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1.
Journal of Korean Physical Therapy ; (6): 321-325, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967524

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is a condition defined as pain and dysfunction of temporomandibular joints and masticatory muscles. Abnormal interconnections between temporomandibular muscles and cervical spine structures can cause the changes of postural alignment and balance ability. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in static balance ability in subjects with painrelated TMD. @*Methods@#This study conducted on 25 subjects with TMD and 25 control subjects with no TMD. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) of the masseter and temporalis muscles were measured using a pressure algometer. Static balance ability was assessed during one leg standing using an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) sensor. During balance task, the IMU sensors measured motion and transfer movement data for center of mass (COM) motion, ankle sway and hip sway. @*Results@#PPTs of masseter and temporalis muscles were significantly lower in the TMD group than in the control group (p < 0.05). One leg standing, hip sway, and COM sway results were significantly greater in the TMD group (p < 0.05), but ankle sways were not different between group. @*Conclusion@#We suggest pain-related TMD is positively related to reduced PPTs of masticatory muscles and to static balance ability. These results should be considered together with global body posture when evaluating or treating pain-related TMD.

2.
The Ewha Medical Journal ; : 53-59, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837200

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#To investigate brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with central precocious puberty (CPP) by age at onset and sex. @*Methods@#We included 130 CPP patients with brain MRI findings of the pituitary gland treated at Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital between February 2007 and October 2013 and divided them by age and sex: boys, girls aged ≤6 years, and girls aged >6 years. The control group comprised 224 patients who underwent brain MRIs, and we compared their incidental brain findings with those of the CPP group. @*Results@#In the CPP subgroups who underwent pituitary MRIs, the frequency of incidental brain lesions was 31.6% in boys, 47.1% in girls ≤6 years and 29.8% in girls >6 years. The incidence of pituitary abnormalities was 42.1% in boys, 64.7% in girls ≤6 years and 47.9% in girls >6 years. Among pituitary abnormalities, pituitary hypoplasia had a significantly higher incidence rate in girls ≤6 years (41.2%) than in boys (15.8%) or girls >6 years (13.8%, P=0.027). Hypothalamic hamartomas were detected in one girl aged ≤6 years and in one boy, but not in girls aged 6 years (P=0.075). The incidence of pineal cysts was higher in the CPP groups and significantly higher in girls ≤6 years (47.1%) than in the control group (11.2%, P=0.001). @*Conclusion@#There was a higher incidence of brain abnormalities on pituitary MRIs and a higher incidence of pineal cysts, possibly associated with CPP pathogenesis, in younger CPP patients than in other patients.

3.
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research ; : 89-92, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836792

ABSTRACT

A 5-year-old dog was evaluated for a lethargy and respiratory distress. Radiograph revealed cardiomegaly with pleural effusion, and the dog died during a thoracocentesis. At necropsy, the descending aorta and pulmonary trunk were dilated and in close contact, but there was no external evidence of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). When the descending aorta was opened however, an ostium opening into the pulmonary trunk was evident. Histopathological investigation revealed that the intramural PDA resembled vascular tissue with a structure and architecture. The diagnosis was an intramural PDA, an extremely rarely reported type of PDA in the dog.

4.
Korean Journal of Family Medicine ; : 165-170, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759798

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested that breastfeeding has a positive effect on long-term obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. This study aimed to examine maternal bone health, muscle mass, and obesity based on breastfeeding duration. METHODS: This study was based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2011. We selected 2,027 elderly women by screening survey participants with a history of delivery. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) of sarcopenia, osteoporosis, and obesity among four breastfeeding groups. RESULTS: The OR of sarcopenia significantly decreased with increasing breastfeeding duration (OR, 0.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.11–0.65; P for trend <0.001), whereas the OR of obesity significantly increased with increasing breastfeeding duration (OR, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.43–4.60; P for trend=0.009) after adjusting for potential confounding variables. We also found a positive correlation between the duration since last delivery and sarcopenia. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest a negative correlation between prolonged breastfeeding and the prevalence of sarcopenia, and a positive correlation between prolonged breastfeeding and the prevalence of obesity. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between breastfeeding and sarcopenia in the future.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Breast Feeding , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hyperlipidemias , Hypertension , Korea , Logistic Models , Mass Screening , Nutrition Surveys , Obesity , Odds Ratio , Osteoporosis , Prevalence , Sarcopenia
5.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 727-736, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716074

