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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899331

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Demand for genetic counseling on cancer predisposition syndrome is increasing. We evaluated the psychological effect on counselees after genetic counseling at a clinic in a single center. @*Materials and Methods@#We surveyed a total of 72 enrolled participants who visited a genetic counseling clinic at the Samsung Medical Center (SMC). The initial survey was conducted before the first genetic counseling session, and the second survey was conducted after the second genetic counseling session. A total of 43 participants completed both the initial and second surveys. @*Results@#The initial survey of 72 participants indicated higher feelings of guilt in the group with religion, higher depression and anxiety in the group with a diagnosis of self, and higher anxiety in the group on self-referral to the genetic counseling clinic.In the completed survey of 43 participants, overall decreased depression was observed after the second genetic counseling session (P=0.013). Risk perception and anxiety decreased in the group diagnosed with benign variant/variant of uncertain significance (BV/VUS, 25/3) and increased in the group diagnosed with pathogenic variant (PV, 15). Risk perception and anxiety differed between the BV/VUS and PV groups (P<0.001 and P=0.03, respectively). @*Conclusion@#The genetic counseling clinic at the SMC was effective in ameliorating the depression score. Assessment of survey results revealed different depression scores, feelings of guilt and anxiety, and different effects of the genetic counseling clinic, depending on the subgroups. Understanding the needs and psychological characteristics of different groups is necessary for improving genetic counseling services.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891627

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Demand for genetic counseling on cancer predisposition syndrome is increasing. We evaluated the psychological effect on counselees after genetic counseling at a clinic in a single center. @*Materials and Methods@#We surveyed a total of 72 enrolled participants who visited a genetic counseling clinic at the Samsung Medical Center (SMC). The initial survey was conducted before the first genetic counseling session, and the second survey was conducted after the second genetic counseling session. A total of 43 participants completed both the initial and second surveys. @*Results@#The initial survey of 72 participants indicated higher feelings of guilt in the group with religion, higher depression and anxiety in the group with a diagnosis of self, and higher anxiety in the group on self-referral to the genetic counseling clinic.In the completed survey of 43 participants, overall decreased depression was observed after the second genetic counseling session (P=0.013). Risk perception and anxiety decreased in the group diagnosed with benign variant/variant of uncertain significance (BV/VUS, 25/3) and increased in the group diagnosed with pathogenic variant (PV, 15). Risk perception and anxiety differed between the BV/VUS and PV groups (P<0.001 and P=0.03, respectively). @*Conclusion@#The genetic counseling clinic at the SMC was effective in ameliorating the depression score. Assessment of survey results revealed different depression scores, feelings of guilt and anxiety, and different effects of the genetic counseling clinic, depending on the subgroups. Understanding the needs and psychological characteristics of different groups is necessary for improving genetic counseling services.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835772

ABSTRACT

Since the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and Association of Molecular Pathology published their guidelines in 2015, most interpretations of genetic tests have followed them. However, all variants have only limited evidence along 28 interpretation standards, especially de novo variants. When de novo variants, which are classified as variants of uncertain significance (VUS) due to lack of evidence, are detected, segregation in the affected family could provide an important key to clarifying the variants. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is the most common inherited kidney disorder with pathogenic variants in the PKD1 or PKD2 genes. We detected a novel in-frame deletion variant in the PKD1 gene, c.7575_7577del (p.(Cys2526del)), which was interpreted as a VUS. We analyzed this variant in a Korean family to decide for segregation. Here, we report the variant as a likely pathogenic variant based on the evidence of segregation in three affected relatives and two unaffected members.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831524

