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Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2016; 29 (5 Supp.): 1787-1794
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-184111


The present study aimed to quantify the total phenolic content in Paeonia emodi rhizome methanol extract and its fractions and then evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of fractions rich in phenolic compounds. Maximum quantity of total phenolic content was observed in butanol [112.08 +/- 5.5 mg GAE/g dw] and chloroform fraction [107.0 +/- 3.5 mg GAE/g dw] followed by methanol extract [94.2 +/- 4.4 mg GAE/g dw], aqueous fraction [92.9 +/- 2.5 mg GAE/g dw], ethyl acetate [62.3 +/- 8.3 mg GAE/g dw] and n-hexane fraction [51.6 +/- 7.2 mg GAE/g dw]. The fractions rich in total phenolic content were evaluated for in vitro antioxidant activity based on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] scavenging assay. The butanol and chloroform fraction showed significantly [P<0.05] higher radical scavenging activity with IC50 values of 6.5 and 7.05 +/- 2.5 ppm respectively. Positive correlation [R square=0.95] was observed between total phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant activity. The fractions rich in phenolic compounds were also evaluated for their hepatoprotective activity in paracetamol intoxicated mice. Five days oral administration of these fractions at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight restored the serum ALT, AST and ALP levels of paracetamol intoxicated mice to normal level. From the results of the present research it was concluded that the butanol and chloroform fractions of P. emodi rhizome methanol extract are rich in phenolic compounds and strong antioxidant and effective in attenuation of hepatotoxicity

JPMI-Journal of Postgraduate Medical Institute. 2014; 28 (3): 292-296
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-196896


Objective: To study the pattern of presentation of patients with renal cell carcinoma

Methodology: This descriptive study was conducted at Institute of Kidney Diseases, Hayatabad Medical Complex Peshawar-Pakistan from January to December 2012. All patients who were diagnosed as renal masses on ultrasound were admitted. Detailed history and physical examination was performed on all patients. Relevant investigations were done on all patients

Results: A total of 65 patients with renal cell carcinoma were included in the study. Patients presented with flank pain [n=30, 46%]; hematuria [n=14, 22%]; flank mass [n=2, 3%]; both hematuria and flank pain [n=3, 5%]; incidental tumors [n=10, 15%]; and with metastasis [n=6, 9%]. The tumors were located on right side in 39 [60%] cases and 26 [40%] on left side with 80% of the tumors involving the upper pole of the kidney. Twenty six patients [40%] were cigarettes smokers. No patient was found to have positive family history of renal cell carcinoma or any other cancer in the close family. Fifty nine patients with renal tumors underwent radical nephrectomy and histopathology was done of every specimen. In six patients of renal tumor with metastasis, needle biopsy was taken. The histopathology of the specimen showed that 61 [94%] were clear cell type and 4 [6%] were papillary cell carcinoma

Conclusion: Renal cell carcinoma presents with a variety of symptoms. It can also present incidentally during investigation for non-specific symptoms. Ultrasonography is encouraged for nonspecific abdominal symptoms to detect renal cell carcinoma at earlier stage

Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013; 26 (5): 949-952
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-138414


The present research investigation was aimed at the evaluation of antioxidant activities of methanolic [70%] extracts of whole plant of Pentanema vestitum and fruits of Pistacia integerrima, Withiana somniferra and Withiana coagulans on scavenging of 2, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] free radical. The rank of order of free antioxidant activity of the selected plants was; P. integerrima > P. vestitum > W. somniferra > W. coagulans as compared to standard Ascorbic acid. P. integerrima showed significantly higher activity at all concentrations as compared to Ascorbic acid at P<0.05. The percent inhibition caused by P. integerrima at lowest concentration [40 ppm] was 68.16 +/- 0.5 and that of Ascorbic acid was 62.00 +/- 0.5. The IC[50] value of P. integerrima was 5.75ppm as compared to ascorbic acid having 15.09 ppm. The percent inhibition at all concentrations caused by P. vestitum was not significantly different from Ascorbic acid at P<0.05. The IC[50] value of P. vestitum was 13.00ppm and that of Ascorbic acid was 15.09 ppm. The percent inhibitions caused by W. somniferra [IC[50]=46.85 ppm] and W. coagulans [IC[50]=84.40 ppm] were most significantly lower than Ascorbic acid at P<0.05. It is inferred from the current study that the methanolic [70%] extracts of the P. integerrima and P. vestitum could be used in preparation of potent antioxidant drugs

Asteraceae/chemistry , Biphenyl Compounds/chemistry , Fruit , Methanol/chemistry , Phytotherapy , Picrates/chemistry , Pistacia/chemistry , Plant Preparations , Plants, Medicinal , Solanaceae/chemistry , Solvents/chemistry