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1.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; : 343-347, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001695

ABSTRACT

Hematuria is a common condition caused by various factors, including infections, inflammations, stone diseases, and anatomical abnormalities. While hematuria can be mistaken for other conditions, its significance should not be overlooked, as studies have shown that some patients with hematuria are diagnosed with urological cancers.Current Concepts: Experts agree on the need for specific diagnostic tests such as cystoscopy, upper urinary tract imaging, and urine cytology for visible hematuria. However, opinions differ when it comes to microscopic hematuria. Delays in diagnosing bladder cancer can significantly impact mortality rates. Therefore, objective diagnostic criteria, as well as guidelines to reduce excessive evaluations, costs, and side effects, are required. As of 2020, the American Urological Association has released new guidelines for the diagnosis and management of microscopic hematuria, that focus on assessing the risk of urological malignancies in individual patients and recommend tailored evaluations based on risk levels. This article provides an overview of these guidelines, discussing diagnostic criteria, initial evaluations, risk stratification, and recommended evaluations of the urinary tract.Discussion and Conclusion: Guidelines on hematuria aim to reduce unnecessary invasive procedures, provide appropriate follow-up strategies to patients with persistent or recurrent microscopic hematuria, and improve patient outcomes while minimizing unnecessary tests and procedures.

2.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 234-244, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913823

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to develop a model for predicting pathologic extracapsular extension (ECE) and seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) while integrating magnetic resonance imaging-based T-staging (cTMRI, cT1c-cT3b). @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 1,915 who underwent radical prostatectomy between 2006-2016 met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. We performed a multivariate logistic regression analysis as well as Bayesian network (BN) modeling based on possible confounding factors. The BN model was internally validated using 5-fold validation. @*Results@#According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, initial prostate-specific antigen (iPSA) (β=0.050, p < 0.001), percentage of positive biopsy cores (PPC) (β=0.033, p < 0.001), both lobe involvement on biopsy (β=0.359, p=0.009), Gleason score (β=0.358, p < 0.001), and cTMRI (β=0.259, p < 0.001) were significant factors for ECE. For SVI, iPSA (β=0.037, p < 0.001), PPC (β=0.024, p < 0.001), Gleason score (β=0.753, p < 0.001), and cTMRI (β=0.507, p < 0.001) showed statistical significance. BN models to predict ECE and SVI were also successfully established. The overall area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC)/accuracy of the BN models were 0.76/73.0% and 0.88/89.6% for ECE and SVI, respectively. According to internal comparison between the BN model and Roach formula, BN model had improved AUC values for predicting ECE (0.76 vs. 0.74, p=0.060) and SVI (0.88 vs. 0.84, p < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#Two models to predict pathologic ECE and SVI integrating cTMRI were established and installed on a separate website for public access to guide radiation oncologists.

3.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 34-42, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926790

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To investigate the correlation between preoperative De Ritis ratio (aspartate transaminase [AST]/alanine transaminase [ALT]) and postoperative clinical outcome in patients with upper urinary tract carcinoma (UTUC) who underwent radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) and adjuvant chemotherapy (ACH). @*Materials and Methods@#We respectively analyzed the clinical and pathological data of 102 patients who underwent RNU and ACH for UTUC. Patients were divided into 2 groups, according to the optimal value of AST/ALT ratio. The effect of the AST/ALT ratio was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression hazard models for patients’ cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS). @*Results@#Mean survival time was 50.5±41.2 months. Mean age was 61.4±9.7years. Forty-one of the patients (46.5%) were in the high AST/ALT group. According to receiver operating characteristic analysis, the optimal AST/ALT ratio was 1.2. In Kaplan-Meier analyses, the high AST/ALT group showed worse outcomes in OS (p=0.007) and CSS (p=0.011). Using Cox regression models of clinical and pathological parameters to predict OS, high AST/ALT ratio (hazard ratio [HR], 5.428; 95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.803–16.334; p=0.002), pathological T3 (pT3) or higher (HR, 1.464; 95% CI; 1.156-1.857; p=0.002), and to predict CSS, high AST/ALT ratio (HR, 4.417; 95% CI; 1.545–12.632; p=0.005), and pT3 or higher (HR, 1.475; 95% CI; 1.172–1.904; p=0.002) were determined as independent prognostic factors. @*Conclusions@#Pretreatment AST/ALT ratio is a significant independent predictor of CSS and OS in advanced UTUC patients receiving systemic ACH after RNU.

