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1.
Blood Research ; : 52-57, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999711

ABSTRACT

T-cell large granular lymphocyte (T-LGL) leukemia is characterized by clonal expansion of cytotoxic T cells resulting in cytopenia. The proliferation of clonal LGLs is caused by prolonged antigenic stimulation, which leads to apoptotic dysregulation owing mainly to the constitutive activation of survival pathways, notably the JAK/STAT pathway.Understanding how leukemic T-LGL persists can aid in the development of future immunosuppressive therapies. In this review, we summarize the diagnosis and current standard of therapy for T-LGL leukemia, as well as recent advances in clinical trials.

2.
Blood Research ; : 90-95, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999707

ABSTRACT

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are type I interferon-producing cells that modulate immune responses. There are two types of pDC neoplasms: 1) mature pDC proliferation (MPDCP) associated with myeloid neoplasm and 2) blastic pDC neoplasm (BPDCN).MPDCP is a clonal expansion of mature pDCs that is predominantly associated with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. In contrast, BPDCN is a clinically aggressive myeloid malignancy involving the skin, bone marrow, lymphatic organs, and central nervous system. There are various types of skin lesions, ranging from solitary brown or violaceous to disseminated cutaneous lesions, which often spread throughout the body. The expression of CD4, CD56, CD123, and pDC markers (TCL-1, TCF4, CD303, and CD304, etc.) are typical immunophenotype of BPDCN. Historically, BPDCN treatment has been based on acute leukemia regimens and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in selected patients. Recent advances in molecular biology and genetics have led to the development of targeted agents, such as tagraxofusp (a recombinant fusion protein targeting CD123), anti-CD123 CAR-T cells, XmAb14045, and IMGN632. Lastly, this review provides a comprehensive overview of pDC neoplasms.

3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 684-692, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976690

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We conducted a nationwide, multicenter, prospective registry study for newly diagnosed patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) to better define the clinical characteristics, treatment patterns, survival outcomes, and the role of upfront autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in these patients. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients with PTCL receiving chemotherapy with curative intent were registered and prospectively monitored. All patients were pathologically diagnosed with PTCL. @*Results@#A total of 191 patients with PTCL were enrolled in this prospective registry study. PTCL, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) was the most common pathologic subtype (n=80, 41.9%), followed by angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) (n=60, 31.4%). With a median follow-up duration of 3.9 years, the 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 39.5% and 60.4%, respectively. The role of upfront ASCT was evaluated in patients who were considered transplant-eligible (n=59). ASCT was performed as an upfront consolidative treatment in 32 (54.2%) of these patients. There were no significant differences in PFS and OS between the ASCT and non-ASCT groups for all patients (n=59) and for patients with PTCL-NOS (n=26). However, in patients with AITL, the ASCT group was associated with significantly better PFS than the non-ASCT group, although there was no significant difference in OS. @*Conclusion@#The current study demonstrated that the survival outcomes with the current treatment options remain poor for patients with PTCL-NOS. Upfront ASCT may provide a survival benefit for patients with AITL, but not PTCL-NOS.

4.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 238-247, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968746

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Daratumumab has shown an encouraging antitumor effect in patients with multiple myeloma (MM), and was known to alter the immune properties by off-targeting immunosuppressive cells. Here, we aimed to evaluate the change in absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) as a surrogate marker for predicting survival outcomes of patients treated with daratumumab. @*Methods@#Between 2018 and 2021, the medical records of patients with relapsed/refractory MM (RRMM) treated with daratumumab monotherapy at 10 centers in South Korea were reviewed. We collected the ALC data at pre-infusion (D0), day 2 after the first infusion (D2), and prior to the third cycle of daratumumab therapy (D56). @*Results@#Fifty patients who were administered at least two cycles of daratumumab were included. Overall response rate was 54.0% after two cycles of daratumumab treatment. On D2, almost all patients experienced a marked reduction in ALC. However, an increase in ALC on D56 (ALCD56) was observed in patients with non-progressive disease, whereas failure of ALC recovery was noted in those with progressive disease. Patients with ALCD56 > 700/μL (n = 39, 78.0%) had prolonged progression- free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) than those with ALCD56 ≤ 700/μL (median PFS: 5.8 months vs. 2.6 months, p = 0.025; median OS: 24.1 months vs. 6.1 months, p = 0.004). In addition, ALCD56 >700/μL was a significant favorable prognostic factor for PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.22; p = 0.003) and OS (HR, 0.23; p = 0.012). @*Conclusions@#Increase in ALC during daratumumab treatment was significantly associated with prolonged survival outcomes in patients with RRMM. The ALC value can predict clinical outcomes in patients treated with daratumumab.

