NLR with anemia (n=437). The co-primary outcomes were 180-day and 3-year all-cause mortality. @*Results@#Mortality rates significantly increased at the 3-year follow-up across the groups (3.3% vs. 5.4% vs. 16.5% vs. 21.7% for 180-day mortality and 5.3% vs. 9.0% vs. 23.8% vs. 33.4% for 3-year mortality; all p-trends <0.001). After adjusting for baseline covariates, the combination of high NLR and anemia was a significant predictor of 180-day mortality after STEMI with low NLR and no anemia as the reference (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.58–2.95; p<0.001). Similar findings were observed for the 3-year mortality. @*Conclusions@#This nationwide prospective cohort study showed that the combination of high NLR (≥4) and anemia is a strong predictor of all-cause mortality after STEMI.

2.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 350-365, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926997

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#While switching strategies of P2Y12 receptor inhibitors (RIs) have sometimes been used in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients, the current status of in-hospital P2Y12RI switching remains unknown. @*Methods@#Overall, 8,476 AMI patients who underwent successful revascularization from Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institute of Health (KAMIR-NIH) were divided according to in-hospital P2Y12RI strategies, and net adverse cardiovascular events (NACEs), defined as a composite of cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, or thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) major bleeding during hospitalization were compared. @*Results@#Patients with in-hospital P2Y12RI switching accounted for 16.5%, of which 867 patients were switched from clopidogrel to potent P2Y12RI (C-P) and 532 patients from potent P2Y12RI to clopidogrel (P-C). There were no differences in NACEs among the unchanged clopidogrel, the unchanged potent P2Y12RIs, and the P2Y12RI switching groups. However, compared to the unchanged clopidogrel group, the C-P group had a higher incidence of non-fatal MI, and the P-C group had a higher incidence of TIMI major bleeding. In clinical events of in-hospital P2Y12RI switching, 90.9% of non-fatal MI occurred during pre-switching clopidogrel administration, 60.7% of TIMI major bleeding was related to pre-switching P2Y12RIs, and 71.4% of TIMI major bleeding was related to potent P2Y12RIs. Only 21.6% of the P2Y12RI switching group switched to P2Y12RIs after a loading dose (LD); however, there were no differences in clinical events between patients with and without LD. @*Conclusions@#In-hospital P2Y12RI switching occurred occasionally, but had relatively similar clinical outcomes compared to unchanged P2Y12RIs in Korean AMI patients. Non-fatal MI and bleeding appeared to be mainly related to pre-switching P2Y12RIs.

3.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 330-342, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811367

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is insufficient evidence regarding the optimal treatment for asymptomatic carotid stenosis.METHODS: Bayesian cross-design and network meta-analyses were performed to compare the safety and efficacy among carotid artery stenting (CAS), carotid endarterectomy (CEA), and medical treatment (MT). We identified 18 studies (4 randomized controlled trials [RCTs] and 14 nonrandomized, comparative studies [NRCSs]) comparing CAS with CEA, and 4 RCTs comparing CEA with MT from MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases.RESULTS: The risk for periprocedural stroke tended to increase in CAS, compared to CEA (odds ratio [OR], 1.86; 95% credible interval [CrI], 0.62–4.54). However, estimates for periprocedural myocardial infarction (MI) were quite heterogeneous in RCTs and NRCSs. Despite a trend of decreased risk with CAS in RCTs (OR, 0.70; 95% CrI, 0.27–1.24), the risk was similar in NRCSs (OR, 1.02; 95% CrI, 0.87–1.18). In indirect comparisons of MT and CAS, MT showed a tendency to have a higher risk for the composite of periprocedural death, stroke, MI, or nonperiprocedural ipsilateral stroke (OR, 1.30; 95% CrI, 0.74–2.73). Analyses of study characteristics showed that CEA-versus-MT studies took place about 10-year earlier than CEA-versus-CAS studies.CONCLUSIONS: A similar risk for periprocedural MI between CEA and CAS in NRCSs suggested that concerns about periprocedural MI accompanied by CEA might not matter in real-world practice when preoperative evaluation and management are working. Maybe the benefits of CAS over MT have been overestimated considering advances in medical therapy within10-year gap between CEA-versus-MT and CEA-versus-CAS studies.