ABSTRACT

Haploinsufficiency of A20 (HA20) is a newly described autoinflammatory disease caused by loss-of-function mutations in the TNFAIP3 gene. Clinical phenotypes are heterogenous and resemble Behçet's disease, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, or periodic fever syndrome, with symptoms developing at an early age. Here, we report the first case of infantile familial HA20 in Korea, which mimics neonatal lupus erythematosus (NLE). A 2-month-old infant exhibited symptoms including recurrent fever, erythematous rashes, and oral ulcers, with elevated liver enzymes, and tested positive for several autoantibodies, similar to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE); therefore, she was suspected to have NLE. However, six months after birth, symptoms and autoantibodies persisted. Then, we considered the possibility of other diseases that could cause early onset rashes and abnormal autoantibodies, including autoinflammatory syndrome, monogenic SLE, or complement deficiency, all of which are rare. The detailed family history revealed that her father had recurrent symptoms, including oral and genital ulcers, knee arthralgia, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. These Behcet-like symptoms last for many years since he was a teenager, and he takes medications irregularly only when those are severe, but doesn't want the full-scale treatment. Whole-exome sequencing was conducted to identify a possible genetic disorder, which manifested as pathogenic variant nonsense mutation in the TNFAIP3 gene, leading to HA20. In conclusion, HA20 should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an infant with an early-onset dominantly inherited inflammatory disease that presents with recurrent oral and genital ulcerations and fluctuating autoantibodies. Additionally, it also should be considered in an infant with suspected NLE, whose symptoms and abnormal autoantibodies persist.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830459

ABSTRACT

Congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (CLAH) is one of the most fatal conditions caused by an abnormality of adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis. CLAH results from loss-of-function mutations of the steroidogenic acute regulatory (STAR) gene; the disease manifests with electrolyte imbalances and hyperpigmentation in neonates or young infants due to adrenocortical hormone deficiencies, and 46, XY genetic male CLAH patients can be phenotypically female. Meanwhile, some patients with STAR mutations develop hyperpigmentation and mild signs of adrenal insufficiency, such as hypoglycemia, after infancy. These patients are classified as having nonclassic CLAH (NCCLAH) caused by STAR mutations that retain partial activity of STAR. We present the case of a Korean boy with normal genitalia who was diagnosed with NCCLAH. He presented with whole-body hyperpigmentation and electrolyte abnormalities, which were noted at the age of 17 months after an episode of sepsis with peritonitis. The compound heterozygous mutations p.Gly221Ser and c.653C>T in STAR were identified by targeted gene-panel sequencing. Skin hyperpigmentation should be considered an important clue for diagnosing NCCLAH.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830456

ABSTRACT

Familial hypophosphatemic rickets (FHR) is a disorder characterized by phosphate wasting and hypophosphatemia due to defects in renal phosphate transport regulation. There are 4 known inherited forms of FHR that differ in their molecular causes. Very few studies have been conducted that focused on the molecular analysis of FHR in Koreans. Eighteen mutations of the PHEX gene have been identified to this date in Korea. Herein, we report the clinical case of a 24-month-old boy presenting with bowed legs and short stature. The biochemical profile showed hypophosphatemia with decreased tubular reabsorption of phosphate. Several family members were identified with short stature and genu varum. Therefore, he was diagnosed with FHR. To identify the molecular causes of FHR, we performed targeted gene panel sequencing and found a novel hemizygous missense variant, c.1949T>C (p.Leu650Pro), in the PHEX gene. This variant was also detected in the boy’s mother who exhibited genu varum and short stature.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785340

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: While there is an urgent need for diagnosis and therapeutic intervention in patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs), current genetic tests have drawbacks. We retrospectively reviewed the usefulness of flow cytometry (FCM) as a quick tool for immunophenotyping and functional assays in patients suspected to have PIDs at a single tertiary care institute.METHODS: Between January 2001 and June 2018, patients suspected of having PIDs were subjected to FCM tests, including lymphocyte subset analysis, detection of surface- or intracellular-target proteins, and functional analysis of immune cells, at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. The genetic diagnosis was performed using Sanger or diagnostic exome sequencing.RESULTS: Of 60 patients diagnosed with definite or probable PID according to the European Society of Immune Deficiencies criteria, 24 patients were provided with useful information about immunological dysfunction after initial FCM testing. In 10 patients, the PID diagnosis was based on abnormal findings in FCM testing without genetic tests. The FCM findings provided strong evidence for the diagnosis of severe combined immunodeficiency (n = 6), X-linked chronic granulomatous diseases (CGD) (n = 6), leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (n = 3), X-linked agammaglobulinemia (n = 11), autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome-FASLG (n = 1), and familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 2 (n = 1), and probable evidence for autosomal recessive-CGD (n = 2), autosomal dominant-hyper-immunoglobulin E (IgE)-syndrome (n = 1), and STAT1 gain-of-function mutation (n = 1). In PIDs derived from PIK3CD (n = 2), LRBA (n = 2), and CTLA4 mutations (n = 3), the FCM test provided useful evidence of immune abnormalities and a tool for treatment monitoring.CONCLUSIONS: The initial application of FCM, particularly with known protein targets on immune cells, would facilitate the timely diagnosis of PIDs and thus would support clinical decisions and improve the clinical outcome.


