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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 140-149, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913828

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Epidermal growth factor receptor kinase domain duplication (EGFR-KDD) is a rare and poorly understood oncogenic mutation in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aimed to investigate the acquired resistance mechanism of EGFR-KDD against EGFR-TKIs. @*Materials and Methods@#We identified EGFR-KDD in tumor tissue obtained from a patient with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma and established the patient-derived cell line SNU-4784. We also established several EGFR-KDD Ba/F3 cell lines: EGFR-KDD wild type (EGFR-KDDWT), EGFR-KDD domain 1 T790M (EGFR-KDDD1T), EGFR-KDD domain 2 T790M (EGFR-KDDD2T), and EGFR-KDD both domain T790M (EGFR-KDDBDT). We treated the cells with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and performed cell viability assays, immunoblot assays, and ENU (N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea) mutagenesis screening. @*Results@#In cell viability assays, SNU-4784 cells and EGFR-KDDWT Ba/F3 cells were sensitive to 2nd generation and 3rd generation EGFR TKIs. In contrast, the T790M-positive EGFR-KDD Ba/F3 cell lines (EGFR-KDDT790M) were only sensitive to 3rd generation EGFR TKIs. In ENU mutagenesis screening, we identified the C797S mutation in kinase domain 2 of EGFR-KDDBDT Ba/F3 cells. Based on this finding, we established an EGFR-KDD domain 1 T790M/domain 2 cis-T790M+C797S (EGFR-KDDT/T+C) Ba/F3 model, which was resistant to EGFR TKIs and anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody combined with EGFR TKIs. @*Conclusion@#Our study reveals that the T790M mutation in EGFR-KDD confers resistance to 1st and 2nd generation EGFR TKIs, but is sensitive to 3rd generation EGFR TKIs. In addition, we identified that the C797S mutation in kinase domain 2 of EGFR-KDDT790M mediates a resistance mechanism against 3rd generation EGFR TKIs.

2.
Gut and Liver ; : 625-636, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937609

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Three-dimensional cultures of human pancreatic cancer tissue also known as “organoids” have largely been developed from surgical specimens. Given that most patients present with locally advanced and/or metastatic disease, such organoids are not representative of the majority of patients. Therefore, we used endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) to collect pancreatic cancer tissues from patients with advanced pancreatic cancer to create organoids, and evaluated their utility in pancreatic cancer research. @*Methods@#Single-pass EUS-FNA samplings were employed to obtain the tissue for organoid generation. After establishment of the organoid, we compared the core biopsy tissues with organoids using hematoxylin and eosin staining, and performed whole exome sequencing (WES) to detect mutational variants. Furthermore, we compared patient outcome with the organoid drug response to determine the potential utility of the clinical application of such organoid-based assays. @*Results@#Organoids were successfully generated in 14 of 20 tumors (70%) and were able to be passaged greater than 5 times in 12 of 20 tumors (60%). Among them, we selected eight pairs of organoid and core biopsy tissues for detailed analyses. They showed similar patterns in hematoxylin and eosin staining. WES revealed mutations in KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, SMAD4, BRCA1, and BRCA2 which were 93% homologous, and the mean nonreference discordance rate was 5.47%. We observed moderate drug response correlations between the organoids and clinical outcomes in patients who underwent FOLFIRINOX chemotherapy. @*Conclusions@#The established organoids from EUS-FNA core biopsies can be used for a suitable model system for pancreatic cancer research

3.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 13-19, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889296