Subject(s)
Carotid Arteries , Carotid Stenosis , Endarterectomy, Carotid , Myocardial Infarction , Stents , Stroke
4.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 220-233, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811357

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although complete revascularization is known superior to incomplete revascularization in ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients with multi-vessel coronary artery disease (MVCD), there are no definite instructions on the optimal timing of non-culprit lesions percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We compared 1-year clinical outcomes between 2 different complete multi-vessel revascularization strategies.METHODS: From the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institute of Health, 606 patients with STEMI and MVCD who underwent complete revascularization were enrolled from November 2011 to December 2015. The patients were assigned to multi-vessel single-staged PCI (SS PCI) group (n=254) or multi-vessel multi-staged PCI (MS PCI) group (n=352). Propensity score matched 1-year clinical outcomes were compared between the groups.RESULTS: At one year, MS PCI showed a significantly lower rate of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.42; 95% confidential interval [CI], 0.19–0.92; p=0.030) compared with SS PCI. In subgroup analysis, all-cause mortality increased in SS PCI with cardiogenic shock (HR, 4.60; 95% CI, 1.54–13.77; p=0.006), age ≥65 years (HR, 4.00; 95% CI, 1.67–9.58, p=0.002), Killip class III/IV (HR, 7.32; 95% CI, 1.68–31.87; p=0.008), and creatinine clearance ≤60 mL/min (HR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.10–7.18; p=0.031). After propensity score-matching, MS PCI showed a significantly lower risk of major adverse cardiovascular event than SS PCI.CONCLUSIONS: SS PCI was associated with worse clinical outcomes compared with MS PCI. MS PCI for non-infarct-related artery could be a better option for patients with STEMI and MVCD, especially high-risk patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arteries , Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Vessels , Creatinine , Korea , Mortality , Myocardial Infarction , Myocardial Revascularization , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Propensity Score , Shock, Cardiogenic
5.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 220-233, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833038

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES@#Although complete revascularization is known superior to incomplete revascularization in ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients with multi-vessel coronary artery disease (MVCD), there are no definite instructions on the optimal timing of non-culprit lesions percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We compared 1-year clinical outcomes between 2 different complete multi-vessel revascularization strategies.@*METHODS@#From the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institute of Health, 606 patients with STEMI and MVCD who underwent complete revascularization were enrolled from November 2011 to December 2015. The patients were assigned to multi-vessel single-staged PCI (SS PCI) group (n=254) or multi-vessel multi-staged PCI (MS PCI) group (n=352). Propensity score matched 1-year clinical outcomes were compared between the groups.@*RESULTS@#At one year, MS PCI showed a significantly lower rate of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.42; 95% confidential interval [CI], 0.19–0.92; p=0.030) compared with SS PCI. In subgroup analysis, all-cause mortality increased in SS PCI with cardiogenic shock (HR, 4.60; 95% CI, 1.54–13.77; p=0.006), age ≥65 years (HR, 4.00; 95% CI, 1.67–9.58, p=0.002), Killip class III/IV (HR, 7.32; 95% CI, 1.68–31.87; p=0.008), and creatinine clearance ≤60 mL/min (HR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.10–7.18; p=0.031). After propensity score-matching, MS PCI showed a significantly lower risk of major adverse cardiovascular event than SS PCI.@*CONCLUSIONS@#SS PCI was associated with worse clinical outcomes compared with MS PCI. MS PCI for non-infarct-related artery could be a better option for patients with STEMI and MVCD, especially high-risk patients.

6.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 120-129, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832987

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES@#There is a paucity of data regarding the benefit of clopidogrel monotherapy after dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in patients treated with drug-eluting stents (DES). This study compared outcome between clopidogrel versus aspirin as monotherapy after DES for acute myocardial infarction (MI).@*METHODS@#From Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institute of Health database, 1,819 patients treated with DES who were switched to monotherapy with clopidogrel (n=534) or aspirin (n=1,285) after uneventful 12-month DAPT were analyzed. The primary endpoint was net adverse clinical events (NACE), defined as a composite of death from any cause, MI, repeat percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), stent thrombosis, ischemic stroke, or major bleeding during the period from 12 to 24 months.@*RESULTS@#After adjustment using inverse probability of treatment weighting, patients who received clopidogrel, compared with those treated with aspirin, had a similar incidence of NACE (0.7% and 0.7%; hazard ratio, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 0.31–3.60; p=0.923). The 2 groups had similar rates of death from any cause (0.1% in each group, p=0.789), MI (0.3% and 0.1%, respectively; p=0.226), repeat PCI (0.1% and 0.3%, respectively; p=0.548), stent thrombosis (0.1% and 0%, respectively; p=0.121), major bleeding (0.2% in each group, p=0.974), and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (0.5% in each group, p=0.924).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Monotherapy with clopidogrel, compared to aspirin, after DAPT showed similar clinical outcomes in patients with acute MI treated with DES.