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Some observational epidemiologic studies have reported conflicting results on the relationship between hypnotics use and the risk of developing and/or dying from heart disease. We investigated these associations using a meta-analysis of available literatures. METHODS: We searched the databases PubMed and EMBASE, along with the bibliographies of relevant articles to find additional publications in February 2016. RESULTS: Of 495 articles satisfying our initial criteria, two case-control studies and six cohort studies met our inclusion criteria and were included in the final analyses. Compared with never having used any kind of hypnotics, the odds ratio for overall use was 0.84 for risk of or mortality from heart disease (95% confidence interval, 0.79 to 0.89) in a random-effects meta-analysis of all eight studies. With respect to the geographical region, use of hypnotics was associated with a decreased risk or mortality of heart disease in Asia but not in Western countries. Among various types of sleep medications, zolpidem showed a decreased risk (–29%) of developing or dying from heart disease, but benzodiazepines were related with an increased risk (80%) of or mortality from heart disease. CONCLUSIONS: The current meta-analysis of observational epidemiological studies suggested an evidence of association between hypnotics use and a decreased risk of heart disease.


Subject(s)
Asia , Benzodiazepines , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Epidemiologic Studies , Heart Diseases , Heart , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Mortality , Observational Study , Odds Ratio
6.
Korean Journal of Family Medicine ; : 211-218, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715933

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous observational epidemiological studies have shown inconsistent results on the relationship between hypnotics use and risk of cancer. To determine the association between hypnotics use and risk of cancer, we conducted a meta-analysis of available literature. METHODS: We searched databases PubMed, EMBASE, and the bibliographies of relevant articles to locate additional publications in February 2016. Three evaluators independently reviewed and selected eligible studies based on pre-determined selection criteria. RESULTS: A total of six observational epidemiological studies including three case-control studies and three cohort studies, which involved 1,830,434 participants (202,629 hypnotics users and 1,627,805 non-users), were included in the final analyses. In a random-effects meta-analysis, compared with non-use of hypnotics, the odds ratio for overall hypnotics use was 1.29 for various cancers (95% confidence interval, 1.08–1.53). Subgroup meta-analyses by various factors such as study design, type of case-control study, study region, and methodological quality of study revealed consistent findings. CONCLUSION: Our findings from a meta-analysis of low-biased epidemiological studies suggested evidence linking the use of hypnotics to an increased risk of cancers. The results should be cautiously interpreted because of considerable heterogeneity with a Higgins I2 value.


Subject(s)
Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Epidemiologic Studies , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Observational Study , Odds Ratio , Patient Selection , Population Characteristics
7.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 739-747, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129240

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In a recent meta-analysis, post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) reduced any first recurrence (AFR) and improved survival in N1 and N2 patients. We investigated risk factors for AFR in N1 after optimal systemic therapy without PMRT, to define a subgroup of patients who may benefit from PMRT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One thousand three hundred eighty-two pT1-2N1M0 breast cancer patients treated with mastectomy without PMRT between 2005 and 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Only 0.6% had no systemic therapy. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 5.9 years, there were 173 AFR (53 loco-regional recurrence [LRR] without distant metastases [DM], 38 LRR with DM, and 82 DM without LRR). The 5-year LRR and AFR rates were 6.1% and 12.0%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that close resection margin (p=0.001) was the only independent risk factor for LRR. Multivariate analysis for AFR revealed that age < 35 years (p=0.025), T2 stage (p=0.004), high tumor grade (p=0.032), close resection margin (p=0.035), and triple-negative biological subtype (p=0.031) were independent risk factors. Two or three positive lymph nodes (p=0.078) were considered a marginally significant factor. When stratified by these six factors, the 5-year LRR rates were 3.6% with 0-1 (n=606), 7.5% with 2-3 (n=655), and 12.7% with 4-6 (n=93) risk factors. The 5-year AFR rates were 7.1% with 0-1, 15.0% with 2-3, and 24.5% with 4-6 risk factors. CONCLUSION: Patients with pT1-2N1M0 breast cancer who underwent mastectomy and optimal systemic therapy showed excellent loco-regional control and disease control. The patients with four or more risk factors may benefit from PMRT, and those with two or three risk factors merit consideration of PMRT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Follow-Up Studies , Korea , Lymph Nodes , Mastectomy , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
8.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 739-747, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129226