Subject(s)
Agammaglobulinemia , Diagnosis , Exome , Flow Cytometry , Genetic Testing , Granulomatous Disease, Chronic , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Korea , Leukocytes , Lymphocyte Subsets , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Phenotype , Retrospective Studies , Seoul , Severe Combined Immunodeficiency , Tertiary Healthcare
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764507

ABSTRACT

Smith-Kingsmore syndrome (SKS; OMIM 616638), also known as macrocephaly-intellectual disability-neurodevelopmental disorder-small thorax syndrome (MINDS; ORPHA 457485), is a rare autosomal dominant disorder, the prevalence of which is not known. It is caused by a heterozygous germline mutation in MTOR (OMIM 601231). Ten different MTOR germline mutations in 27 individuals have been reported in the medical literature to date. These were all gain-of-function missense variants, and about half of the 27 individuals had c.5395G>A p.(Glu1799Lys) in MTOR. Here, I report for the first time a Korean patient with the heterozygous germline mutation c.5395G>A p.(Glu1799Lys) in MTOR. It was found to be a de novo mutation, which was identified by whole-exome sequencing and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The patient showed typical clinical features of SKS, including macrocephaly/megalencephaly; moderate intellectual disability; seizures; behavioral problems; and facial dysmorphic features of curly hair, frontal bossing, midface hypoplasia, and hypertelorism.


Subject(s)
Databases, Genetic , Germ-Line Mutation , Hair , Humans , Hypertelorism , Intellectual Disability , Megalencephaly , Prevalence , Problem Behavior , Seizures , Thorax
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764505

ABSTRACT

KBG syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome presenting with macrodontia, distinctive facial features, skeletal anomalies, and neurological problems caused by mutations in the ankyrin repeat domain 11 (ANKRD11) gene. The diagnosis of KBG is difficult in very young infants as the characteristic macrodontia and typical facial features are not obvious. The youngest patient diagnosed to date was almost one year of age. We here describe a 2-month-old Korean boy with distinctive craniofacial features but without any evidence of macrodontia due to his very early age. He also had a congenital megacolon without ganglion cells in the rectum. A de novo deletion of exons 5–9 of the ANKRD11 gene was identified in this patient by exome sequencing and real-time genomic polymerase chain reaction. As ANKRD11 is involved in the development of myenteric plexus, a bowel movement disorder including a congenital megacolon is not surprising in a patient with KBG syndrome and has possibly been overlooked in past cases.


Subject(s)
Ankyrin Repeat , Diagnosis , Exome , Exons , Ganglion Cysts , Hirschsprung Disease , Humans , Infant , Male , Movement Disorders , Myenteric Plexus , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rectum
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762621

ABSTRACT

Vanishing white matter (VWM) disease is an autosomal recessive disorder that affects the central nervous system of a patient, and is caused by the development of pathogenic mutations in any of the EIF2B1-5 genes. Any dysfunction of the EIF2B1-5 gene encoded eIF2B causes stress-provoked episodic rapid neurological deterioration in the patient, followed by a chronic progressive disease course. We present the case of a patient with an infantile-onset VWM with the pre-described specific clinical course, subsequent neurological aggravation induced by each viral infection, and the noted consequent progression into a comatose state. Although the initial brain magnetic resonance imaging did not reveal specific pathognomonic signs of VWM to distinguish it from other types of demyelinating leukodystrophy, the next-generation sequencing studies identified heterozygous missense variants in EIF2B3, including a novel variant in exon 7 (C706G), as well as a 0.008% frequency reported variant in exon 2 (T89C). Hence, the characteristic of unbiased genomic sequencing can clinically affect patient care and decisionmaking, especially in terms of the consideration of genetic disorders such as leukoencephalopathy in pediatric patients.