7.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 695-705, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832962

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an excessiveaccumulation of fat into the liver as a result of increased inflammation and insulin resistance.Although there can be common pathogenic mechanisms for NAFLD and hypertensionassociated with the development of cardiovascular diseases, little data are showing theassociation between NAFLD and hypertension in a large-scale cohort study. Thus, weevaluated the ability of the fatty liver index (FLI), a surrogate marker of NAFLD, to predict thedevelopment of hypertension in healthy individuals. @*Methods@#We included 334,280 healthy individuals without known comorbidities whounderwent the National Health check-ups in South Korea from 2009 to 2014. Theassociation between the FLI and hypertension was analyzed using multivariate Coxproportional-hazards models. @*Results@#During a median of 5.2 years' follow-up, 24,678 subjects (7.4%) had new-onsethypertension. We categorized total subjects into quartile groups according to FLI (range: Q1,0–4.9; Q2, 5.0–12.5; Q3, 12.6–31.0; and Q4, >31.0). The incidence of hypertension was higherin subjects with the highest FLI than in those with the lowest FLI (Q4, 9,968 [11.9%] vs. Q1,2,277 [2.7%]; p<0.001). There was a significant correlation between the highest FLI and anincreased risk of new-onset hypertension (adjusted hazard ratio between Q4 and Q1, 2.330;95% confidence interval, 2.218–2.448; p<0.001). FLI was significantly associated with anincreased risk of new-onset hypertension regardless of baseline characteristics. @*Conclusions@#Higher FLI was independently associated with increased risk of hypertension ina healthy Korean population.

8.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 330-342, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832949

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES@#There is insufficient evidence regarding the optimal treatment for asymptomatic carotid stenosis.@*METHODS@#Bayesian cross-design and network meta-analyses were performed to compare the safety and efficacy among carotid artery stenting (CAS), carotid endarterectomy (CEA), and medical treatment (MT). We identified 18 studies (4 randomized controlled trials [RCTs] and 14 nonrandomized, comparative studies [NRCSs]) comparing CAS with CEA, and 4 RCTs comparing CEA with MT from MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases.@*RESULTS@#The risk for periprocedural stroke tended to increase in CAS, compared to CEA (odds ratio [OR], 1.86; 95% credible interval [CrI], 0.62–4.54). However, estimates for periprocedural myocardial infarction (MI) were quite heterogeneous in RCTs and NRCSs. Despite a trend of decreased risk with CAS in RCTs (OR, 0.70; 95% CrI, 0.27–1.24), the risk was similar in NRCSs (OR, 1.02; 95% CrI, 0.87–1.18). In indirect comparisons of MT and CAS, MT showed a tendency to have a higher risk for the composite of periprocedural death, stroke, MI, or nonperiprocedural ipsilateral stroke (OR, 1.30; 95% CrI, 0.74–2.73). Analyses of study characteristics showed that CEA-versus-MT studies took place about 10-year earlier than CEA-versus-CAS studies.@*CONCLUSIONS@#A similar risk for periprocedural MI between CEA and CAS in NRCSs suggested that concerns about periprocedural MI accompanied by CEA might not matter in real-world practice when preoperative evaluation and management are working. Maybe the benefits of CAS over MT have been overestimated considering advances in medical therapy within10-year gap between CEA-versus-MT and CEA-versus-CAS studies.