5.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 325-333, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966481

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common hematologic malignancy worldwide. Although substantial improvement has been achieved by the frontline rituximab-based chemoimmunotherapy, up to 40%-50% of patients will eventually have relapsed or refractory disease, whose prognosis is extremely dismal. @*Materials and Methods@#We have carried out two prospective cohort studies that include over 1,500 DLBCL patients treated with rituximab plus CHOP (#NCT01202448 and #NCT02474550). In the current report, we describe the outcomes of refractory DLBCL patients. Patients were defined to have refractory DLBCL if they met one of the followings, not achieving at least partial response after 4 or more cycles of R-CHOP; not achieving at least partial response after 2 or more cycles of salvage therapy; progressive disease within 12 months after autologous stem cell transplantation. @*Results@#Among 1,581 patients, a total of 260 patients met the criteria for the refractory disease after a median time to progression of 9.1 months. The objective response rate of salvage treatment was 26.4%, and the complete response rate was 9.6%. The median overall survival (OS) was 7.5 months (95% confidence interval, 6.4 to 8.6), and the 2-year survival rate was 22.1%±2.8%. The median OS for each refractory category was not significantly different (p=0.529). @*Conclusion@#In line with the previous studies, the outcomes of refractory DLBCL patients were extremely poor, which necessitates novel approaches for this population.

6.
Blood Research ; : 51-58, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925643

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although survival outcomes of multiple myeloma (MM) have improved with the development of new and effective agents, infection remains the major cause of morbidity and mortality. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of levofloxacin prophylaxis (in a real-world setting) during bortezomib, melphalan, and prednisone (VMP) therapy in elderly patients with newly diagnosed MM. @*Methods@#This study retrospectively analyzed the records of patients with newly diagnosed MM treated with the VMP regimen between February 2011 and September 2020 at three institutes of the Republic of Korea. @*Results@#Of a total of 258 patients, 204 (79.1%) received levofloxacin prophylaxis during VMP therapy. The median number of levofloxacin prophylaxis cycles was 4 (range, 1‒9), but 10 patients did not complete the planned prophylaxis because of side effects. Sixty-six patients (25.5%) experienced severe infections during VMP therapy, most of which (74.7%) occurred within the first four cycles of VMP therapy regardless of levofloxacin prophylaxis status. Early severe infection was significantly associated with poor survival.In multivariate analysis, levofloxacin prophylaxis was significantly associated with a lower risk in early severe infection. @*Conclusion@#Our findings suggest that levofloxacin prophylaxis should be considered at least during the first four cycles of VMP therapy in elderly patients with newly diagnosed MM.

7.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 194-204, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875447

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Compared with Western countries, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) rarely occurs in Asia and has different clinical characteristics. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes, and prognostic significance of Korean patients with CLL. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed 90 patients with CLL who had received chemotherapy at 6 centers in Korea between 2000 and 2012. @*Results@#Compared with Western patients with CLL, Korean patients with CLL express lambda (42.0%) and atypical markers such as CD22 and FMC7 (76.7% and 40.0%, respectively) more frequently. First-line chemotherapy regimens included chlorambucil (n = 43), fludarabine and cyclophosphamide (FC) (n = 20), fludarabine (n = 13), rituximab-FC (n = 4). The remaining patients were treated with other various regimens (n = 10). The 5-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 79.3% and 28.1%, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that hyperleukocytosis (≥ 100 × 103/μL), extranodal involvement, and the Binet C stage were significant negative prognostic factors for OS (hazard ratio [HR] 4.75, p = 0.039; HR 21.6, p = 0.002; and HR 4.35, p = 0.034, respectively). Cytogenetic abnormalities including complex karyotypes (≥ 3), del(11q), and del(17) had a significantly adverse impact on both OS and PFS (p < 0.001 and p = 0.010, respectively). @*Conclusions@#Initial hyperleukocytosis, extranodal involvement, complex karyotype, del(17) and del(11q) need to be considered in the risk stratification system for CLL.