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Long-term oncologic differences in outcome between groups of patients with Lynch syndrome (LS) colorectal cancer (CRC) and sporadic CRC with microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) are the focus of investigation in the current study. @*Methods@#Patients registered in the Korean Hereditary Tumor Registry and 2 tertiary referral hospitals treated for stage I– III CRC between 2005 and 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Detection for both groups was performed using pedigree, microsatellite instability, and mismatch repair (MMR) gene testing. Multivariate analyses for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were conducted. @*Results@#Cases of LS (n = 77) and sporadic CRC with MSI-H (n = 96) were identified. LS CRC patients were younger in age and displayed tumor sidedness, typically involving left-sided colon and rectum, compared to patients with sporadic CRC with MSI-H. OS and DFS were lower for LS CRC relative to CRC with MSI-H (OS, 72.7% vs. 93.8%, P = 0.001; DFS, 71.4% vs. 88.5%, P = 0.001). In multivariate analyses, tumor sidedness, stage, and chemotherapy were independent factors for OS and DFS. LS CRC was a prognostic factor for poorer OS (hazard ratio, 2.740; 95% confidence interval, 1.003–7.487; P = 0.049), but not DFS. @*Conclusion@#Our findings indicate that LS CRC is associated with poorer outcomes compared to sporadic CRC with MSI-H, presenting distinct clinical features. In view of the current lack of knowledge on genetic and molecular mechanisms, appropriate management taking into consideration the difficulty of identification of CRC with hypermutable tumors harboring heterogeneity is essential.

4.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 13-19, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897000

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Long-term oncologic differences in outcome between groups of patients with Lynch syndrome (LS) colorectal cancer (CRC) and sporadic CRC with microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) are the focus of investigation in the current study. @*Methods@#Patients registered in the Korean Hereditary Tumor Registry and 2 tertiary referral hospitals treated for stage I– III CRC between 2005 and 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Detection for both groups was performed using pedigree, microsatellite instability, and mismatch repair (MMR) gene testing. Multivariate analyses for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were conducted. @*Results@#Cases of LS (n = 77) and sporadic CRC with MSI-H (n = 96) were identified. LS CRC patients were younger in age and displayed tumor sidedness, typically involving left-sided colon and rectum, compared to patients with sporadic CRC with MSI-H. OS and DFS were lower for LS CRC relative to CRC with MSI-H (OS, 72.7% vs. 93.8%, P = 0.001; DFS, 71.4% vs. 88.5%, P = 0.001). In multivariate analyses, tumor sidedness, stage, and chemotherapy were independent factors for OS and DFS. LS CRC was a prognostic factor for poorer OS (hazard ratio, 2.740; 95% confidence interval, 1.003–7.487; P = 0.049), but not DFS. @*Conclusion@#Our findings indicate that LS CRC is associated with poorer outcomes compared to sporadic CRC with MSI-H, presenting distinct clinical features. In view of the current lack of knowledge on genetic and molecular mechanisms, appropriate management taking into consideration the difficulty of identification of CRC with hypermutable tumors harboring heterogeneity is essential.

5.
Korean Journal of Pancreas and Biliary Tract ; : 233-240, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918124

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is known to be one of the most lethal cancers among all cancer types, with a relative 5-year survival rate of less than 8%. Currently, surgery is the only probable curative treatment for PDAC which is available for only 10-15% of the patients diagnosed with the cancer. Organoids resemble the original tissue in morphology and function with self-organizing capacity. Organoids can be cultured with high effectiveness from individual patient derived tumor tissue which makes them an extremely fitting model for translational uses and the improvement of personalized cancer medicine. Before personalized medicine based on organoids can be applied in the clinic, the improvement of drug screening platforms in terms of sensitivity and robustness is necessary.

6.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 605-611, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72535

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The Korean Hereditary Tumor Registry, the first and one of the largest registries of hereditary tumors in Korea, has registered about 500 families with hereditary cancer syndromes. This study evaluates the temporal changes in clinicopathologic features and surgical patterns of Lynch syndrome (LS) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on 182 unrelated LS patients were collected retrospectively. The patients were divided into the period 1 group (registered in 1990-2004) and 2 (registered in 2005-2014). The clinical characteristics of the two groups were compared to identify changes over time. RESULTS: The period 1 group included 76 patients; the period 2 group, 106 patients. The mean ages at diagnosis were 45.1 years (range, 13 to 85 years) for group 1 and 49.7 years (range, 20 to 84 years) for group 2 (p=0.015). The TNM stage at diagnosis did not differ significantly-period 1 group: stage 0-I (n=18, 23.7%), II (n=37, 48.7%), III (n=19, 25.0%), and IV (n=2, 2.6%); period 2 group: stage 0-I (n=30, 28.3%), II (n=35, 33.0%), III (n=37, 34.9%), and IV (n=4, 3.8%). Extended resection was more frequently performed (55/76, 72.4%) in the period 1 group than period 2 (49/106, 46.2%) (p=0.001). CONCLUSION: Colorectal cancer in patients with LS registered at the Korean Hereditary Tumor Registry is still diagnosed at an advanced stage, more than two decades after registry's establishment. Segmental resection was more frequently performed in the past decade. A prompt nationwide effort to raise public awareness of hereditary colorectal cancer and to support hereditary cancer registries is required in Korea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colorectal Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis , Diagnosis , Korea , Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary , Registries , Retrospective Studies
7.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 668-675, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-26794