9.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 351-359, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831835

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL) are catecholamine-producing tumors that can cause blood pressure (BP) elevation and cardiovascular complications. Clinical presentation of these tumors may be changed through widespread use of imaging studies, which enables detection of PPGLs before onset of symptoms. We investigated clinical profiles of patients with surgically resected PPGLs. @*Methods@#From 2005 to 2017, 111 consecutive patients with surgically resected PPGLs in two tertiary hospitals in Korea were studied. @*Results@#Mean age was 52 ± 16 years, 57 patients (51.4%) were male and 54 (48.6%) were hypertensive. Twenty-nine PPGLs (26.1%) were extra-adrenal paragangliomas. Sixteen (14.4%) and seven patients (6.3%) (Group 1, n = 23) were diagnosed during work-up of hypertension and transient cardiomyopathy respectively, and the remainder (Group 2, n = 88) were incidentalomas detected during routine abdominal imaging. Patients in the Group 1 were younger and more frequently symptomatic, and had higher BPs, heart rates and levels of urinary catecholamines than those in the Group 2. Paragangliomas were less frequent and secretion of epinephrine and metanephrine was more predominant in the Group 1 than in Group 2. After the surgical resections, 18.2% of patients still needed antihypertensive medications. @*Conclusions@#Out of 111 patients with surgically resected PPGLs, 88 (79.3%) were diagnosed as incidentalomas. Seven patients presented with transient cardiomyopathy and 16 with hypertension. Tumor location and secretion of catecholamine may vary depending on the presence of symptoms.

10.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 119-132, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831758

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Minimising total ischemic time (TIT) is important for improving clinical outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). TIT has not shown a significant improvement due to persistent pre-hospital delay. This study aimed to investigate the risk factors associated with pre-hospital delay. @*Methods@#Individuals enrolled in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institutes of Health between 2011 and 2015 were included in this study. The study population was analyzed according to the symptom-to-door time (STDT; within 60 or > 60 minutes), and according to the type of hospital visit (emergency medical services [EMS], non-PCI center, or PCI center). @*Results@#A total of 4,874 patients were included in the analysis, of whom 28.4% arrived at the hospital within 60 minutes of symptom-onset. Old age (> 65 years), female gender, and renewed ischemia were independent predictors of delayed STDT. Utilising EMS was the only factor shown to reduce STDT within 60 minutes, even when cardiogenic shock was evident. The overall frequency of EMS utilisation was low (21.7%). Female gender was associated with not utilising EMS, whereas cardiogenic shock, previous myocardial infarction, familial history of ischemic heart disease, and off-hour visits were associated with utilising EMS. @*Conclusions@#Factors associated with delayed STDT and not utilising EMS could be targets for preventive intervention to improve STDT and TIT.

11.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 120-129, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786227

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is a paucity of data regarding the benefit of clopidogrel monotherapy after dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in patients treated with drug-eluting stents (DES). This study compared outcome between clopidogrel versus aspirin as monotherapy after DES for acute myocardial infarction (MI).METHODS: From Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institute of Health database, 1,819 patients treated with DES who were switched to monotherapy with clopidogrel (n=534) or aspirin (n=1,285) after uneventful 12-month DAPT were analyzed. The primary endpoint was net adverse clinical events (NACE), defined as a composite of death from any cause, MI, repeat percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), stent thrombosis, ischemic stroke, or major bleeding during the period from 12 to 24 months.RESULTS: After adjustment using inverse probability of treatment weighting, patients who received clopidogrel, compared with those treated with aspirin, had a similar incidence of NACE (0.7% and 0.7%; hazard ratio, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 0.31–3.60; p=0.923). The 2 groups had similar rates of death from any cause (0.1% in each group, p=0.789), MI (0.3% and 0.1%, respectively; p=0.226), repeat PCI (0.1% and 0.3%, respectively; p=0.548), stent thrombosis (0.1% and 0%, respectively; p=0.121), major bleeding (0.2% in each group, p=0.974), and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (0.5% in each group, p=0.924).CONCLUSIONS: Monotherapy with clopidogrel, compared to aspirin, after DAPT showed similar clinical outcomes in patients with acute MI treated with DES.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aspirin , Drug-Eluting Stents , Hemorrhage , Incidence , Korea , Myocardial Infarction , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Stents , Stroke , Thrombosis
12.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 160-169, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738769