8.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 185-193, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831774

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#For metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), various prognostic scoring systems have been developed. However, owing to the low prevalence of nonclear cell RCC, the three most commonly used tools were mainly developed based on patients with clear cell histology. Accordingly, this study applied three prognostic models to Korean non-clear cell RCC patients treated with first-line temsirolimus. @*Methods@#This study analyzed data for 74 patients with non-clear cell RCC who were treated with temsirolimus as the first-line therapy at eight medical centers between 2011 and 2016. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves for the different prognostic models were analyzed. @*Results@#Twenty-seven (36.5%), 24 (32.4%), and 44 patients (59.5%) were assigned to the poor prognosis groups of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), International Metastatic RCC Database Consortium (IMDC), and Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma (ARCC) risk stratification models, respectively. All three prognostic models reliably discriminated the risk groups to predict progression-free survival and overall survival (p < 0.001). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for progression and survival was highest for the ARCC model (0.777; 0.734), followed by the IMDC (0.756; 0.724) and the MSKCC (0.742; 0.712) models. Furthermore, the sensitivity and specificity for predicting progression were highest with the ARCC model (sensitivity 63.6%, specificity 85.7%), followed by the MSKCC (sensitivity 58.2%, specificity 86.5%) and the IMDC models (sensitivity 56.4%, specificity 85.7%). @*Conclusions@#All three prognostic models accurately predicted the survival of the non-clear cell RCC patients treated with temsirolimus as the first-line therapy. Furthermore, the ARCC risk model performed better than the other risk models in predicting survival.

9.
Blood Research ; : S37-S42, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830982

ABSTRACT

Since the introduction of an alkylator to the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), new effective agents have been developed, such as immunomodulatory drugs including thalidomide, lenalidomide, and pomalidomide; proteasome inhibitors including bortezomib, carfilzomib, and ixazomib; monoclonal antibodies including daratumumab and elotuzumab; and deacetylase inhibitors including panobinostat. Numerous regimens with these new agents have been developed and they have contributed in improving survival outcomes in MM patients. In addition, the recommended therapies for newly diagnosed MM change every year based on the results of clinical trials. This review will discusses the appropriate induction therapies based on recent clinical trials for patients with newly diagnosed MM.

13.
Blood Research ; : 200-206, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-185278

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CVP) is one of the effective chemotherapeutic regimens for patients with advanced stage marginal zone lymphoma (MZL). However, prognostic factors that affect the outcome of treatment for MZL are not well understood. METHODS: Between August 2006 and June 2013, patients with newly diagnosed stage III and IV MZL treated with R-CVP as a first-line therapy from 15 institutions were retrospectively analyzed. Patients' clinical and laboratory data at diagnosis were collected by review of medical records. RESULTS: A total of 80 patients were analyzed. Bone marrow involvement was observed in 30% cases. Twelve patients (15%) had nodal MZL, and 41.3% patients exhibited multiple mucosa-associated lymphoma tissue sites. Overall response rate was 91.3%, including 73.8% achieving complete response. Advanced MZL patients treated with R-CVP showed a 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate of 69.6%. Prognostic markers significantly affecting PFS in univariate analysis were platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR, 3.9 g/dL, P=0.008), and the International Prognostic Index (IPI) score (1 vs. 2–4, P=0.032). In multivariate analysis, only PLR (<95 vs. ≥95, HR 0.367, 95% CI, 0.139–0.971, P=0.043) was an independent risk factor for PFS. CONCLUSION: PLR ≥95 at diagnosis is an independent prognostic marker for PFS in advanced stage MZL patients treated with R-CVP. This marker may aid clinicians in predicting the response to R-CVP chemotherapy in stage III and IV MZL patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Platelets , Bone Marrow , Cyclophosphamide , Diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Lymphocytes , Lymphoma , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Prednisone , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Rituximab , Serum Albumin , Vincristine
14.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 124-141, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-193491