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Lynch syndrome, the commonest hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome, is caused by germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Three recently developed prediction models for MMR gene mutations based on family history and clinical features (MMRPredict, PREMM1,2,6, and MMRPro) have been validated only in Western countries. In this study, we propose validating these prediction models in the Korean population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected MMR gene analysis data from 188 individuals in the Korean Hereditary Tumor Registry. The probability of gene mutation was calculated using three prediction models, and the overall diagnostic value of each model compared using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves and area under the ROC curve (AUC). Quantitative test characteristics were calculated at sensitivities of 90%, 95%, and 98%. RESULTS: Of the individuals analyzed, 101 satisfied Amsterdam criteria II, and 87 were suspected hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. MMR mutations were identified in 62 of the 188 subjects (33.0%). All three prediction models showed a poor predictive value of AUC (MMRPredict, 0.683; PREMM1,2,6, 0.709; MMRPro, 0.590). Within the range of acceptable sensitivity (> 90%), PREMM1,2,6 demonstrated higher specificity than the other models. CONCLUSION: In the Korean population, overall predictive values of the three models (MMRPredict, PREMM1,2,6, MMRPro) for MMR gene mutations are poor, compared with their performance in Western populations. A new prediction model is therefore required for the Korean population to detect MMR mutation carriers, reflecting ethnic differences in genotype-phenotype associations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Area Under Curve , Colorectal Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis , DNA Mismatch Repair , Genetic Association Studies , Genetic Testing , Germ-Line Mutation , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
8.
Korean Journal of Hematology ; : 219-224, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-720166

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is extensively used to improve neutrophil count during anti-cancer chemotherapy. We investigated the effects of G-CSF on several leukemic cell lines and screened for the expression of the G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR) in various malignant cells. METHODS: We examined the effects of the most commonly used commercial forms of G-CSF (glycosylated lenograstim and nonglycosylated filgrastim) on various leukemic cell lines by flow cytometry. Moreover, we screened for the expression of G-CSFR mRNA in 38 solid tumor cell lines by using real-time PCR. RESULTS: G-CSF stimulated proliferation (40-80% increase in proliferation in treated cells as compared to that in control cells) in 3 leukemic cell lines and induced differentiation of AML1/ETO+ leukemic cells. Among the 38 solid tumor cell lines, 5 cell lines (hepatoblastoma, 2 breast carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, and melanoma cell lines) showed G-CSFR mRNA expression. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study show that therapeutic G-CSF might stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of malignant cells with G-CSFR expression, suggesting that prescreening for G-CSFR expression in primary tumor cells may be necessary before using G-CSF for treatment.


Subject(s)
Breast , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cell Line , Cell Line, Tumor , Flow Cytometry , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor , Larynx , Melanoma , Neutrophils , Receptors, Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor , Recombinant Proteins , RNA, Messenger
9.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1-19, 2005.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-18128