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In a recent meta-analysis, post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) reduced any first recurrence (AFR) and improved survival in N1 and N2 patients. We investigated risk factors for AFR in N1 after optimal systemic therapy without PMRT, to define a subgroup of patients who may benefit from PMRT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One thousand three hundred eighty-two pT1-2N1M0 breast cancer patients treated with mastectomy without PMRT between 2005 and 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Only 0.6% had no systemic therapy. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 5.9 years, there were 173 AFR (53 loco-regional recurrence [LRR] without distant metastases [DM], 38 LRR with DM, and 82 DM without LRR). The 5-year LRR and AFR rates were 6.1% and 12.0%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that close resection margin (p=0.001) was the only independent risk factor for LRR. Multivariate analysis for AFR revealed that age < 35 years (p=0.025), T2 stage (p=0.004), high tumor grade (p=0.032), close resection margin (p=0.035), and triple-negative biological subtype (p=0.031) were independent risk factors. Two or three positive lymph nodes (p=0.078) were considered a marginally significant factor. When stratified by these six factors, the 5-year LRR rates were 3.6% with 0-1 (n=606), 7.5% with 2-3 (n=655), and 12.7% with 4-6 (n=93) risk factors. The 5-year AFR rates were 7.1% with 0-1, 15.0% with 2-3, and 24.5% with 4-6 risk factors. CONCLUSION: Patients with pT1-2N1M0 breast cancer who underwent mastectomy and optimal systemic therapy showed excellent loco-regional control and disease control. The patients with four or more risk factors may benefit from PMRT, and those with two or three risk factors merit consideration of PMRT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Follow-Up Studies , Korea , Lymph Nodes , Mastectomy , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
9.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1363-1372, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109741

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to determine whether breast cancer subtype can affect locoregional recurrence (LRR) and ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and breast-conserving therapy (BCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated 335 consecutive patients with clinical stage II-III breast cancer who received NAC plus BCT from 2002 to 2009. Patients were classified according to six molecular subtypes: luminal A (hormone receptor [HR]+/HER2–/Ki-67 < 15%, n=113), luminal B1 (HR+/HER2–/Ki-67 ≥ 15%, n=33), luminal B2 (HR+/HER2+, n=83), HER2 with trastuzumab (HER2[T+]) (HR–/HER2+/use of trastuzumab, n=14), HER2 without trastuzumab (HER2[T–]) (HR–/HER2+, n=31), and triple negative (TN) (HR–/HER2–, n=61). RESULTS: After a median follow-up period of 7.2 years, 26 IBTRs and 37 LRRs occurred. The 5-year LRR-free survival rates were luminal A, 96.4%; B1, 93.9%; B2, 90.3%; HER2(T+), 92.9%; HER2(T–), 78.3%; and TN, 79.6%. The 5-year IBTR-free survival rates were luminal A, 97.2%; B1, 93.9%; B2, 92.8%; HER2(T+), 92.9%; HER2(T–), 89.1%; and TN, 84.6%. In multivariate analysis, HER2(T–) (IBTR: hazard ratio, 4.2; p=0.04 and LRR: hazard ratio, 7.6; p < 0.01) and TN subtypes (IBTR: hazard ratio, 6.9; p=0.01 and LRR: hazard ratio, 8.1; p < 0.01) were associated with higher IBTR and LRR rates. A pathologic complete response (pCR) was found to show correlation with better LRR and a tendency toward improved IBTR controls in TN patients (IBTR, p=0.07; LRR, p=0.03). CONCLUSION: The TN and HER2(T–) subtypes predict higher rates of IBTR and LRR after NAC and BCT. A pCR is predictive of improved IBTR or LRR in TN subtype.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biology , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Phenobarbital , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Recurrence , Survival Rate , Trastuzumab
10.
Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy ; : 330-340, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-201806

