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Rev. bras. entomol ; 63(2): 183-194, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045556


Abstract Antispastis Meyrick, 1926 is a poorly known genus of leaf-mining micromoths endemic to the Neotropics, with still uncertain taxonomic position within the Yponomeutoidea. In the present study, the egg, larva and pupa of A. clarkei Pastrana, previously known only from Argentina, are described and illustrated with the aid of optical and scanning electron microscopy. Data on life history, including histology of the mine, are also provided. Family placement of the genus is reassessed based on comparison of morphology and DNA sequences with closely related lineages. The larvae form blotch mines on the upper surface of Solanum L. (Solanaceae) leaves, feeding on palisade parenchyma in all instars. Pupation occurs outside the mine, in an inverted basket-like, large-meshed cocoon constructed on the plant surface. DNA analysis of Cytochrome oxidase I gene of A. clarkei revealed interspecific differences averaging 10% with A. xylophragma, which provided species separation matching morphological differences. Antispastis was closely related phylogenetically to Digitivalva, clustering in the Acrolepiinae together with the genera Acrolepia and Acrolepiopsis, and ultimately placed within Glyphipterigidae. The geographical distribution of A. clarkei is expanded to the Southern Atlantic forest (Rio Grande do Sul and Paraná states, Brazil).

Rev. biol. trop ; 61(4): 1891-1900, oct.-dic. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-703935


The joint interpretation of phenology and nutritional metabolism provides important data on plant tissues reactivity and the period of gall induction. A population of Aspidosperma macrocarpon Apocynaceae with leaf galls induced by a Pseudophacopteron sp. Psylloidea was studied in Goiás state, Brazil. Assuming the morphological similarity between host leaves and intralaminar galls, a gradient from non-galled leaves towards galls should be generated, establishing a morpho-physiological continuum. The phenology, infestation of galls, and the carbohydrate and nitrogen contents were monthly evaluated in 10-20 individuals, from September 2009 to September 2010. Our objective was to analyze the nutritional status and the establishment of a physiological continuum between the galls and the non-galled leaves of A. macrocarpon. The period of leaf flushing coincided with the highest levels of nitrogen allocated to the new leaves, and to the lowest levels of carbohydrates. The nutrients were previously consumed by the growing leaves, by the time of gall induction. The levels of carbohydrates were higher in galls than in non-galled leaves in time-based analyses, which indicateed their potential sink functionality. The leaves were infested in October, galls developed along the year, and gall senescence took place from March to September, together with host leaves. This first senescent leaves caused insect mortality. The higher availability of nutrients at the moment of gall induction was demonstrated and seems to be important not only for the establishment of the galling insect but also for the responsiveness of the host plant tissues.

La interpretación conjunta de la fenología y el metabolismo nutricional proporciona datos importantes sobre la reacción de tejidos vegetales y el período de inducción de agallas. En el estado de Goiás, Brasil se estudió una población de Aspidosperma macrocarpon Apocynaceae con agallas foliares inducidas por un Pseudophacopteron sp. Psylloidea. Suponiendo que la similitud morfológica entre las hojas del hospedero y las agallas intralaminares genera un gradiente de hojas sin agallas hacia hojas con agallas, se establece un continuo morfo-fisiológico. La fenología, la infestación de las agallas y el contenido de carbohidratos y nitrógeno se evaluaron mensualmente en 10-20 individuos, de septiembre 2009 a septiembre 2010. El objetivo fue analizar el estado nutricional y el establecimiento de un continuo fisiológico entre las hojas que producen agallas y las hojas sin agallas de A. macrocarpon. El período de emergencia de hojas coincidió con los niveles más altos de nitrógeno en las hojas nuevas, y los niveles más bajos de carbohidratos.Los nutrientes se consumieron previamente por las hojas en crecimiento, en el momento de inducción de las agallas. Los niveles de carbohidratos fueron más altos en las hojas con agallas que en aquellas sin agallas, en análisis basados en tiempo, lo que indica su ciclo de funcionalidad potencial. Las hojas hospederas se infestaron en octubre, el desarrollo y la senescencia de las agallas se llevó a cabo entre marzo y septiembre, en las hojas hospederas. Estas primeras hojas senescentes causaron mortalidad de insectos. Hay mayor disponibilidad de nutrientes en el momento de la inducción de las agallas y parece ser importante no sólo para el establecimiento del insecto que produce agallas, sino también para la capacidad de respuesta de los tejidos de la planta hospedera.

Animals , Apocynaceae/parasitology , Hemiptera/physiology , Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology , Plant Tumors/parasitology , Apocynaceae/chemistry