ABSTRACT

The management of advanced prostate cancer has evolved rapidly. Androgen deprivation therapy, via surgical or medical castration, is the first-line therapy for hormone-naïve metastatic prostate cancer. For approximately a decade, docetaxel-based chemotherapy was the only approved agent to show a survival benefit for castration-resistant prostate cancer. However, over the last 5 years, significant advances in the field have led to the approval of several new agents with different mechanisms of action, such as the new androgen pathway inhibitors abiraterone and enzalutamide, a new cytotoxic agent, cabazitaxel, and new bone-seeking agents such as radium-223, which have all been associated with improved quality of life and pain palliation and an increase in survival. However, there has been no Korean treatment guideline for metastatic prostate cancer which is developed based on thorough search for relevant articles, including recently developed agents, and adequate review and assessment of evidences, and thus, a guideline adequate for domestic circumstance is eagerly needed. Experts from the Genitourinary Oncology Committee of the Korea Cancer Study Group developed clinical recommendations for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer based on 19 key questions. The Korean Association for Clinical Oncology, the Korean Prostate Society, the Korean Urological Oncology Society, and the Korean Society of Pathologists reviewed and endorsed the guidelines. These are the first Korean treatment guidelines developed specifically for metastatic prostate cancer.


Subject(s)
Castration , Drug Therapy , Korea , Medical Oncology , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prostate , Prostatic Neoplasms , Quality of Life
15.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 321-325, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-189023

ABSTRACT

In Korea, scrub typhus usually occurs in October and November. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a distinct clinical entity characterized by a high fever, pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, histiocyte proliferation, and hemophagocytosis. We encountered a summertime case of severe scrub typhus presenting as HLH. A 49-year-old female complained of abdominal pain and fever 3 days in duration. On hospital day 3 she was transferred to the intensive care unit because of clinical deterioration accompanied by severe sepsis. As an eschar was evident on the right shoulder, we commenced doxycycline. Her condition improved dramatically and she was discharged on day 14. Although the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFA) for Orientia tsutsugamushi was negative on admission, a repeat IFA test was positive; the antibody titer was 1:5,120 on hospital day 10. Scrub typhus should be considered during differential diagnosis in a patient with severe sepsis in any season except the fall.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Abdominal Pain , Diagnosis, Differential , Doxycycline , Fever , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Histiocytes , Intensive Care Units , Korea , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Orientia tsutsugamushi , Pancytopenia , Scrub Typhus , Seasons , Sepsis , Shoulder
16.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 539-543, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-189075

ABSTRACT

Here we report a case of a 76-year-old man with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with simultaneous involvement of the right breast and left testicle. The patient underwent complete resection of the involved testis, followed by immunochemotherapy with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP) and prophylactic radiotherapy to the contralateral testis. Following this multimodal therapy, he achieved a complete response. This is a rare case of DLBCL involving both the breast and the testis in a male patient.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Breast , Cyclophosphamide , Doxorubicin , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Prednisolone , Radiotherapy , Testis , Vincristine
17.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 675-683, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76676

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The purpose of this study was to determine the correlations between inflammatory factors-including absolute lymphocyte count, lactate dehydrogenase, beta2-microglobulin, albumin, C-reactive protein, and ferritin-and the prognosis for survival in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) treated with induction chemotherapy containing thalidomide and who underwent autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). METHODS: Data from patients at 13 university hospitals in South Korea were collected retrospectively between December 2005 and May 2013. RESULTS: The median age of the 232 patients was 57 years (range, 33 to 77) and the male to female ratio was 1.09:1. In the multivariate analysis, fewer than two combined abnormal inflammatory factors was the only independent prognostic factor for superior progression-free survival (relative risk [RR], 0.618; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.409 to 0.933; p = 0.022), and platelet count > 100 x 109/L and fewer than two combined abnormal inflammatory factors were independent prognostic factors for superior overall survival (RR, 4.739; 95% CI, 1.897 to 11.839; p = 0.001 and RR, 0.263; 95% CI, 0.113 to 0.612; p = 0.002, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with two or more than two combined inflammatory factors who were treated with thalidomide induction chemotherapy and who underwent ASCT showed significantly shorter survival compared to those with fewer than two combined inflammatory factors. These results could be helpful for predicting prognosis in patients with MM.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Biomarkers, Tumor/blood , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Disease-Free Survival , Hospitals, University , Induction Chemotherapy , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Multiple Myeloma/blood , Multivariate Analysis , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Odds Ratio , Proportional Hazards Models , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stem Cell Transplantation , Thalidomide/adverse effects , Time Factors , Transplantation, Autologous , Treatment Outcome
18.
Korean Journal of Hematology ; : 119-125, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-720203