4.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 231-238, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903280

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We evaluated clinical outcomes of high-risk prostate cancer patients receiving external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or radical prostatectomy (RP). @*Materials and Methods@#Patients were classified as high-risk prostate cancer and received definitive treatment between 2005 and 2015. Patients with previous pelvic radiotherapy, positive lymph node or distant metastasis were excluded. The primary outcomes were prostate cancer-specific survival (PCSS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS). @*Results@#Of 583 patients met the inclusion criteria (77 EBRT and 506 RP). The estimated 10-year PCSS was 97.0% in the RP and 95.9% in the EBRT (p = 0.770). No significant difference was seen in the DMFS (p = 0.540), whereas there was a trend in favor of RP over EBRT in overall survival (OS) (p = 0.068). Propensity score matching analysis with confounding variables was done, with 183 patients (66 EBRT and 117 RP) were included. No significant difference in DMFS, PCSS or OS was found. @*Conclusion@#Our data demonstrated similar oncologic PCSS, OS, and DMFS outcomes between EBRT and RP patients.

5.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 231-238, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895576

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We evaluated clinical outcomes of high-risk prostate cancer patients receiving external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or radical prostatectomy (RP). @*Materials and Methods@#Patients were classified as high-risk prostate cancer and received definitive treatment between 2005 and 2015. Patients with previous pelvic radiotherapy, positive lymph node or distant metastasis were excluded. The primary outcomes were prostate cancer-specific survival (PCSS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS). @*Results@#Of 583 patients met the inclusion criteria (77 EBRT and 506 RP). The estimated 10-year PCSS was 97.0% in the RP and 95.9% in the EBRT (p = 0.770). No significant difference was seen in the DMFS (p = 0.540), whereas there was a trend in favor of RP over EBRT in overall survival (OS) (p = 0.068). Propensity score matching analysis with confounding variables was done, with 183 patients (66 EBRT and 117 RP) were included. No significant difference in DMFS, PCSS or OS was found. @*Conclusion@#Our data demonstrated similar oncologic PCSS, OS, and DMFS outcomes between EBRT and RP patients.

6.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 215-221, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902518

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the clinical usefulness of the Seoul National University Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator (SNU-PCRC) to reduce unnecessary prostate biopsy and to increase the detection rate of high-risk cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed 546 patients who underwent prostate biopsy between 2014 and 2016. The subjects were divided into 2 groups based on the type of risk calculator used: conventional and SNU-PCRC group. In the SNU-PCRC group, prostate biopsy was recommended when the probability of SNU-PCRC was more than 30%. @*Results@#The SNU-PCRC group had significantly smaller prostate volume (p=0.010) and significantly more digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) abnormalities (p=0.011 and p=0.010, respectively). Overall detection (71.9% vs. 32.1%) and high-risk cancer detection rates (40.6% vs. 19.3%) were significantly higher in the gray zone (prostate-specific antigen=4-10 ng/mL) (p<0.001 and p=0.006). The group with prostate cancer risk ≥30% on the SNU-PCRC compared to <30% group, overall detection rate of 72.3% versus 30.2% and high-risk detection rate of 60.6% versus 18.3% were significantly different (p<0.001 and p<0.001). Applying the SNU-PCRC to the conventional group could avoid unnecessary prostate biopsy in 50.6%. @*Conclusions@#SNU-PCRC is clinically useful to reduce unnecessary prostate biopsy and increase overall detection rate and high-risk cancer detection rate.

7.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 215-221, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894814

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the clinical usefulness of the Seoul National University Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator (SNU-PCRC) to reduce unnecessary prostate biopsy and to increase the detection rate of high-risk cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed 546 patients who underwent prostate biopsy between 2014 and 2016. The subjects were divided into 2 groups based on the type of risk calculator used: conventional and SNU-PCRC group. In the SNU-PCRC group, prostate biopsy was recommended when the probability of SNU-PCRC was more than 30%. @*Results@#The SNU-PCRC group had significantly smaller prostate volume (p=0.010) and significantly more digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) abnormalities (p=0.011 and p=0.010, respectively). Overall detection (71.9% vs. 32.1%) and high-risk cancer detection rates (40.6% vs. 19.3%) were significantly higher in the gray zone (prostate-specific antigen=4-10 ng/mL) (p<0.001 and p=0.006). The group with prostate cancer risk ≥30% on the SNU-PCRC compared to <30% group, overall detection rate of 72.3% versus 30.2% and high-risk detection rate of 60.6% versus 18.3% were significantly different (p<0.001 and p<0.001). Applying the SNU-PCRC to the conventional group could avoid unnecessary prostate biopsy in 50.6%. @*Conclusions@#SNU-PCRC is clinically useful to reduce unnecessary prostate biopsy and increase overall detection rate and high-risk cancer detection rate.