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Aortic valve replacement (AVR) is the treatment of choice in severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS) patients. However, a substantial number of elderly patients refuse AVR and treated medically. We investigated their long-term prognosis. METHODS: From January 2005 to December 2016, we analyzed elderly patients with severe symptomatic AS who refused to have AVR. RESULTS: After screening of total 534 patients, we analyzed total 180 severe symptomatic AS patients (78±7 years old, 96 males). Hypertension was the most common cardiovascular risk factor (72%) and the most common symptom was dyspnea (66%). Calculated aortic stenosis area was 0.73±0.20 cm2 and mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 57.8±12.2%. Total 102 patients died during follow-up period (39.1±31.0 months). One-, 3-, and 5-year all-cause mortality rate was 21.1±3.0%, 43.1±3.8%, and 56.5±4.2%, respectively. Of them, 87 died from cardiac causes, and 1-, 3-, and 5-year cardiac mortality rate was 18.0±2.9%, 38.2±3.8%, and 50.7±4.3%, respectively. Their all-cause mortality and cardiac mortality were significantly higher than those of controls. Univariate analysis showed that age, anemia, LVEF, and Log N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were significant parameters in all-cause mortality (p < 0.001, p=0.001, p=0.039, and p=0.047, respectively) and in cardiac mortality (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p=0.046, and p=0.026, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that age and anemia were significant prognostic factors for cardiac and all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In elderly severe symptomatic AS patients who treated medically, their 1-, 3- and 5-year all-cause mortality rate was 21.1±3.0%, 43.1±3.8%, and 56.5±4.2%, respectively. Age and anemia were significant prognostic factors for cardiac and all-cause mortality.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Anemia , Aortic Valve Stenosis , Aortic Valve , Drug Therapy , Dyspnea , Follow-Up Studies , Hypertension , Mass Screening , Mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Stroke Volume
13.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 829-837, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917356

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES@#Left ventricular (LV) apical thrombi are usually present with LV dilatation, and oral anticoagulants reduce embolic risk in these patients. However, echocardiographic data regarding thrombus resolution remain limited. We studied its echocardiographic features that were associated with early resolution (within 1 month).@*METHODS@#We performed a retrospective observational study by reviewing baseline and follow-up echocardiographic images and medical records in patients with LV apical thrombi.@*RESULTS@#Between January 2005 and December 2017, 77 patients (59 males, mean 61±12 years old) were enrolled. Patients were classified into 2 groups based on duration of thrombus resolution: group 1 showing resolution within 1 month (n=23) and group 2 with persistence after 1 month (n=54). Thrombus size was significantly smaller in group 1 (10.7±4.2 vs. 12.1±5.5 mm, p=0.046). Grade 1 mobility (partially mobile; odds ratio [OR], 7.800; p=0.012) and grade 2 mobility (highly mobile; OR, 14.625; p=0.002) were significantly associated with the early resolution. Round thrombi were associated with early resolution than mural form (OR, 3.187; p=0.026). Multivariate analysis showed that the mobility was the most important parameter, and a highly mobile (grade 2 mobility) LV apical thrombi showed earlier resolution (OR, 12.525; p=0.013). During the follow-up over 62±44 months, 25 patients (32.5%) had ≥1 adverse clinical events. The late resolution of thrombi was associated with poor long-term clinical outcomes (hazard ratio, 5.727; p=0.020).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Mobility of LV apical thrombi was the most important parameter associated with early thrombus resolution. Late resolution of LV apical thrombi was associated with poor long-term clinical outcomes.

14.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 160-169, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917267

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES@#Aortic valve replacement (AVR) is the treatment of choice in severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS) patients. However, a substantial number of elderly patients refuse AVR and treated medically. We investigated their long-term prognosis.@*METHODS@#From January 2005 to December 2016, we analyzed elderly patients with severe symptomatic AS who refused to have AVR.@*RESULTS@#After screening of total 534 patients, we analyzed total 180 severe symptomatic AS patients (78±7 years old, 96 males). Hypertension was the most common cardiovascular risk factor (72%) and the most common symptom was dyspnea (66%). Calculated aortic stenosis area was 0.73±0.20 cm2 and mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 57.8±12.2%. Total 102 patients died during follow-up period (39.1±31.0 months). One-, 3-, and 5-year all-cause mortality rate was 21.1±3.0%, 43.1±3.8%, and 56.5±4.2%, respectively. Of them, 87 died from cardiac causes, and 1-, 3-, and 5-year cardiac mortality rate was 18.0±2.9%, 38.2±3.8%, and 50.7±4.3%, respectively. Their all-cause mortality and cardiac mortality were significantly higher than those of controls. Univariate analysis showed that age, anemia, LVEF, and Log N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were significant parameters in all-cause mortality (p < 0.001, p=0.001, p=0.039, and p=0.047, respectively) and in cardiac mortality (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p=0.046, and p=0.026, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that age and anemia were significant prognostic factors for cardiac and all-cause mortality.@*CONCLUSIONS@#In elderly severe symptomatic AS patients who treated medically, their 1-, 3- and 5-year all-cause mortality rate was 21.1±3.0%, 43.1±3.8%, and 56.5±4.2%, respectively. Age and anemia were significant prognostic factors for cardiac and all-cause mortality.