Subject(s)
Brain , Central Nervous System , Coma , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2B , Exome , Exons , Humans , Leukoencephalopathies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Patient Care , White Matter
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762611

ABSTRACT

Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most common endocrine disorder in neonates and infants with an incidence of one in 2,000 to one in 4,000 newborns. Primary CH can be caused by thyroid dysgenesis and thyroid dyshormonogenesis. CH due to a TG gene mutation is one cause of thyroid dyshormonogenesis and can be characterized by goitrous CH with absent or low levels of serum thyroglobulin (Tg). In the present case, a 15-day-old neonate was referred to us with elevated thyroid stimulating hormone detected during a neonatal screening test. At the age of 34 months, extensive genetic testing was performed, including targeted exome sequencing for hypothyroidism, and revealed compound heterozygous mutations in the TG gene. Sanger sequencing of both parents’ DNA samples revealed a c.3790T> C (p.Cys1264Arg) mutation located at exon 17 inherited from the mother, and a c.4057C> T (p.Gln1353*) mutation located at exon 19 was inherited from the father. The c.4057C> T (p.Gln1353*) mutation located at exon 19 has never been reported and, therefore, is a new discovery. We report a case of primary permanent CH with compound heterozygous mutations of the TG gene, including a novel mutation.


Subject(s)
Congenital Hypothyroidism , DNA , Exome , Exons , Fathers , Genetic Testing , Humans , Hypothyroidism , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Mothers , Neonatal Screening , Thyroglobulin , Thyroid Dysgenesis , Thyroid Gland , Thyrotropin
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762598

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D hydroxylation-deficient rickets type 1A (VDDR1A, OMIM 264700) is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder. Pathogenic variants in the CYP27B1 gene lead to loss of 1α-hydroxylase activity. We report the case of a 22-month-old toddler who presented with growth retardation and delayed development. The patient exhibited the typical laboratory findings of VDDR1A, including hypocalcemia (calcium: 5.2 mg/dL), elevated serum level of alkaline phosphatase (2,600 U/L), elevated serum level of intact-parathyroid hormone (238 pg/mL), low 1,25(OH)₂D₃ level (11.2 pg/mL), and normal 25(OH)D₃ level (40.7 ng/mL). His height and weight were 76.5 cm and 9.5 kg, respectively (both <3rd percentile). The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development II indicated significantly delayed development (mental development index <50, psychomotor development index <50). The patient was a compound heterozygous for two novel pathogenic variants in the CYP27B1 gene: c.57_69del (p.Glu20Profs*2) and c.171dupG (p.Leu58Alafs*275), inherited from his mother and father, respectively. The patient showed remarkable improvement after treatment with calcitriol and calcium carbonate.


Subject(s)
25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase , Alkaline Phosphatase , Calcitriol , Calcium Carbonate , Databases, Genetic , Fathers , Humans , Hypocalcemia , Infant , Mothers , Rickets , Vitamin D , Vitamins , Weights and Measures
13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785404

ABSTRACT

Tatton-Brown-Rahman Syndrome (TBRS), an overgrowth syndrome caused by heterozygous mutation of DNMT3A, first was described in 2014. Approximately 60 DNMT3A variants, including 32 missense variants, have been reported, with most missense mutations located on the DNMT3A functional domains. Autosomal dominant inheritance by germ-line mutation of DNMT3A has been reported, but vertical transmission within a family is extremely rare. Herein, we report the first Korean family with maternally inherited TBRS due to the novel heterozygous DNMT3A variant c.118G>C p.(Glu40Gln), located outside the main functional domain and identified by multigene panel sequencing. The patient and her mother had typical clinical features, including tall stature during childhood, macrocephaly, intellectual disability, and characteristic facial appearance. TBRS shows milder dysmorphic features than other overgrowth syndromes, potentially leading to underdiagnosis and underestimated prevalence; thus, targeted multigene panel sequencing including DNMT3A will be a useful tool in cases of overgrowth and unexplained mild intellectual disability for early diagnosis and genetic counseling.