8.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 963-972, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763183

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare oncologic outcomes between open nephroureterectomy (ONU) and laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (LNU) in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical records of consecutive ONU and LNU cases from five tertiary institutions were retrospectively analyzed between 2000 and 2012. The propensity-score matching methodology was used to compare the two surgical approaches in terms of age, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, tumor location, grade, pathologic T and N categories, the presence of lymphovascular invasion, and follow-up duration. The Kaplan-Meier with log-rank tests and clustered Cox regression were used to compare the estimated rates of survival for each surgical approach and to investigate the effect of the surgical approach on each prognostic outcome. RESULTS: Six hundred thirty-eight propensity-score matching pairs (n=1,276) were compared; LNU was significantly better than ONU in all types of survival, including intravesical recurrence-free survival (IVRFS), disease-free survival, overall survival (OS), and cancer-specific survival (CSS) (p < 0.05). The 3-year OS and CSS rates were significantly higher with LNU than with ONU (p < 0.05). Compared with ONU, LNU had significantly better 3-year OS and CSS rates (82.9% and 86.2% vs. 78.3% and 81.8%); there were no differences at 5 years. In subgroup analysis of the early-staged group, advanced-stage group, lymph node–positive group, and lymph node–negative group, the two approaches did not significantly affect prognostic outcomes, except LNU improved the IVRFS in the lymph node–negative or no history of previous bladder cancer group. CONCLUSION: LNU had a significantly better prognostic outcome than ONU after propensity-score matching.


Subject(s)
Humans , Body Mass Index , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Laparoscopy , Medical Records , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
9.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1064-1072, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763173

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The lower incidence of bladder cancer among women has led to a lack of information on female radical cystectomy (RC). This study aimed to analyze the characteristics related with female RC in a cohort from multiple academic institutions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective review of 384 female patients who underwent RC for bladder cancer. Epidemiologic, perioperative variables including urologic referral periodwith consequent pathologic stage distributions were assessed. The changes in surgical techniques over time were illustrated. Also, we evaluated recurrence-free survival (RFS) at 2 and 5 years and overall survival (OS) at 5 years with stage-specific analyses using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: The mean follow-up time was 35 months (interquartile rage [IQR], 9 to 55). The average time to urologic referral with initial symptoms was 5.5 (IQR, 1 to 6) months and over 20% of patients visited clinics after 6 months. In subsequent stage distributions according to referral period, T2 or higher stage distributions were abruptly increased after 1 year. Overall 2-year/5-year RFS rates were 0.72/0.57 and 5-year OS was 0.61. Notable surgical descriptions were as follows: 91% of patients underwent open RC; 80% of patients underwent an ileal conduit; and 83% of patients received anterior exenteration. However, the proportions of robotic surgery, orthotopic neobladder and organ sparing cystectomy have increased recently. CONCLUSION: We identified the general characteristics and changes in pattern of female RC. Our results also suggest that women are susceptible to delays in referral to an urologist and are at greater risk for worse prognosis.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Cohort Studies , Cystectomy , Follow-Up Studies , Incidence , Korea , Methods , Prognosis , Rage , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms , Urinary Diversion
10.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 240-251, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719426