15.
Journal of Lipid and Atherosclerosis ; : 208-220, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765664

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Data on the intensity of statin therapy for patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) and very low baseline low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level are lacking. We sought to assess the impact of statin intensity in patients with acute MI and LDL cholesterol <70 mg/dL. METHODS: A total of 1,086 patients with acute MI and baseline LDL cholesterol <70 mg/dL from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institute of Health database were divided into less intensive statin (expected LDL reduction <40%, n=302) and more intensive statin (expected LDL reduction ≥40%, n=784) groups. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs), a composite of cardiac death, MI, revascularization occurring at least 30 days after admission, and stroke, at 12 months. RESULTS: After 1:2 propensity matching, differences were not observed between less intensive (n=302) and more intensive statin (n=604) groups in incidence of cardiac death (0.3% vs. 0.3%) and hemorrhagic stroke (0.3% vs. 0.5%, p=0.727) at 12 months. Compared with the less intensive statin group, the more intensive statin group showed lower target-vessel revascularization (4.6% vs. 1.8%, p=0.027) and MACCE (11.6% vs. 7.0%, p=0.021). Major bleeding was not different between less intensive and more intensive statin groups (1.0% vs. 2.6%, p=0.118). CONCLUSION: More intensive statin therapy was associated with significantly lower major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with acute MI and very low LDL cholesterol compared with less intensive statin therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cholesterol , Cholesterol, LDL , Death , Hemorrhage , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Incidence , Korea , Lipoproteins , Myocardial Infarction , Stroke
16.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 829-837, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759475

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Left ventricular (LV) apical thrombi are usually present with LV dilatation, and oral anticoagulants reduce embolic risk in these patients. However, echocardiographic data regarding thrombus resolution remain limited. We studied its echocardiographic features that were associated with early resolution (within 1 month). METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational study by reviewing baseline and follow-up echocardiographic images and medical records in patients with LV apical thrombi. RESULTS: Between January 2005 and December 2017, 77 patients (59 males, mean 61±12 years old) were enrolled. Patients were classified into 2 groups based on duration of thrombus resolution: group 1 showing resolution within 1 month (n=23) and group 2 with persistence after 1 month (n=54). Thrombus size was significantly smaller in group 1 (10.7±4.2 vs. 12.1±5.5 mm, p=0.046). Grade 1 mobility (partially mobile; odds ratio [OR], 7.800; p=0.012) and grade 2 mobility (highly mobile; OR, 14.625; p=0.002) were significantly associated with the early resolution. Round thrombi were associated with early resolution than mural form (OR, 3.187; p=0.026). Multivariate analysis showed that the mobility was the most important parameter, and a highly mobile (grade 2 mobility) LV apical thrombi showed earlier resolution (OR, 12.525; p=0.013). During the follow-up over 62±44 months, 25 patients (32.5%) had ≥1 adverse clinical events. The late resolution of thrombi was associated with poor long-term clinical outcomes (hazard ratio, 5.727; p=0.020). CONCLUSIONS: Mobility of LV apical thrombi was the most important parameter associated with early thrombus resolution. Late resolution of LV apical thrombi was associated with poor long-term clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Anticoagulants , Dilatation , Echocardiography , Embolism , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Ventricles , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Observational Study , Odds Ratio , Retrospective Studies , Thrombosis
17.
Journal of Lipid and Atherosclerosis ; : 50-61, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714784