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) started in South Korea in May 2015 and the end of crisis was declared in December 2015 by Korea Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC). However, Zika virus emerged in less than 2 months following MERS and showed higher mortality than other countries. This study is to assess the current prevention system of overseas infectious diseases, based on MERS and Zika virus outbreak and to suggest effective response system for the future. METHODS: We conducted two surveys on medical specialists working at tertiary general hospitals regarding the effectiveness of responding system by KCDC against MERS and Zika virus and education in individual medical institutions using 5-Likert points. Response system was examined in three different periods as initial period, spreading period, and post disease period. RESULTS: Although medical specialists received the notifications in initial period, no practical prevention was proven to be placed in responding stage by medical facilities (averagely 3.5/5 points in total and sub-analyses). During spreading period, there were several academic seminars conducted, which were evaluated as helpful. In post disease period, all answered that there were changes on patient treatment in all medical facilities, with mainly report system and the treatment regulations in case of suspicious patients for infection. Only 49% respondents answered positive on the possibility of initial responses. For questionnaire items regarding Zika virus, all answered that there were notifications prior to the first outbreak of the infected patient. Eighty% of respondents were aware of 'the Guideline system for traveling to dangerous areas', and answered that the system was moderately effective (averagely 3.8/5 points in total). For the effectiveness of prevention measures for foreign novel disease by KCDC, the average point was 3.0 in both of total and sub-analyses. CONCLUSION: There is not enough response system to prevent infectious disease in medical institutional and governmental levels in Korea. It would warrant the modification of overall medical system to improve preventive measures for initial spread of such diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Communicable Diseases , Coronavirus Infections , Education , Hospitals, General , Korea , Mortality , Social Control, Formal , Specialization , Surveys and Questionnaires , Zika Virus
11.
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health ; : 61-68, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225239

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In South Korea (hereafter Korea), the number of adolescent offspring of immigrants has rapidly increased since the early 1990s, mainly due to international marriage. This research sought to examine the association between the experience of school violence and mental health outcomes, and the role of help-seeking behaviors in the association, among biethnic adolescents in Korea. METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional data of 3627 biethnic adolescents in Korea from the 2012 National Survey of Multicultural Families. Based on the victim's help-seeking behavior, adolescents who experienced school violence were classified into three groups: 'seeking help' group; 'feeling nothing' group; 'not seeking help' group. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to examine the associations between the experience of school violence and depressive symptoms for males and females separately. RESULTS: In the gender-stratified analysis, school violence was associated with depressive symptoms in the 'not seeking help' (odds ratio [OR], 7.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.76 to 13.23) and the 'seeking help' group (OR, 2.77; 95% CI, 1.73 to 4.44) among male adolescents after adjusting for potential confounders, including the nationality of the immigrant parent and Korean language fluency. Similar associations were observed in the female groups. However, in the 'feeling nothing' group, the association was only significant for males (OR, 8.34; 95% CI, 2.82 to 24.69), but not females (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.18 to 3.28). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that experience of school violence is associated with depressive symptoms and that the role of victims' help-seeking behaviors in the association may differ by gender among biethnic adolescents in Korea.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Bullying/ethics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Emigrants and Immigrants , Help-Seeking Behavior , Interviews as Topic , Logistic Models , Minority Health/ethics , Odds Ratio , Racism , Republic of Korea , Risk Factors , Schools , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine ; : 616-623, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-181220