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We compared oncologic outcomes of patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) who underwent open nephroureterectomy (ONU) or laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (LNU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive cases of ONU and LNU between 2000 and 2012 at five participating institutions were included in this retrospective analysis. Clinical characteristics and pathologic outcomes were compared between the two surgical approaches. The influence of the type of surgical approach on intravesical recurrence-free survival (IVRFS), progression-free survival (PFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and differences were assessed with the log-rank test. Predictors of IVRFS, PFS, CSS, and OS were also analyzed with a multivariable Cox regression model. RESULTS: A total of 1,521 patients with UTUC were eligible for the present study (ONU, 906; LNU, 615). The estimated 5-year IVRFS (57.8 vs. 51.0%, p=0.010), CSS (80.4 vs. 76.4%, p=0.032), and OS (75.8 vs. 71.4%, p=0.026) rates were significantly different between the two groups in favor of LNU. Moreover, in patients with locally advanced disease (pT3/pT4), the LNU group showed better 5-year IVRFS (62.9 vs. 54.1%, p=0.038), CSS (64.3 vs. 56.9%, p=0.022), and OS (60.4 vs. 53.1%, p=0.018) rates than the ONU group. Multivariable Cox regression analyses showed that type of surgical approach was independently associated with IVRFS, but was not related to PFS, CSS, and OS. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that LNU provided better oncologic control of IVRFS, CSS, and OS compared with ONU for the management of patients with UTUC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Disease-Free Survival , Laparoscopy , Methods , Retrospective Studies
11.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 75-81, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741473

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We evaluated the prognostic value of the 5-tiered grade group in Korean patients who underwent radical prostatectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1996 and 2016, a number of 2,883 consecutive patients who underwent radical prostatectomy were included for the analysis. The impacts of biopsy and pathologic grade group on predicting biochemical recurrence (BCR) were assessed using multivariate analysis. Median follow-up duration was 49.0 months. RESULTS: Mean age was 66.5 years and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was 11.8 ng/mL. Prostate cancer was locally advanced on magnetic resonance imaging in 13.4%. Biopsy grade group was as follows: 1 (46.8%), 2 (19.8%), 3 (14.2%), 4 (14.1%), and 5 (5.1%). Pathology stage was ≤T2 in 63.6%, T3a in 26.0%, and T3b/T4 in 10.4% patients. Pathologic grade was as follows: 1 (31.3%), 2 (37.9%), 3 (20.2%), 4 (4.7%), and 5 (5.1%). In multivariate analysis using biopsy-related variables, biopsy grade group (1, reference; 2, hazard ratio [HR], 1.771; p=0.001; 3, HR, 2.736; p < 0.001; 4, HR, 2.966; p < 0.001; 5, HR, 3.707; p < 0.001) was associated with BCR-free survival, PSA level and % positive core. In multivariate analysis using pathologic outcomes, pathologic grade group (1, reference; 2, HR, 1.882; p < 0.001; 3, HR, 3.352; p < 0.001; 4, HR, 3.890; p < 0.001; 5, HR: 3.118, p < 0.001) was associated with BCR-free survival in addition to pathologic stage and positive surgical margin. CONCLUSIONS: New 5-tiered grading system could be useful for predicting oncological outcomes in Korean patients although its role for distinguishing outcomes between patients with grade groups 3–5 need to be validated before wide application of this grade system in Korea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biopsy , Follow-Up Studies , Korea , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Grading , Pathology , Prostate , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms , Recurrence
12.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 984-991, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715627

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), statin, and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitor on the development of kidney, prostate, and urothelial cancers by analyzing the Korean National Health Insurance Service–National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC) database. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among a representative sample cohort of 1,025,340 participants in NHIS-NSC database in 2002, we extracted data of 799,850 individuals who visited the hospital more than once, and finally included 321,122 individuals aged 40 and older. Following a 1-year washout period between 2002 and 2003, we analyzed 143,870 (male), 320,861 and 320,613 individuals for evaluating the risk of prostate cancer, kidney cancer and urothelial cancer developments, respectively, during 10-year follow-up periods between 2004 and 2013. The medication group consisted of patients prescribed these drugs more than 60% of the time in 2003. To adjustfor various parameters of the patients, a multivariate Cox regression model was adopted. RESULTS: During 10-year follow-up periods between 2004 and 2013, 9,627 (6.7%), 1,107 (0.4%), and 2,121 (0.7%) patients were diagnosed with prostate cancer, kidney cancer, and urothelial cancer, respectively. Notably, multivariate analyses revealed that NSAIDs significantly increased the risk of prostate cancer (hazard ratio [HR], 1.35). Also, it was found that aspirin (HR, 1.28) and statin (HR, 1.55) elevated the risk of kidney cancer. No drugs were associated with the risk of urothelial cancer. CONCLUSION: In sum, our study provides the valuable information for the impact of aspirin, NSAID, statin, and COX-2 inhibitor on the risk of prostate, kidney, and urothelial cancer development and its survival outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Aspirin , Cohort Studies , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Follow-Up Studies , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Kidney , Kidney Neoplasms , Korea , Multivariate Analysis , National Health Programs , Prostate , Prostatic Neoplasms
13.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 143-151, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-90010