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The complete blood count is the most widely available laboratory data in the early in-hospital period after acute myocardial infarction. We assessed the clinical utility of the combined use of hemoglobin (Hb) level and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (N/L) for early risk stratification in patients with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). METHODS: We analyzed 6,157 consecutive patients with non-STEMI (65±12.4 years, male 69%) were included in the final analysis. Patients were categorized into 3 groups by using the median value of N/L (4.42) and the presence of anemia (Hb <13 mg/dL in men and <12 mg/dL in women): group I, low N/L & no anemia (n=3,170); group II, no group I or III (n=2,168); group III, high N/L & anemia (n=819). RESULTS: There were significant differences on clinical outcomes during 180-day follow-up among 3 groups. The prognostic discriminatory capacity of the combined use of Hb level and N/L was also significant in high-risk subgroups, such as patients with a renal dysfunction, multivessel coronary disease, low ejection fraction, and even in those having higher mortality risk based on the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction risk score. In a multi-variate logistic regression, after adjusting for multiple covariates, group III had higher incidence of major adverse cardiac events at 180-day (hazard ratio, 2.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.5–4.0;p≤0.001) compared with group I. CONCLUSIONS: The combined use of Hb level and N/L provides valuable timely information for early risk stratification in patients with non-STEMI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Anemia , Blood Cell Count , Coronary Disease , Follow-Up Studies , Incidence , Logistic Models , Lymphocytes , Mortality , Myocardial Infarction , Neutrophils , Prognosis
18.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 217-226, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917173

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES@#Neurologic intolerance (NI) is defined as the occurrence of neurological symptoms during carotid artery stenting (CAS). Because NI is inevitable problem, it may be helpful to anticipate its occurrence. So, we studied factors associated with NI during proximal protected CAS.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively analyzed all consecutive patients underwent proximal protected CAS from August 2012 to January 2017.@*RESULTS@#We included total 123 patients (109 males, 72±8 years old). The total procedure time was 43±12 minutes, and mean occlusion time was 4.8±1.2 minutes. We divided CAS patients into 2 groups according to presence of NI; neurologic tolerance (NT; n=74, 60%) and NI (n=49, 40%) groups. After the univariate analysis, symptomatic carotid artery stenosis (p = 0.003), absence of anterior communicating artery (p = 0.015) and low common carotid artery occlusion pressure (CCAOP, p < 0.001) were associated with NI. After the multivariate analysis, NI was significantly associated with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis (odds ratio [OR], 5.549; p = 0.014) and systolic CCAOP≤42 mmHg (OR, 6.461; p < 0.001). In NI group, 43 patients (88%) recovered right after the balloon deflation and 2 patients were normalized within 2 hours. However, 1 had major stroke and 3 had minor strokes in 4 patients with persistent NI ≥24 hours.@*CONCLUSIONS@#About 40% showed NI during the CAS. Most of them (88%, 43 of 49 patients) recovered after the balloon deflation, but stroke incidence was significantly higher in NI group. Symptomatic carotid artery stenosis and systolic CCAOP ≤42 mmHg were significantly associated with the development of NI during proximal protected CAS.

19.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 217-226, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738688

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Neurologic intolerance (NI) is defined as the occurrence of neurological symptoms during carotid artery stenting (CAS). Because NI is inevitable problem, it may be helpful to anticipate its occurrence. So, we studied factors associated with NI during proximal protected CAS. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed all consecutive patients underwent proximal protected CAS from August 2012 to January 2017. RESULTS: We included total 123 patients (109 males, 72±8 years old). The total procedure time was 43±12 minutes, and mean occlusion time was 4.8±1.2 minutes. We divided CAS patients into 2 groups according to presence of NI; neurologic tolerance (NT; n=74, 60%) and NI (n=49, 40%) groups. After the univariate analysis, symptomatic carotid artery stenosis (p = 0.003), absence of anterior communicating artery (p = 0.015) and low common carotid artery occlusion pressure (CCAOP, p < 0.001) were associated with NI. After the multivariate analysis, NI was significantly associated with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis (odds ratio [OR], 5.549; p = 0.014) and systolic CCAOP≤42 mmHg (OR, 6.461; p < 0.001). In NI group, 43 patients (88%) recovered right after the balloon deflation and 2 patients were normalized within 2 hours. However, 1 had major stroke and 3 had minor strokes in 4 patients with persistent NI ≥24 hours. CONCLUSIONS: About 40% showed NI during the CAS. Most of them (88%, 43 of 49 patients) recovered after the balloon deflation, but stroke incidence was significantly higher in NI group. Symptomatic carotid artery stenosis and systolic CCAOP ≤42 mmHg were significantly associated with the development of NI during proximal protected CAS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Arteries , Carotid Arteries , Carotid Artery, Common , Carotid Stenosis , Embolic Protection Devices , Incidence , Multivariate Analysis , Neurologic Manifestations , Retrospective Studies , Stents , Stroke
20.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 978-980, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-123309

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Aorta, Thoracic , Thrombosis
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