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Radioimmunotherapy agents have a highly significant role in autologous stem cell transplantation as they improve tolerability and increase the efficacy of the conditioning regimen. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the efficacy and toxicity of yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin) combined with intravenous busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and etoposide (Z-BuCyE) compared with those of BuCyE alone followed by autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The efficacy, toxicity, and engraftment characteristics were compared between 19 patients who received Z-BuCyE and 19 historical controls who received BuCyE. RESULTS: The 2 treatment groups shared similar baseline characteristics. The median time to platelet engraftment (>20x10(9)/L) and neutrophil engraftment (>0.5x10(9)/L) did not significantly differ between the Z-BuCyE group (12 days and 10 days, respectively) and the BuCyE group (12 days and 10 days, respectively). No significant differences were observed between the groups with respect to toxicities and treatment-related mortality. The median follow-up period was 30.4 months, and median event-free survival was generally better in the Z-BuCyE group (12.5 months) vs. the BuCyE group (6.2 months, P=0.236). No significant difference in overall survival between the groups was noted. CONCLUSION: Adding ibritumomab tiuxetan to BuCyE high-dose chemotherapy may benefit patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell NHL with no risk of additional toxicity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antibodies, Monoclonal , B-Lymphocytes , Blood Platelets , Busulfan , Cyclophosphamide , Disease-Free Survival , Etoposide , Follow-Up Studies , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin , Neutrophils , Radioimmunotherapy , Retrospective Studies , Stem Cell Transplantation
19.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 354-357, 2008.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-181622

ABSTRACT

Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a distinct clinical and pathologic entity characterized by malignant lymphomatous effusion in body cavities, without a detectable tumor mass. The tumor is usually associated with human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) infection and occurs principally in immunodeficient patients, most commonly those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We report a rare case of PEL in an elderly patient negative for HHV8 and HIV. The patient had a history of alcoholic liver cirrhosis and presented with abdominal distention. The patient was treated with three courses of chemotherapy. In spite of the generally poor prognosis associated with this disease, our patient is still alive with no malignant lymphomatous cells in the peritoneal cavity 24 months after treatment.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Alcoholics , Ascites , HIV , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin , Lymphoma, Primary Effusion , Peritoneal Cavity , Prognosis , Viruses
20.
Gut and Liver ; : 130-132, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-112829

ABSTRACT

Small bowel perforation due to hematogenous metastatic tumor emboli is a rare event, especially in a patient with rectal cancer. We report a 75-year-old man with relapsed rectal cancer who developed an acute abdomen, which was found to be due to a perforated terminal ileum. Emergency surgery involved segmental resection and ileostomy. The pathology of the resected small bowel showed multifocal and extensive metastatic tumor emboli in the entire wall, leading to transmural infarction followed by perforation, without a discrete tumor mass. The pathology with immunohistochemistry showed a rectal tumor that was positive for CK-20 but negative for CK-7 and TTF-1. This extremely rare complication of rectal cancer resulted from ischemia and infarct caused by disseminated metastatic tumor emboli without direct invasion or mass formation.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Abdomen, Acute , Emergencies , Ileostomy , Ileum , Immunohistochemistry , Infarction , Intestinal Perforation , Intestine, Small , Ischemia , Neoplastic Cells, Circulating , Rectal Neoplasms
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