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinicopathologic and oncological outcomes of advanced metastatic testicular cancer in Korean men who underwent retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) following chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of 26 patients with testicular cancer who underwent RPLND after chemotherapy at 2 hospitals in Korea between September 2004 and June 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical and histopathological variables such as stage of the testicular cancer, age of the patients during surgery, size of the retroperitoneal lymph nodes (RPLNs), histopathological results, duration and complications related to the surgery, cancer recurrence, and mortality were analyzed. RESULTS: During testicular surgery, the T stage was pT1, pT2, and pT3 in 50% (n=13), 26.9% (n=7), and 15.3% (n=4) of the patients, respectively. Mixed germ cell tumor was the most common finding, seen in 73.1% (n=19) of patients. The indications for RPLND were residual lymph nodes after chemotherapy, 84.6% (n=22); and disease progression and remission, 7.7% (n=2). Pathological analysis revealed viable tumors in 19.2% of patients (n=5), necrotic/fibrotic tissue in 42.3% (n=11), and teratoma in 34.6% (n=9). Intraoperative and postoperative complications occurred in 23.1% (n=6) and 19.2% of patients (n=5). The median duration of follow-up was 27.5 months (interquartile range, 1.3–108.2 months); 11.5% (n=3) patients had recurrence, and 3.8% (n=1) died of progressive metastatic testicular cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Viable germ cell tumors were present in 19.2% of patients with testicular cancer who underwent RPLND after chemotherapy. This is the first study of its kind in the Korean population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Disease Progression , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Korea , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Mortality , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal , Postoperative Complications , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Teratoma , Testicular Neoplasms
14.
International Neurourology Journal ; : S55-S65, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51916

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: As the elderly population increases, a growing number of patients have lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS)/benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The aim of this study was to develop decision support formulas and nomograms for the prediction of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) and for BOO-related surgical decision-making, and to validate them in patients with LUTS/BPH. METHODS: Patient with LUTS/BPH between October 2004 and May 2014 were enrolled as a development cohort. The available variables included age, International Prostate Symptom Score, free uroflowmetry, postvoid residual volume, total prostate volume, and the results of a pressure-flow study. A causal Bayesian network analysis was used to identify relevant parameters. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, formulas were developed to calculate the probabilities of having BOO and requiring prostatic surgery. Patients between June 2014 and December 2015 were prospectively enrolled for internal validation. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, calibration plots, and decision curve analysis were performed. RESULTS: A total of 1,179 male patients with LUTS/BPH, with a mean age of 66.1 years, were included as a development cohort. Another 253 patients were enrolled as an internal validation cohort. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, 2 and 4 formulas were established to estimate the probabilities of having BOO and requiring prostatic surgery, respectively. Our analysis of the predictive accuracy of the model revealed area under the curve values of 0.82 for BOO and 0.87 for prostatic surgery. The sensitivity and specificity were 53.6% and 87.0% for BOO, and 91.6% and 50.0% for prostatic surgery, respectively. The calibration plot indicated that these prediction models showed a good correspondence. In addition, the decision curve analysis showed a high net benefit across the entire spectrum of probability thresholds. CONCLUSIONS: We established nomograms for the prediction of BOO and BOO-related prostatic surgery in patients with LUTS/BPH. Internal validation of the nomograms demonstrated that they predicted both having BOO and requiring prostatic surgery very well.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Calibration , Cohort Studies , Decision Support Systems, Clinical , Logistic Models , Nomograms , Prospective Studies , Prostate , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Residual Volume , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Tract
15.
International Neurourology Journal ; : S66-S75, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51915