Subject(s)
Early Diagnosis , Genetic Counseling , Germ-Line Mutation , Growth Disorders , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Intellectual Disability , Megalencephaly , Mothers , Mutation, Missense , Prevalence , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Wills
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718501

ABSTRACT

Floating-Harbor syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder associated with SRCAP mutation. To date, approximately 50 cases of Floating-Harbor syndrome have been reported, but none have been reported in Korea yet. Floating-Harbor syndrome is characterized by delayed bony maturation, unique facial features, and language impairment. Here, we present a 6-year-old boy with a triangular face, deep-set protruding eyes, low-set ears, wide nose with narrow nasal bridge, short philtrum, long thin lips, clinodactyly, and developmental delay that was transferred to our pediatric clinic for genetic evaluation. He showed progressive delay in the area of language and cognition-adaption as he grew. He had previously undergone chromosomal analysis at another hospital due to his language delay, but his karyotype was normal. We performed targeted exome sequencing, considering several syndromes with similar phenotypes. Library preparation was performed with the TruSight One sequencing panel, which enriches the sample for about 4,800 genes of clinical relevance. Massively parallel sequencing was conducted with NextSeq. An identified variant was confirmed by Sanger sequencing of the patient and his parents. Finally, the patient was confirmed as the first Korean case of Floating-Harbor syndrome with a novel SRCAP (Snf2 related CREBBP activator protein) mutation (c.7732dupT, p.Ser2578Phefs*6), resulting in early termination of the protein; it was not found in either of his healthy parents or a control population. To our knowledge, this is the first study to describe a boy with Floating-Harbor syndrome with a novel SRCAP mutation diagnosed by targeted exome sequencing in Korea.


Subject(s)
Child , Ear , Exome , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Karyotype , Korea , Language Development Disorders , Lip , Male , Nose , Parents , Phenotype
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716663

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological features of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) and to analyze its prognostic factors. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 17 patients who were diagnosed with MDA at a single institution between January 2005 and December 2015. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 47.7 years (33–75 years). MDA was diagnosed in 7 patients (41.2%) before performing definitive surgery. Stage IB disease was diagnosed in 12 patients (70.6%) and advanced stage disease (stage II: 3, stage III: 2) in 5. MDA was incidentally diagnosed following hysterectomy for benign conditions in 6 patients. Adjuvant therapy was administered to 13 patients (76.5%). During median follow-up over 33.6 months (7–99 months), 11 patients (64.7%) showed no evidence of disease, 6 (35.3%) showed persistent or recurrent disease and 5 died of the disease. Peutz-Jeghers syndrome was not suspected in any patient, and no mutation was detected in the 3 patients who underwent genetic testing. Univariate analysis showed that advanced stage disease (P=0.016) and lymphovascular space invasion (P=0.002) demonstrated a statistically significant association with poor overall survival (OS) rates. Advanced stage disease continued to show a significant association with poor OS rates (hazard ratio, 2.92; 95% confidence interval, 1.097–7.746; P=0.032) even after multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Early diagnosis is important to manage MDA. Clinicians should consider MDA among the differential diagnoses in patients with a suspicious clinical presentation even with negative cervical screening tests.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Cervix Uteri , Diagnosis, Differential , Early Diagnosis , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Genetic Testing , Humans , Hysterectomy , Mass Screening , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome , Retrospective Studies , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
16.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 107-113, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715909

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the status of BRCA1/2 genetic testing practices in Korea in 2014. METHODS: A structured questionnaire was provided to the specialist in charge of BRCA1/2 genetic testing via e-mail between 28 July and 10 August 2015. A total of 11 genetic testing professionals from 14 organizations responded to the survey that asked about the status of BRCA1/2 genetic testing in the year 2014. RESULTS: The average number of BRCA1/2 genetic tests executed was 192; 6 organizations had executed less than 100 tests, and 5 organizations had conducted more than 100 tests. The primary testing method used was Sanger sequencing (100%), and 2 institutes performed multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). The analysis software differed across the various organizations, with Sequencher (81.81%), Seqscape (27.27%), and Codoncode Aligner (9.09%) reported as utilized. We found that the guidelines for the interpretation of the genetic tests were different at each institution. CONCLUSIONS: Although this study only examined the status of the 2014 BRCA1/2 genetic testing practices of 11 institutions, it illustrates the necessity for standardized genetic testing or interpretation guidelines in Korea.