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the dose-related effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for knee osteoarthritis. METHODS: Seventy-five subjects were recruited, 60 of which met the inclusion criteria. The patients were randomly classified into two groups: group L, which was a low-energy group (n=30; 1,000 shocks/session; energy flux density [EFD], 0.040 mJ/mm2) and group M, which was a medium-energy group (n=30; 1,000 shocks/session; EFD, 0.093 mJ/mm2). For each group, 1,000 shock waves were delivered to the medial tibial plateau area, once a week, for 3 weeks. The main outcome measures were the visual analogue scale (VAS), the Roles and Maudsley (RM) score, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score, and the Lequesne index. Each assessment was performed at the baseline and at 1, 4, and 12 weeks after ESWT. RESULTS: In both groups, the VAS, the RM and WOMAC scores, and the Lequesne index were significantly improved over time (p<0.001), and group M showed greater improvement over group L at the 1, 4 and 12 weeks assessments. CONCLUSION: In this study, medium-energy group (group M) showed greater improvement in regard to relieving pain and restoring functional outcome than the low-energy group (group L). Therefore, EFD can be considered to have significant influence when treating with ESWT for knee osteoarthritis.


Subject(s)
Humans , High-Energy Shock Waves , Knee , Ontario , Osteoarthritis , Osteoarthritis, Knee , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Shock , Treatment Outcome
13.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 198-206, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-73637

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We evaluated the prognostic factors and clinical outcomes of 56 patients with vulvar cancer treated with curative radiotherapy (RT) or concurrent chemoradiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were assessed retrospectively. Prognostic factors evaluated included age, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, TNM classification, tumor size, treatment modality, RT duration, and RT field. The association between the tumor human papillomavirus (HPV) status and survival was analyzed in 35 patients. RESULTS: During the median follow-up of 2.8 years (range, 0.3 to 18.9 years), 21 patients (37.5%) experienced treatment failure. Fifteen patients (27%) had local failure: nine (16%) local failure only, three (5%) locoregional failure, two (4%) local and distant failure, and one (2%) locoregional and distant failure. Of 56 patients, seven (13%) had persistent disease at the first follow-up at 2 months and all but one died within a year after completing RT. The 5-year OS and DFS were 51.6% and 44.0%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, clinical size > or =3 cm predicted a poor prognostic factor for DFS (p = 0.040) and age (> or =70 years) was poor prognostic for DFS (p = 0.032) and OS (p = 0.048). Patients with HPV-positive tumors tended to have better 5-year OS and DFS, but the differences were not significant statistically. CONCLUSION: Clinical size > or =3 cm was a significant prognostic factor for DFS. However, age was the most important prognostic factor for DFS and OS in patients treated with curative RT. Further studies are needed to determine which treatment should be considered for old age > or =70 years.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chemoradiotherapy , Classification , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Gynecology , Multivariate Analysis , Obstetrics , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Failure , Vulvar Neoplasms
14.
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine ; : 766-774, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-179713

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of atrial fibrillation (Af) on the clinical characteristics and rehabilitation outcomes of patients with cerebral infarction. METHODS: We evaluated 87 of 101 consecutive patients with cerebral infarction admitted to the department of physical medicine and rehabilitation during their rehabilitation period. The patients were divided into two groups, Af and non-Af groups. We estimated characteristics of patient demographic features, disease duration, length of hospital stay, other comorbidities and risk factors for stroke, and functional status at admission and at discharge and compared those in patients with and without Af. Functional Independence Measure (FIM), the Modified Barthel Index (MBI), and the PULSES profile (PULSES) were used to evaluate functional status. RESULTS: The number in the Af group was 20 (22.9%) and that of the non-Af group was 67 (77.1%). Demographic features, other comorbidities, motor function, cognitive function, neurological scales, and brain lesions did not differ significantly between the groups. The incidence of coronary artery disease and valvular heart disease were significantly correlated with the incidence of Af in multivariate analysis. Based on FIM, MBI, and PULSES scores, functional improvement in the Af group after rehabilitation was significantly less than that of the non-Af group. CONCLUSION: Af was shown to be associated with a markedly negative result in rehabilitation in patients with cerebral infarction. Thus, early recognition and proper treatment of Af may help patients achieve more effective rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation , Brain , Cerebral Infarction , Comorbidity , Coronary Artery Disease , Heart Valve Diseases , Incidence , Length of Stay , Multivariate Analysis , Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine , Rehabilitation , Risk Factors , Stroke , Weights and Measures
15.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 96-101, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-42135