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to externally validate the prediction model we developed for having bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) and requiring prostatic surgery using 2 independent data sets from tertiary referral centers, and also aimed to validate a mobile app for using this model through usability testing. METHODS: Formulas and nomograms predicting whether a subject has BOO and needs prostatic surgery were validated with an external validation cohort from Seoul National University Bundang Hospital and Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center between January 2004 and April 2015. A smartphone-based app was developed, and 8 young urologists were enrolled for usability testing to identify any human factor issues of the app. RESULTS: A total of 642 patients were included in the external validation cohort. No significant differences were found in the baseline characteristics of major parameters between the original (n=1,179) and the external validation cohort, except for the maximal flow rate. Predictions of requiring prostatic surgery in the validation cohort showed a sensitivity of 80.6%, a specificity of 73.2%, a positive predictive value of 49.7%, and a negative predictive value of 92.0%, and area under receiver operating curve of 0.84. The calibration plot indicated that the predictions have good correspondence. The decision curve showed also a high net benefit. Similar evaluation results using the external validation cohort were seen in the predictions of having BOO. Overall results of the usability test demonstrated that the app was user-friendly with no major human factor issues. CONCLUSIONS: External validation of these newly developed a prediction model demonstrated a moderate level of discrimination, adequate calibration, and high net benefit gains for predicting both having BOO and requiring prostatic surgery. Also a smartphone app implementing the prediction model was user-friendly with no major human factor issue.


Subject(s)
Humans , Calibration , Cohort Studies , Dataset , Decision Support Systems, Clinical , Discrimination, Psychological , Mobile Applications , Nomograms , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seoul , Smartphone , Tertiary Care Centers , Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Tract
16.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 621-631, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72533

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the changes of conditional survival (CS) probabilities and to identify the prognostic parameters that significantly affect CS over time post-surgery in upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 330 patients were examined in the final analysis. Primary end point was conditional cancer-specific survival (CSS), overall survival (OS), and intravesical recurrence-free survival (IVRFS) after surgery. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for calculation of CS. Cox regression hazard ratio model was used to determine the predictors of CS. RESULTS: UTUC patients who had already survived 5 years after radical nephroureterectomy had a more favorable CS probability in all given survivorships compared to those with shorter survival times. Patients with unfavorable pathologic features showed a higher increment of 5-year conditional CSS and OS compared to their counterparts. For 5-year conditional CSS, several factors, including high-grade tumor, lymphovascular invasion, and tumor location showed significant association with risk elevation over time. Only age remained as a predictor of 5-year conditional OS with increased risk in all given survivorships. For 5-year IVRFS, no variables remained as significant predictive factors over time after surgery. CONCLUSION: Our study provides valuable information for practical survival estimation and relevant prognostic factors for patients with UTUC after surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell , Effect Modifier, Epidemiologic , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Urinary Tract , Urologic Surgical Procedures
17.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 855-864, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-63340

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To identify the prognostic factors related to tumor recurrence and progression in Korean patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected and analyzed for 2412 NMIBC patients from 15 centers who were initially diagnosed after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) from January 2006 to December 2010. Using univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, the prognostic value of each variable was evaluated for the time to first recurrence and progression. RESULTS: With a median follow-up duration of 37 months, 866 patients (35.9%) experienced recurrence, and 137 (5.7%) experienced progression. Patients with recurrence had a median time to the first recurrence of 10 months. Multivariable analysis conducted in all patients revealed that preoperative positive urine cytology (PUC) was independently associated with worse recurrence-free survival [RFS; hazard ratio (HR) 1.56; p<0.001], and progression-free survival (PFS; HR 1.56; p=0.037). In particular, on multivariable analysis conducted for the high-risk group (T1 tumor/high-grade Ta tumor/carcinoma in situ), preoperative PUC was an independent predictor of worse RFS (HR 1.73; p<0.001) and PFS (HR 1.96; p=0.006). On multivariable analysis in patients with T1 high-grade (T1HG) cancer (n=684), better RFS (HR 0.75; p=0.033) and PFS (HR 0.33; p<0.001) were observed in association with the administration of intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) induction therapy. CONCLUSION: A preoperative PUC result may adversely affect RFS and PFS, particularly in high-risk NMIBC patients. Of particular note, intravesical BCG induction therapy should be administered as an adjunct to TURBT in order to improve RFS and PFS in patients with T1HG cancer.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carcinoma in Situ/mortality , Disease Progression , Disease-Free Survival , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/mortality , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Risk , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/mortality
18.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 375-381, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210028