Subject(s)
Academies and Institutes , Electronic Mail , Genetic Testing , Korea , Methods , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Specialization , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-222375

ABSTRACT

We present a case of an endometrial cancer patient with germline mutation in MutS homolog 6 (MSH6), associated with Lynch syndrome. A 60-year-old Korean woman had a personal history of colon cancer 23 years ago. She also had a family history of endometrial cancer and colon cancer of her sisters and brothers. Immunohistochemistry was negative for MutL homolog 1 (MLH1) and positive for MutS homolog 2 (MSH2). Based on these findings, she underwent genetic counseling and testing that revealed a frameshift germline mutation at MSH6 (c. 3261dupC).


Subject(s)
Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis , Endometrial Neoplasms , Female , Genetic Counseling , Germ-Line Mutation , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Korea , Middle Aged , Siblings
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114916

ABSTRACT

Chromosomal loss in trisomy (trisomy rescue) to generate a disomic fetus can cause confined placental mosaicism and/or feto/placental mosaicism. After trisomy rescue event, there is a risk of fetal uniparental disomy (UPD). Noninvasive prenatal test (NIPT) reflects the genomic constitution of the placenta, not of the fetus itself. Feto-placental discrepancy can therefore cause false-positive (trisomy) NIPT results. These discordant NIPT results can serve as important clues to find UPD associated with confined placental mosaicism. We report a case with maternal UPD of chromosome 20, detected by NIPT of 1,000 high-risk pregnancies, carried out for detecting chromosomal abnormalities in Koreans.


Subject(s)
Chromosome Aberrations , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20 , Constitution and Bylaws , Fetus , Mosaicism , Placenta , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Trisomy , Uniparental Disomy
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99765

ABSTRACT

Noonan syndrome (NS) is a genetic disorder caused by autosomal dominant inheritance and is characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, short stature, chest deformity, and congenital heart disease. In individuals with NS, germline mutations have been identified in several genes involved in the RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathway. Because of its clinical and genetic heterogeneity, the conventional diagnostic protocol with Sanger sequencing requires a multistep approach. Therefore, molecular genetic diagnosis using targeted exome sequencing (TES) is considered a less expensive and faster method, particularly for patients who do not fulfill the clinical diagnostic criteria of NS. In this case, the patient showed short stature, dysmorphic facial features suggestive of NS, feeding intolerance, cryptorchidism, and intellectual disability in early childhood. At the age of 16, the patient still showed extreme short stature with delayed puberty and characteristic facial features suggestive of NS. Although the patient had no cardiac problems or chest wall deformities, which are commonly present in NS and are major concerns for patients and clinicians, the patient showed several other characteristic clinical features of NS. Considering the possibility of a genetic disorder, including NS, a molecular genetic study with TES was performed. With TES analysis, we detected a pathogenic variant of c.458A > T in KRAS in this patient with atypical NS phenotype and provided appropriate clinical management and genetic counseling. The application of TES enables accurate molecular diagnosis of patients with nonspecific or atypical features in genetic diseases with several responsible genes, such as NS.


Subject(s)
Congenital Abnormalities , Cryptorchidism , Diagnosis , Exome , Genetic Counseling , Genetic Heterogeneity , Germ-Line Mutation , Heart Defects, Congenital , Humans , Intellectual Disability , Male , Methods , Molecular Biology , Noonan Syndrome , Phenotype , Protein Kinases , Puberty, Delayed , Signal Transduction , Thoracic Wall , Thorax , Wills
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