ABSTRACT

SNU (Seoul National University) cell lines have been established from Korean cancer patients since 1982. Of these 109 cell lines have been characterized and reported, i.e., 17 colorectal carcinoma, 12 hepatocellular carcinoma, 11 gastric carcinoma, 12 uterine cervical carcinoma, 17 B-lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from cancer patients, 5 ovarian carcinoma, 3 malignant mixed Mllerian tumor, 6 laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, 7 renal cell carcinoma, 9 brain tumor, 6 biliary tract, and 4 pancreatic carcinoma cell lines. These SNU cell lines have been distributed to biomedical researchers domestic and worldwide through the KCLB (Korean Cell Line Bank), and have proven to be of value in various scientific research fields. The characteristics of these cell lines have been reported in over 180 international journals by our laboratory and by many other researchers from 1987. In this paper, the cellular and molecular characteristics of SNU human cancer cell lines are summarized according to their genetic and epigenetic alterations and functional analysis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biliary Tract , Biology , Brain Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Line , Colorectal Neoplasms , Epigenomics
10.
Journal of the Korean Surgical Society ; : 408-417, 2003.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-47102

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK) have been reported to play a role in the development and growth stimulation of gastrointestinal cancers including pancreatic cancer. METHODS: We investigated the effects of gastrin and CCK on the growth of pancreatic and biliary tract cancer cell lines established at the Cancer Research Institute of Seoul National University College of Medicine, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and slot blot hybridization, to examine the expressions of hormonal receptors in these cell lines. RESULTS: Of the six biliary tract, and five pancreatic, cancer cell lines, SNU-308 showed a growth stimulated effect due to gastrin-17, as did SNU-478 to both gastrin-17 and CCK-8. The trophic effect of these two hormones was completely blocked by specific antagonists (L-365, 260 for gastrin and L-364, 718 for CCK). The other cell lines did not respond to either the gastrin or the CCK. From the RT-PCR, the presence of the CCK-A receptor and the CCK-B/gastrin receptor mRNA was detected in all the biliary and pancreatic cancer cell lines. From the slot blot hybridization, although the cell lines that responded to the hormones showed high level of expression for receptor mRNA, so did some of those not responding to the hormones. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that gastrin and CCK exert a trophic action on some biliary tract cancers due to their specific receptors. However, further studies investigating the functional and structural variation among these receptors, in relation to their subtypes and mutation/polymorphism are requisite prior to their clinical usage for adjunctive hormonal or antihormonal therapy can be recommended.


Subject(s)
Academies and Institutes , Bile Duct Neoplasms , Biliary Tract , Biliary Tract Neoplasms , Cell Line , Cholecystokinin , Gallbladder Neoplasms , Gastrins , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms , Growth and Development , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Receptor, Cholecystokinin A , RNA, Messenger , Seoul , Sincalide
11.
Journal of the Korean Cancer Association ; : 291-298, 1997.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-123094

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Retinoblastoma is an intraocular tumor occurring almost exclusively in young children. Germline mutations in the Rb1 gene confer hereditary predisposition to retinoblastoma. To identify germline mutations in the Rb1 gene in Korean retinoblastoma patients, we analyzed germline mutations of the Rb1 gene in 4 Korean retinoblastoma patients from 3 families. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients were bilaterally affected in early childhood. First patient and second patient were same family members (SNU-RB1-1 and -2), and in the third patient (SNU-RB2), tumor cells had metastasized to the central nervous system 2 years after treatment of retinoblastoma. Fourth patient (SNU-RB3) developed secondary osteosarcoma in the nasal cavity 15 years after treatment of retinoblastoma. We have used PCR-SSCP analysis and DNA sequencing analysis to screen germline mutations. RESULTS: We found one missense mutation in the fourth patient (SNU-RB3). This was a point mutation from AAA (lysine) to GAA (glutamine) at codon 616 in exon 19 of the Rb1 gene. CONCLUSION: We confirmed one germline mutation of the Rb1 gene in one Korean patient who had a sporadic bilateral retinoblastoma and osteosarcoma. Identification of the germline mutation in Rb1 gene would help to improve the presymptomatic diagnosis and clinical management of retinoblastoma patients.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Central Nervous System , Codon , Diagnosis , Exons , Germ-Line Mutation , Mutation, Missense , Nasal Cavity , Osteosarcoma , Point Mutation , Retinoblastoma , Sequence Analysis, DNA
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