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate oncological outcomes based on bladder cuff excision (BCE) during radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) and to provide clinical evidence of tumor recurrence in patients without BCE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively collected data of 372 consecutive patients who underwent RNU at our institution from May 1989 through October 2010. After excluding some data, we reviewed 336 patients for the analysis. RESULTS: Of the patients who underwent RNU with BCE (n=279, 83.0%) and without BCE (n=57, 17.0%), patients without BCE had poorer cancer-specific and overall survival rates. Among 57 patients without BCE, 35 (61.4%) experienced tumor recurrence. Recurrence at the remnant ureter resulted in poor oncological outcomes compared to those in patients with bladder recurrence, but better outcomes were observed compared to recurrence at other sites. No significant predictors for tumor recurrence at the remnant ureter were identified. In patients without BCE, pathological T stage [hazard ratio (HR), 5.73] and lymphovascular invasion (HR, 3.65) were independent predictors of cancer-specific survival, whereas age (HR, 1.04), pathological T stage (HR, 5.11), and positive tumor margin (HR, 6.50) were independent predictors of overall survival. CONCLUSION: Patients without BCE had poorer overall and cancer-specific survival after RNU than those with BCE. Most of these patients experienced tumor recurrence at the remnant ureter and other sites. Patients with non-organ confined UTUC after RNU without BCE may be considered for adjuvant chemotherapy with careful follow-up.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/surgery , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Nephrectomy/methods , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome , Ureter/surgery , Ureteral Neoplasms/surgery , Urinary Bladder/pathology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Urologic Neoplasms/pathology , Urologic Surgical Procedures , Urothelium/pathology
19.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 762-768, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-198012

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report the initial clinical outcomes of the newly devised sliding loop technique (SLT) used for renorrhaphy in patients who underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RALPN) for small renal mass. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the surgical videos and medical charts of 31 patients who had undergone RALPN with the SLT renorrhaphy performed by two surgeons (CWJ and CK) between January 2014 and October 2014. SLT renorrhaphy was performed after tumor excision and renal parenchymal defect repair. Assessed outcomes included renorrhaphy time (RT), warm ischemic time, perioperative complications, and perioperative renal function change. RT was defined as interval from the end of bed suture to the renal artery declamping. RESULTS: In all patients, sliding loop renorrhaphy was successfully conducted without conversions to radical nephrectomy or open approaches. Mean renorrhaphy and warm ischemic time were 9.0 and 22.6 minutes, respectively. After completing renorrhaphy, there were no adverse events such as dehiscence of approximated renal parenchyma, renal parenchymal tearing, or significant bleeding. Furthermore, no postoperative complications or significant renal function decline were observed as of the last follow-up for all patients. The limitations of this study include the small volume case series, the retrospective nature of the study, and the heterogeneity of surgeons. CONCLUSIONS: From our initial clinical experience, SLT may be an efficient and safe renorrhaphy method in real clinical practice. Further large scale, prospective, long-term follow-up, and direct comparative studies with other techniques are required to confirm the clinical applicability of SLT.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Hemostasis, Surgical/methods , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Laparoscopy/methods , Nephrectomy/methods , Patient Positioning/methods , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , Suture Techniques , Treatment Outcome
20.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 1143-1149, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-47715

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate female urethral cancer (UCa) patients treated and followed-up during a time period spanning more than 20 yr at single institution in Korea. We reviewed medical records of 21 consecutive patients diagnosed with female UCa at our institution between 1991 and 2012. After exclusion of two patients due to undefined histology, we examined clinicopathological variables, as well as survival outcomes of 19 patients with female UCa. A Cox proportional hazards ratio model was used to identify significant predictors of prognosis according to variables. The median age at diagnosis was 59 yr, and the median follow-up duration was 87.0 months. The most common initial symptoms were voiding symptoms and blood spotting. The median tumor size was 3.4 cm, and 55% of patients had lesions involving the entire urethra. The most common histologic type was adenocarcinoma, and the second most common type was urothelial carcinoma. Fourteen patients underwent surgery, and 7 of these patients received adjuvant radiation or systemic chemotherapy. Eleven patients experienced tumor recurrence after primary therapy. Patients with high stage disease, advanced T stage (> or =T3), and positive lymph nodes had worse survival outcomes compared to their counterparts. Particularly, lymph node positivity and advanced T stage were significant predictive factors for all survival outcomes. Tumor location was the only significant predictor for recurrence-free survival. Although our study included a small number of patients, it conveys valuable information about this rare female urologic malignancy in a Korean population.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Longitudinal Studies , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/mortality , Prevalence , Prognosis , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome , Urethral Neoplasms/diagnosis , Women's Health/statistics & numerical data
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