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for distant metastasis (DM) as a primary site of failure in early-stage breast cancer. Data from 294 patients diagnosed with pathologic stage I or II breast cancer between January 2000 and December 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. Median follow-up duration was 81.0 months (range, 18-135 months). The total number of patients with DM without evidence of locoregional recurrence was 20 and the median time between surgery and DM was 29 months (range, 9-79 months). Median survival time was 38 months (range, 22-77 months) after operation. HER-2 positivity (p=0.015), T stage of tumor (p=0.012), and number of involved lymph nodes (p=0.008) were significant predictors of DM in the univariable analysis. Number of involved lymph nodes [p=0.005, hazards ratio (HR): 1.741; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.178-2.574] and HER-2 positivity (p=0.018, HR: 2.888; 95% CI: 1.201-6.941) had a statistically significant effect on DM-free survival in the multivariable analysis. A cautious evaluation may be helpful when patients with risk factors for DM have symptoms implying the possibility of DM. To reduce DM, applying intensive therapy is needed after curative surgery for patients with high risk for DM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Follow-Up Studies , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Failure
16.
Ultrasonography ; : 291-297, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-731123

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the characteristics of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with cystic changes visible on ultrasonography (US). METHODS: This study included 553 PTCs in 553 patients between January 2003 and August 2004. One radiologist with 10 years of experience in thyroid imaging retrospectively reviewed the preoperative US images. Two different groups were formed according to two different reference points (group 1, 25%; group 2, 50%) of the cystic component. Patients between the groups were compared according to their clinicopathologic characteristics. Disease-free survival (DFS) was estimated. Cox's multivariate proportional hazards regression model was used to identify the effect of variable factors on the recurrence risk. RESULTS: Fifty-six patients (10.1%) were confirmed to have tumor recurrence within the follow-up period. Thirty-five patients had regional metastasis, one had distant metastasis, eight had multiple site metastases, and 12 had biochemical recurrence. PTC patients with a 50% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.118; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.255 to 4.910; P=0.883) or those with a >25% cystic component (HR, 0.569; 95% CI, 0.164 to 1.976; P=0.375), respectively. Moreover, independent predictors of recurrence were pathologic size, male gender, and lymph node metastasis, not a >50% or >25% cystic component. CONCLUSION: The proportion of the cystic component in PTCs did not affect DFS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroid Nodule , Ultrasonography
17.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 96-101, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788295

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for distant metastasis (DM) as a primary site of failure in early-stage breast cancer. Data from 294 patients diagnosed with pathologic stage I or II breast cancer between January 2000 and December 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. Median follow-up duration was 81.0 months (range, 18-135 months). The total number of patients with DM without evidence of locoregional recurrence was 20 and the median time between surgery and DM was 29 months (range, 9-79 months). Median survival time was 38 months (range, 22-77 months) after operation. HER-2 positivity (p=0.015), T stage of tumor (p=0.012), and number of involved lymph nodes (p=0.008) were significant predictors of DM in the univariable analysis. Number of involved lymph nodes [p=0.005, hazards ratio (HR): 1.741; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.178-2.574] and HER-2 positivity (p=0.018, HR: 2.888; 95% CI: 1.201-6.941) had a statistically significant effect on DM-free survival in the multivariable analysis. A cautious evaluation may be helpful when patients with risk factors for DM have symptoms implying the possibility of DM. To reduce DM, applying intensive therapy is needed after curative surgery for patients with high risk for DM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Follow-Up Studies , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Failure
18.
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine ; : 379-388, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192335

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the dose-related effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for plantar fasciitis. METHODS: Sixty patients with plantar fasciitis despite conservative treatment were enrolled. The patients were divided into a low-energy group (group L: n=30, 1,000 shocks/session, energy flux density [EFD] per shock 0.08 mJ/mm2) and a medium-energy group (group M: n=30, 1,000 shocks/session, EFD 0.16 mJ/mm2). The main outcome measures were visual analogue scale (VAS), Roles and Maudsley (RM) score, and thickness of plantar fascia (PF). To compare the effects between each group, follow-up was carried out 1 week after 3 and 6 sessions, and 1 and 3 months after ESWT. RESULTS: Significant VAS and RM score improvement, and PF thickness reduction were observed in both groups (p0.05). CONCLUSION: Therapeutic effect might disclose a dose-related relationship; therefore, EFD and the times of the session are considerable factors when treating with ESWT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Fascia , Fasciitis, Plantar , Follow-Up Studies , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Shock
19.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology ; : 33-38, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-122752

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated the prevalence of various pathogens (13 enteric bacteria and 5 viruses) which cause diarrhea using multiplex PCR of stool specimens and compared two multiplex PCR methods for detecting diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. METHODS: A total of 405 stool specimens submitted between November 2010 to February 2011 for routine culture of enteric pathogens were included and screened for five viruses (astrovirus, Group A rotavirus, enteric adenovirus, norovirus G1/G2) and eight bacteria (Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Campylobacter spp., Vibrio spp., C. difficile Toxin B, C. perfringens, Y. enterolytica, Aeromonas spp.) using the Seeplex(R) Diarrhea ACE detection kit (Seegene). In addition, virulence-associated genes of enteropathogenic E. coli, (EPEC), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enteroinvasive E. coli, (EIEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), and enteroaggressive E. coli (EAEC) were detected using 16-plex PCR and a commercial diarrheagenic E. coli detection (DEC) PCR kit (SSI Diagnostica). RESULTS: Overall, 138 (34.1%) of 405 samples was positive for pathogen. The positive rate for virus was 18.5%. norovirus G2, Group A rotavirus, enteric adenovirus, astrovirus and norovirus G1 were detected in 40, 23, 8, 3 and 1 samples, respectively. The positive rate for bacteria was 24.4% (99/405). C. difficile toxin B was the most frequently detected, followed by C. perfringens, EPEC, and EAEC. The agreements of the two multiplex PCR methods for detecting EPEC and EHEC were 99.3% and 100%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The detection rate was high (34.1%) including various diarrheagenic E. coli (6.2%) and C. perfringens (5.2%). Multiplex PCR is thus useful for detecting various pathogens.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae , Aeromonas , Bacteria , Campylobacter , Diarrhea , Enterobacteriaceae , Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli , Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli , Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli , Escherichia , Escherichia coli , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Norovirus , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Rotavirus , Shigella , Vibrio , Viruses
20.
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine ; : 512-520, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57857

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of a bedside exercise program on the recovery of swallowing after a stroke. METHOD: Fifty stroke patients with dysphagia (<6 months post-stroke) were enrolled and classified into two groups, the experimental (25 subjects) and control groups (25 subjects). The control group was treated with conventional swallowing therapy. The experimental group received additional bedside exercise training, which consisted of oral, pharyngeal, laryngeal, and respiratory exercises, 1 hour per day for 2 months, and they were instructed regarding this program through the nursing intervention. All patients were assessed for their swallowing function by Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study (VFSS), using the New VFSS scale, the level of functional oral intake, the frequency of dysphagia complications, the presence (or not) of tube feeding, the mood state and quality of life before the treatment and at 2 months after the treatment. RESULTS: After 2 months of treatment, the experimental group showed a significant improvement in the swallowing function at the oral phase in the New VFSS Scale than that of the control group (p<0.05). Further, they also showed less depressive mood and better quality of life than the control group. However, there was no significant change in the incidence of dysphagia complication and the presence (or not) of tube feeding between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Bedside exercise program showed an improvement of swallowing function and exhibited a positive secondary effect, such as mood state and quality of life, on subacute stroke patients with dysphagia. For improvement of rehabilitation results on subacute stroke patients with dysphagia, this study suggests that additional intensive bedside exercise would be necessary.


Subject(s)
Humans , Deglutition , Deglutition Disorders , Enteral Nutrition , Exercise , Incidence , Quality of Life , Stroke
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